Nederlandse Natuurkundige Vereniging & Eindhoven University of Technology
TU/e
10 April 2015
Focus Session: Small-scale physics
Programme:
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Marjolein Dijkstra (UU) - Predicting the self-assembly of colloidal nanoparticles: A
computer game
Jos Benschop (ASML) - Nanolithography, the enabler for Moore’s Law
Joost Frenken (ARC NL) - Lithography in a new light
Ronald Hanson (TUD) - Quantum computers and quantum internet
Session leader: Peter Bobbert (TU/e)
Abstracts:
Marjolein Dijkstra (UU) - Predicting the self-assembly of colloidal nanoparticles: A computer game
The ability of atomic, colloidal, and nanoparticles to self organize into highly ordered crystalline
structures makes the prediction of crystal structures in these systems an important challenge for
science. The question itself is deceivingly simple: assuming that the underlying interaction between
constituent particles is known, which crystal structures are stable. In this talk, I will describe a Monte
Carlo simulation method that can be employed to predict close-packed crystal structures in colloidal
hard-particle systems. I will show that particle shape alone can give rise to a wide variety of crystal
structures with unusual properties, e.g., photonic band gap structures or highly diffusive crystals, but
combining the choice of shape with external fields, like confinement, can enlarge the number of
possible structures even more.
Jos Benschop (ASML) - Nanolithography, the enabler for Moore’s Law
Moore’s Law dictates that every 18 months the number of transistors on an integrated chip doubles.
This is first and foremost enabled by optical lithography printing ever smaller transistor on an
integrated circuit.
The ongoing shrink has been enabled by a combination of increased Numerical Aperture of the
projection lenses and decreased wavelength. State-of-the art immersion lithography tools print >250
wafers/hour. The numerical aperture of 1.35 limits to resolution to 38nm half-pitch, however using
multiple patterning much smaller resolutions are obtained.
Several technologies are pursued to extend Moore’s Law for the next decade. Extreme Ultra Violet (13
nm light) has by far most industry support and has printed sub-20nm features at productivities
sufficient to start R&D of 10 nm node.
After a short introduction into IC making the past, present and future of lithography will be discussed.
To print ever smaller features, increasingly bigger tools are needed. Hence this presentation, given in
the “SMALL” session will bridge the two parallel sessions: SMALL and BIG.
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Nederlandse Natuurkundige Vereniging & Eindhoven University of Technology
Joost Frenken (ARC NL) - Lithography in a new light
With its recent step from light with wavelengths in the (deep) ultraviolet (UV, 193 nm) to the regime of
the extreme ultraviolet (EUV, 13.5 nm and below), the field of advanced lithography for the
semiconductor industry has been forced to develop radically novel technology. The working principle
of the latest EUV lithography instrumentation is based on a spectacular, new combination of
phenomena, involving such diverse subjects as laser physics, plasma physics, fluid dynamics, surface
physics, and EUV optics. The point has been reached that significant progress in this new technology
can no longer be maintained on the basis of further engineering. Instead, serious advances are
required in fundamental knowledge in each of these areas of research. Generating precisely this basis
of fundamental knowledge forms the key objective of the newly founded research center ARCNL.
www.arcnl.nl
Ronald Hanson (TUD) - Quantum computers and quantum internet
A few months ago the Dutch government elected Quantum Technologies as one of 4 National Icon
projects. In this talk I will present the basic concepts and the prospects for using the strange
consequences of quantum theory for computing and communication. Whereas all current ICT is based
on the fundamental “bit” that can have the value “0” or “1”, quantum theory allows bits to be in
superposition states of “0” or “1”. Such quantum versions of bits are called qubits. In the past 20 years
it has become clear that computing and communication devices based on qubits can greatly
outperform all current ICT on specific tasks. I will briefly review some of these tasks, discuss the
current status of devices and speculate how we may achieve this new “quantum revolution” within the
newly established QuTech center (http://qutech.nl) in Delft.
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TU/e 10 April 2015 Focus Session: Small-scale physics

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