3D PRINTING FOR URBAN PLANNING:
A PHYSICAL ENHANCEMENT OF
SPATIAL PERSPECTIVE
Tarun Ghawana
Integrated Spatial Analytics Consultants, India
Sisi Zlatanova
Delft University of Technology, GIS Technology Section, Delft, Netherlands
Delft
University of
Technology
Challenge the future
•
BACKGROUND
•
3D PRINTING
•
COMPARING 3D PRINTING and 3D VISUALIZATION
•
3D PRINTING AND GIS
•
CHALLENGES IN 3D PRINTING OF GIS LAYERS
•
3D PRINTING AND CITYGML
•
CASE STUDY OF DWARKA SUBCITY OF DELHI, INDIA
2
Background
• 3D Models are more commonly used now for various planning
sectors
• 3D visualization enhances spatial aspects in an interacting
thematic concerns environment
• 3D physical models have been largely used for urban planning
for presenting new developments
3
Skepticism
• 2007, TUDelft
• Wind simulation
4
3D Printing
• Additive manufacturing or 3D printing is a process of making
3D solid objects from a digital model.
• 3D Printing technique deposits material layer by layer. No waste
of material
• Numerous 3D printing technologies out there; stereo lithography
(SLA), selective laser sintering (SLS) and fuse depositing
modelling (FDM)
5
Examples
6
Comparing 3D Printing and 3D Visualization
Criteria
3D Digital Visualization
texturing,
rotating
3D printed models
Visual Perception
Shading,
zooming
and
Shading, texturing and rotating
Scale and Resolution
Variation
Depending on input data
Depending on input data
Large Group
Discussions
Digital display system requirement as
inhibitor
Detailed
enabler
Ease to Explore
Minimum expertise level required for
3D rendering
Easy to handle and explore by
inexperienced users
Object Selection
Single query based multiple object
selection
Need to tag manually different
objects
Editing
Relatively easier feature editing
Limited editing
Analyzing Objects
Objects analysis requires 3D expertise
Objects analysis by non-expert
users
printed
model
7
as
3D Printing and GIS (1/2)
• Virtual scenes generated in 3D GIS environment enhance user
understanding
• Visualization process has passed many stages towards realistic
scenes
2D Paper
/
Other
Material
Maps
(Colour/
B & W)
Colour / B
&
W
Scanned
2D Images
(noninteractive)
GIS
2D
Data
(Interactive
&
Attributes
Attached)
GIS
3D
Data
(Interactive
&
Attributes
Attached,
Virtual
Models)
Fly-thru 3D
Simulation
Tours,
recorded
as motion
video
Handmade
3D Models
of 3D Data
(Physical
Models)
Digital 3D
printing of
3D
Data
with
Z
properties
(Physical
Models)
8
3D Printing and GIS (2/2)
• single piece objects creation unless impossible by other means of
production
• possible to print objects within objects, hollow parts,
interconnected parts
9
Challenges in 3D Printing of GIS Layers
• Translation of various GIS data formats into STL file format
• Reducing data loss while translating DEM data into STL file format
• 3D printing is not necessarily a cheap process
• High level resolution and accuracy of a 3D print but for depending
on the size of the model
• Work with valid 3D digital models, i.e. closed volume
• GIS data varies on compression and projections so it needs to be
put back in its original shape
10
3D Printing and CityGML (1/2)
• CityGML is currently the only standard for 3D vector data along with
semantics, topology and appearance associated with the data
Detail
Levels
Implementation
Scale
Buildings Details
Positional and
Height Accuracy
Minimum
Object Size
LOD0
Regional,
Landscape
Footprint or roof edge polygons
LOD1
City, Region
Blocks model comprising prismatic
buildings with flat roof structures
5 m or less
6x6m
LOD2
City
Districts,
Projects
Differentiated roof structures and
thematically differentiated boundary
surfaces
2 m or less
4x4m
LOD3
Architectural
Models (Outside),
Landmarks
Architectural models with detailed wall
and
roof
structures
potentially
including doors and windows
0.5 m
2x2m
LOD4
Architectural
Models (Interior)
Buildings composed of rooms, interior
doors, stairs and furniture
0.2 m or less
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3D Printing and CITYGML (2/2)
• 3D printing characteristics matched with relevant CityGML
characteristics (Zprint, Zcorp)
Printer
Resolution and
Minimum Object
Type
Layer Thickness
Size for Printing
Build Size for Printing
for Printing
Vertical Build
Minimum
Speed for
Object Size
Printing
in CityGML
LOD
250
350
650
Resolution:
300 x 450 dpi;
Layer Thickness
0.1 mm
0.4 mm
Resolution:
300 x 450 dpi;
Layer Thickness
0.089- 0.102 mm
0.15 mm
Resolution:
600 x 540 dpi;
Layer Thickness
0.089- 0.102 mm
0.1 mm
(236 x 185 x 127 mm)
20 mm / hour
6x6m
20 mm / hour
4x4m
23 mm/ hour
2x2m
(0.236 x 0.185 x 0.127 m)
(203 x 254 x 203 mm)
(0.203 x 0.254 x 0.203 m)
(254 x 381 x 203 mm)
(0.254 x 0.381 x 0.203 m)
http://www.zcorp.com/en/Products/3D-Printers/spage.aspx
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Case Study of Dwarka Subcity, Delhi (1/5)
• Dwarka sub-city developed recently for approximately 1 million
people in Delhi
• 29 sectors planned covering around 5,650 hectares
• Dwarka landuse distribution follows a distinct hierarchical
pattern from sub-city level to sector level
Landuse
Area (%)
Gross Residential
48.54
Commercial
7.05
Government
0.94
Public/Semi-Public
6.20
Recreational
19.94
Transport
14.33
Utilities
3.00
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Case Study of Dwarka Subcity, Delhi (2/5)
• one sample of sector 6
in Dwarka with total
area of 93 hectares
• Allocated
Residential
landuse: 41 hectares
/410,000
sq.
mtrs
approx.
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Case Study of Dwarka Subcity, Delhi (3/5)
• Some residential apartment’s society premises are marked on both
sides of a road in sector 6
• The covering areas of societies measured as:
Maximum: 170 m x 125 m x 40 m Minimum: 80 m x 80 m x 40 m
• Disconnected blocks or connected
through only a viaduct.
• On average, the dimensions of
these blocks are around 30 m
x 30 m x 40 m in X, Y, Z terms
15
Case Study of Dwarka Subcity, Delhi (4/5)
• Single Block Printing Size and Scaling Requirements
Single piece maximum
printing object size
250 mm x 380 mm x 200 mm
Actual Object Size
30 m x 30 m (X,Y) x 40 m (Z)
Scale Required
1:120 x 1:78 (X,Y) x
1:200 (Z)
• Average scale of 1:160 for the building block, allows printing of a
window 2 x 2 m (200 cm/2000 mm) in 12 x 12 mm
• 3-4 such building blocks exists in each society, allowing 3D printing in
manageable units
• Vertical speed of 0.9 inch/hour (23 mm/hour), allows printing a
window of 2 x 2 m in a few minutes
16
Case Study of Dwarka Subcity, Delhi (5/5)
• Feasible Level of Detail (LOD) as per CityGML, references to 3D print
the area of interests on different scales:
Area of Interest
CityGML: Level of Detail (LOD)
Single Block Building (30 m x 30 m x 40 m)
LOD 3 With doors and windows
A society complex of 3 or 4 building blocks and
green / cemented open space in between (100 m x
50 m x 40 m)
LOD 3 with doors and windows, trees, open
parking spaces and green patches
A neighborhood of individual society complexes
along a road of 300-500 m in length
(300 m x 100 / 150 m x 40 m)
LOD 2 with thematically differentiated surfaces
and buildings without detailed facades
An entire sector of a subcity in 100 hectares
LOD1 with blocks model comprising prismatic
buildings with flat roof structures
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Conclusions and Recommendations
• Physical enhancement of spatial perspective for the users.
• More realistic interfaces for stakeholders negotiations and presenting
new development
• Detailed 3D model printing possible of landscape, buildings, road
furniture etc. for street level planning
• Value addition for planners due to the ability to print subsurface
utilities, terrain and groundwater variations
• 3D printed models can be used in Delhi by various planning agencies
• 3D printed model can expedite the negotiations process in city
development and planning
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Thank you for your attention
Tarun Ghawana: [email protected]
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