Chapter 19
Human Geography of Africa
From Human Beginnings to New Nations
Objective: Compare the
features of human geography
in the five sub-regions of
Chapter 19 Section 1
East Africa
Vocabulary: Olduvai Gorge,
Aksum, Berlin Conference,
Cash Crop, Masai, &
Objective: Analyze East Africa’s
economies of farming & tourism
Continental Crossroads
• East Africa has a large
number of prehistoric
human remains
• Aksum emerged in Ethiopia
in 100 A.D.
• The Aksum civilization
traded with Egypt & the
Roman Empire
• Several factors led to their
decline including
geographic factors
• In the 1300s, many
trading cities emerged
along the eastern coast
of Africa
Colonization Disrupts Africa
• 14 European nations convened
at the Berlin Conference to
divide Africa
• By 1914, only Liberia & Ethiopia
remained free of European control
• European nations divided
Africa without regard to where
African ethnic or linguistic
groups lived
• Ethiopia was able to escape
colonization because of their
knowledge of the area’s geography &
weapons from France & Russia
• Internal disputes & civil wars
sparked after most of East
Africa regained independence
Farming & Tourism Economies
• East Africa is more than 70%
• European colonization
relied more on cash crops
such as coffee, tea, & sugar
• People are leaving farms for
greater economic opportunities
in cities
• The vast wildlife parks in
East Africa draw tourist to
the region
• The parks are located in Kenya,
Uganda, & Tanzania
Maintaining Traditional Cultures
• The two major ethnic groups
in East Africa are the Masai
& the Kikuyu
• The Masai mostly herd livestock &
farm the land
• They wear calfskin or buffalo hide
• They are known for making
intricate beadwork & jewelry
• The Kikuyu mostly live in Kenya
• They also are herders but work in
a variety of jobs more recently
Health Care in Modern Africa
• People in East Africa face
many health care problems
• AIDS has become a
outbreak of a disease
affecting a large
population over a wide
geographic area)
• Many doctors in Africa say
that more AIDS cases exist
than are reported
Chapter 19 Section 2
North Africa
Vocabulary: Carthage, Islam,
& Rai
Objective: Examine roots of
civilization in North Africa
Roots of Civilization in North Africa
• North Africa is a cultural hearth (a
place where ideas & innovations come
together to change a region)
• The Nile River made civilization possible in
• Ancient Egypt lasted for 2600 years with 30
• Egyptians were known for their
pyramids (resting place for Pharaohs’
remains), math, & medicine
• Islam spread into North Africa from
Southwest Asia
• Islam remains the major cultural &
religious influence in North Africa
• By 790, Muslims controlled most of North
Economics of Oil
• Oil has transformed the
economies of some North
African countries
• Oil makes up 99% of Libya’s
• Libya & Algeria supply the
European Union with much
of its oil & gas
• Lack of training &
education prevent
citizens from working in
oil companies
A Culture of Markets & Music
• North African culture is a
combination of Arabic
traditions & traditional
African ethnic groups
• Souks (marketplaces) are
common features in North
• Markets are known for their
bargaining for the lowest price
• Algeria is known for rai, music
developed that is fast paced &
has elements of Western music
• It is not used as a form of
rebellion against Islamic
Changing Roles of Women
• North African households
tend to be centered
around males
• In the past women have had
very little rights
• However, women roles
are changing as they are
gaining more power
• Women in North Africa have
also made gains outside the
home by seeking professional
jobs & going into the
Chapter 19 Section 3
West Africa
Vocabulary: Goree Island,
Stateless Society, & Ashanti
Objective: Analyze West African
A History of Rich Trading Empires
• West Africa is a cultural hearth
that ideas & practices spread to
North Africa & Europe
• Empires in West Africa traded
gold & salt
• Ghana, Mali, & Songhai were
powerful empires in West Africa
• A stateless society is one in which
people rely on family lineages to
govern themselves
• Igbo of southwest Nigeria are
considered a stateless society
• Stateless societies faced challenges
with European colonization
West Africa Struggles Economically
• Trade is extremely important
to West Africa
• The economies of West Africa range
to a solid economies to weak
• Ghana relies primarily on exporting
gold, diamonds, magnesium, &
bauxite to the industrialized world
• Political stability in Ghana has
allowed its economy to grow at
a healthy rate
• In Sierra Leona, political
instability & civil wars have
left their economy in shambles
Cultural Symbols of West Africa
• The Ashanti who live in
Ghana are known for
their work in weaving
colorful cloth
• West Africa is also known
for their masks & carving
wooden stools
• Benin artists in Nigeria
make beautiful objects of
metal & terra cotta
• They are also known for
their brass works of art
Music in Daily Life
• West African popular
music involved a blend
of traditional African
music with American
forms of jazz, blues, &
• West African music
is played on a variety
of drums & other
Chapter 19 Section 4
Central Africa
Vocabulary: Bantu Migration,
King Leopold II, Mobutu Sese
Seko, & Fang Sculpture
Objective: Describe how
colonialism led to economic
problems in Central Africa
Bantu Migrations
• Europeans first began their
African colonization in Central
• Bantu are a group of peoples &
cultures who speak the Bantu language
• Bantu migration is when the
Bantu speaking people moved
southward throughout Africa
• European traders traveled to Africa &
waited on the coast
• African merchants brought
potential slaves to Europeans
from Central Africa
• African rulers took part in the slave
trade to gain land, guns, & other goods
Colonial Exploitation
• In the 1800s, Central Africa had
hundreds of different ethnic groups
whom all spoke different languages
• It also consisted of large empires to
small villages
• King Leopold II of Belgium
took control of the Congo
using the Congo River
• The borders imposed on
Africans during colonialism
didn’t consider ethnic regions
& grouped traditional
enemies together
• After they gained independence,
inexperienced leaders were often
corrupt & abused their power
The Economic Legacy of Colonialism
• Central Africa’s economy is still
recovering from colonialism
with a loss of resources,
disruptions of the political
systems, & cultural/ethnic
oppression of its people
• The Europeans left little money to
develop roads, railroads, airports, or
productive education systems
• The Democratic Republic of the
Congo has struggled with economic
• Mobutu Sese Seko put businesses
under national control but the
country is still in a downward spiral
The Influence of Central African Art
• Many countries wanted to
establish their own
identities, so they banned
Western influences in their
• Their art focuses on
issues of political
instability, urban life,
social justice, & crime
• Fang sculptures are
famous for their carvings
Improving Education
• Improved education should
produce more skilled
workers & citizens who are
better prepared to
participate in democratic
• Education problems in
Central Africa include a
shortage of trained teachers,
a high dropout rate, & a
shortage of secondary
• Countries are trying to improve
education by opening universities
& offering training courses in
different fields
Chapter 19 Section 5
Southern Africa
Vocabulary: Great Zimbabwe,
Mutapa Empire, Apartheid, &
Nelson Mandela
Objective: Examine Southern
African economic development
Gold Trade Builds Empires
• A majority of the people in
Southern Africa are Bantuspeaking people
• The Shona established a city called
Great Zimbabwe (thriving goldtrading area), eventually the city was
• Mutota established the Mutapa
Empire but it declined with the
arrival of the Europeans
• The British defeated the Zulu
(the largest ethnic group in
South Africa)
• The British defeated the Dutch
Farmers (Boers) in the Boer
War for more control of South
Gold Trade Builds Empires
• The white minority
government of South Africa
instituted a policy of
apartheid (complete
separation of the races)
• Blacks founded the African
National Congress to fight for
their rights
• Nelson Mandela fought
against apartheid & was
• The United States pressured
South Africa to end apartheid
• In 1994, Mandela was
elected president
Southern Africa Grows Economically
• The policy of apartheid hurt the
economy of South Africa
• Some places are modernized
while others are povertystricken rural areas in South
• Botswana experienced long-term
of economic growth
• 63% of Botswana’s revenue
come from diamonds
• However, the country had to
import 50% of their food
• 25% of all adults were
infected with HIV in
Zimbabwe & Botswana
Celebrations of Southern Africa &
Living in Southern Africa
• Southern Africa culture is a
mixture of African & European
• Celebrations & festivals are a large
part of life in Southern Africa
• Southern Africa enjoy performing
different types of dances
• Johannesburg is a huge city with many
different ethnicities & lifestyles
• However, it is still divided between
suburbs & rundown townships
• Some Southern Africans live a
modern lifestyle while others
follow traditional patterns

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