CHAPTER
25
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS:
RECOGNITION AND IDENTIFICATION
Copyright© 2000. Delmar is a division of Thomson Learning.
CHAPTER
25
Objectives
1 of 3
• Identify the nine hazard classes as defined by DOT.
• Identify the hazards associated with each hazard class.
• Identify the standard occupancies where hazardous
materials may be used and stored.
CHAPTER
25
Objectives
2 of 3
• Identify the standard container shapes and sizes and
common products.
• Identify both facility- and transportation- related
markings and warning signs.
• Identify the standard transportation types for highway
and rail.
CHAPTER
25
Objectives
3 of 3
• Explain the NFPA 704 System.
• Explain the use of transportation containers in
identifying possible contents.
• Explain the location of emergency shutoff valves on
highway containers.
• Explain the importance of understanding chemical and
physical properties of hazardous materials.
CHAPTER
25
Introduction
• Four basic clues to
recognition and
identification:
• Location and occupancy.
• Placards, labels, and
markings.
• Container types.
• The use of senses.
CHAPTER
25
Location and Occupancy
• Average home has a large amount of hazardous
materials.
• Rural communities and farms have unique risks.
• Hazardous materials storage.
• Businesses present a wide range of risks.
CHAPTER
25
Agricultural Supply Store
CHAPTER
25
Roadway
CHAPTER
25
Placards, Labels, and Markings
CHAPTER
25
CHAPTER
25
CHAPTER
25
Placards
• DOT - 49 CFR 170-180.
• DOT system uses nine hazard classifications with
more than 27 placards.
• DOT also requires United Nations/North America
(UN/NA) identification number.
CHAPTER
25
Class 1, Explosives
• Division 1.1
• Division 1.2
• Division 1.3
• Division 1.4
• Division 1.5
• Division 1.6
CHAPTER
25
Class 2, Gases
• Division 2.1
• Division 2.2
• Division 2.3
• Hazard Zone A
• Hazard Zone B
• Hazard Zone C
• Hazard Zone D
CHAPTER
25
Class 3, Flammable Liquids
• Flash point less than 141
degrees F.
• Combustible liquids are
those with flash points
between 100-200 degrees F.
CHAPTER
25
Class 4, Flammable Solids
• Division 4.1
• Division 4.2
• Division 4.3
CHAPTER
25
Class 5, Oxidizers and Organic Peroxides
• Division 5.1
• Division 5.2
• Type A
• Type B
• Type C
• Type D
• Type E
• Type F
• Type G
CHAPTER
25
Type 6, Poisonous Materials
• Division 6.1
• Division 6.2
• Hazardous Zone A
• Hazardous Zone B
CHAPTER
25
Class 7, Radioactive Materials
• Materials determined to have
radioactivity at certain
levels.
• Radioactive I.
• Radioactive II.
• Radioactive III.
CHAPTER
25
Class 8, Corrosives
• Acids
• Bases
• Visible destruction in skin or
corrodes steel or aluminum.
CHAPTER
25
Class 9, Miscellaneous Hazardous
• Catchall category.
CHAPTER
25
Other Placards and Labels
•
•
•
•
•
Dangerous
Specific name
Stow away from foodstuffs
ORM-D
Marine Pollutant
•
•
•
•
Elevated temperature
Infectious substances
Fumigated
Residue
CHAPTER
25
LABELS
CHAPTER
25
NFPA 704
•
•
•
•
Health hazard – Blue.
Fire hazard – Red.
Reactivity hazard – Yellow.
Special Hazard – White.
CHAPTER
Hazardous Materials
Information System
25
CHAPTER
25
Military Warning Signs
CHAPTER
25
Pipeline Markings
CHAPTER
25
Container Markings
CHAPTER
25
Pesticide Container Markings
CHAPTER
25
Containers
•
•
•
•
Hazardous materials come in variety of containers.
Type of material and use determine packaging.
Type of container provides clues to contents.
Be alert for anything unusual.
CHAPTER
25
MC-331 Pressurized Tanker
CHAPTER
25
Containers
CHAPTER
25
Containers
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cardboard boxes
Bottles
Bags
Drums
Cylinders
Totes
Bulk tanks
CHAPTER
25
Pipelines
• Vary in size and pressure.
• Sized between 1⁄2 inch and more than
6 feet.
• Can originate from bulk storage facilities.
• Can cross many states.
CHAPTER
25
Highway Transportation Containers
•
•
•
•
Type of vehicle is a clue to contents.
Four basic truck types.
Leakage is often found in intermodal containers.
Tank trucks carry up to 10,000 gallons.
CHAPTER
25
DOT-406/MC-306 Gasoline Tank Truck
CHAPTER
25
DOT-407/MC-307 Chemical Hauler
CHAPTER
25
DOT 412/MC 312 Corrosive tanker
CHAPTER
25
BLEVE
CHAPTER
25
MC-338 Cryogenic Tankers
CHAPTER
25
Tube Trailers
CHAPTER
25
Dry Bulk Tanks
CHAPTER
25
Hot Materials Tanker
CHAPTER
25
Intermodal Tanks
CHAPTER
25
Nonpressurized Railcar
CHAPTER
25
Specialized Railcars
CHAPTER
25
Markings on Railcars
CHAPTER
25
Specialized Tanks
CHAPTER
25
Senses
• Vision and hearing are acceptable senses in
investigating potential chemical releases.
• Sensory clues from others are useful.
• Many toxic materials can be harmful if touched.
CHAPTER
25
Chemical and Physical Properties
•
•
•
•
•
•
States of matter.
Vapor pressure.
Vapor density.
Specific gravity.
Corrosivity.
Chemical reactivity.
•
•
•
•
Flashpoint.
Autoignition temperature.
Flammable range.
Toxic products of
combustion.
CHAPTER
25
States of Matter
CHAPTER
25
Vapor Pressure
CHAPTER
25
Vapor Density
CHAPTER
25
Specific Gravity
CHAPTER
25
Wrap-Up
• Ability to recognize hazardous materials is important.
• Memorization is not important, but knowing how to
access information is.
• Physical properties of chemicals will affect how they
react and should be managed.
• Firefighters must be able to use available resources.
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