Width of the barrel of a pencil The length of an average flea The diameter of a pinhead The thickness of a credit card Length of a single pixel on a 17-inch monitor with 1024 x 786 resolution Thickness of a coat of paint Thickness of a sheet of paper Average width of a human hair Average width of a wool fiber Width of a silk fiber Width of a polyester fiber Width of a nylon fiber Width of a cotton fiber Average width of spider web silk Depth of pits on a CD (Compact Disc) Pencil • Diameter of Pencil • 0.8 cm • 8,000 µm An Average Flea • Length of flea • 0.15 cm • 1,500 µm Pinhead • Diameter • .1 cm • 1,000 µm Credit Card • Thickness • 0.076 cm • 760 µm Single Pixel • Length of single pixel on a 17-inch monitor with 1024x768 resolution • .034 cm • 340 µm Coat of Paint • Thickness of a coat of paint • 0.01 cm • 100 µm Paper • Average thickness • 0.009 cm • 90 µm Human Hair • Average width of human hair • 0.008 cm • 80 µm Wool Fiber • Average Width • 0.00325 cm • 32.5 µm Silk Fiber • Width • 0.0015 cm • 15 µm Polyester Fiber • Width • 0.0014 cm • 14 µm Nylon Fiber • Width • 0.0013 cm • 13 µm Cotton Fiber • Width • 0.001 cm • 10 µm Spider Web Silk • Average Width of a strand • 0.00055 cm • 5.5 µm Pits on Compact Disc • Depth 0.000012 cm 120 nm Thiomargarita namibiensis 1 millimeter in diameter or 1000 µm • Discovered in 1999 off the coast of Namibia • The largest bacterium in the world, at a remarkable volume of 3 million times that of a normal bacterial specimen. • The long string of cells looked like pearl hence named "Sulfur pearl of Namibia” • Found buried in the sulfurabundant sea floor sediments • Size due to large vacuole inside the cell that fills with nitrate that gives it the ability to survive periods when oxygen is lacking Image courtesy of MicrobeWiki and Oceanus Online Magazine Beggiatoa 20 m or 0.002 cm • Living on marine sediments, at hydrothermal vents and marine cold seeps • Beggiatoa bacteria live on sulfidic marine sediments • Make string-like filaments which are visible to the naked eye, in white, orange and pink. • Form thick 'mats' on the sediment surface Image courtesy of MicrobeWiki and Microbial Diversity 1997 (Rolf Schauder). Desuflvibrio 7 m or 0.0007 cm • Lives in sediments at the seafloor • Ananaerobe—lives without the presence of O2 • Sulfate consuming bacterium • Can also consume nitrate and metals like iron and chromium • Generate hydrogen sulfide as a waste product. • Potential 'bioremediator' of toxic sites Image courtesy of MicrobeWiki and the Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory. Desulforudis audaxviator 4 µm or 0.0004 mm • Only bacterium found in water samples obtained 2.8 km underground in the Mponeng gold mine in South Africa (terrestrial deep biosphere) • Survived for millions of years on chemical food sources that derive from the radioactive decay of minerals in the surrounding rock • Only species known to be alone in its ecosystem. Public domain, NASA Wikipedia, Desulforudis Photobacterium profundum 2-4 µm long 0.8-1.0 µm wide 0.0002 – 0.0004 cm long 0.00008 – 0.00001 cm wide • Originated from dark deep sea sediments off of the coast of Japan • Able to grow at really high pressures (up to 70 MPa!) • Consumes nitrate plus a variety of sugars and other carbon compounds to get energy Image courtesy of MicrobeWiki and sciencemag.org Alcanivorax borkumensis 2-3 µm in length and 0.4-07 µm in diameter 0.0002-0.0003 cm in length 0.00004-0.00007 cm in diameter • Found in oil polluted open ocean and coastal waters • Ability to degrade and live predominately on n-alkanes (hydrocarbons ranging from 5 to 32 chain carbons) • Able to use dissolved organic and inorganic nitrogen • Dominant microbes in oilcontaminated areas Image courtesy of American Society of • Bioremediation potential Microbiology and Heinrich Luensdorf, HZI Braunschweig) Mariprofundus ferrooxydans 2 µm or 0.0002 cm • Found on the hydrothermal vents on Loihi Seamount (new Hawai’ian Island) • Microbe is shaped like a kidney bean • As it grows, consuming iron (Fe2+) and oxygen, it produces twisted ribbons of rust (Fe3+) photo courtesy Clara Chan Shewanella loihica 1.8 µm or 0.00018 cm • Found at hydrothermal vents at the Loihi Seamount, an underwater volcano off of the coast of the big island of Hawaii • Can consume iron, manganese, nitrate and oxygen to get energy • Temperatures down around freezing DOE Joint Genome Institute • Uses nanowires to get http://genome.jgi-psf.org/she_p/she_p.home.html energy Arcobacter sulfidicus 1 µm or 0.0001 cm • Lives around hydrothermal vents at the seafloor • A very mobile rod like bacteria with 4 tails • Consumes sulfide and oxygen and produces sulfur in filimentous form • Prefers high sulfide, low oxygen interfaces with dynamic fluid movement • Likes warm temperatures Image courtesy of Dr. Craig Smith, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Marinobacter aquaeolei 1 µm or 0.0001 cm • Several strains of this cell were found at the head of and oil-producing well on an offshore platform in southern Vietnam. • Live throughout water column and in deep ocean • Have polar flagellum • Can consume alkanes— hydrocarbons and some crude oil components • Extremophiles that can live in very salty water but at mild temperature Image courtesy of Microbewiki and JGI. Methanocaldococcus jannaschii .5 µm or 0.00005 cm • Found in Mexico at a white smoker-- hydrothermal vents • Archea not bacteria • Has an irregular spherical shape • Makes methane gas from taking in carbon dioxide and hydrogen • ‘Extreme' environment - water that is slightly acidic, near boiling temperatures and high pressure Image courtesy of MicrobeWiki and UC Berkley Electron Microscope Lab. Methanopyrus kandleri 0.5 µm or 0.00005 cm • Found in hydrothermal vents • Archaea not bacteria • Capable of living in near boiling water (up to 110°C) • Makes methane from hydrogen and carbon dioxide • Considered the most divergent methanogens (makes Methane) based on its genetics (16s rRNA sequence) • Uniqueness believed to be determined by isolation because of its environmental niche Photo courtesy of MicrobeWiki, copyright K.O. Stetter and R. Rachel, Univ. Regensburg, Germany Archaeoglobus fulgidus .2µm or 0.00002 cm • Found at hydrothermal vents and deep ocean oil wells • Archaea not bacteria • Can produce protection (biofilm) when the environment stresses it with extreme pH or temperature, high concentrations of metal or the addition of antibiotics or oxygen • Consumes sulfate, making hydrogen sulfide as a waste product • Ideal growth temperature 83°C Image courtesy MicrobeWiki and Nature Magazine.