INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT
AND CITY LOGISTICS
TRANSPORT TEACHING MATERIAL
Transparencies 2003
EU-funded Urban Transport Research Project Results
www.eu-portal.net
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AS PART
OF THE TRANSPORT CHAIN
Chapter 1
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
OVERVIEW
Introduction to logistics
Specialities and problems of urban freight transport
New trends in urban freight transport
Chapter 1
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
LOGISTICS
Logistics is that part of the supply chain process that plans,
implements, and controls the efficient, effective
flow and
storage of goods, services, and related information
from the point of origin to the point of consumption
in order to meet customers’ requirements
Chapter 2
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
IMPORTANCE OF CITY LOGISTIC
High rate of urbanisation in Europe
Delivery and supply of transport are very cost intensive
Environmental sensitivity of urban areas
• Air pollution
• Noise emissions
Economic competitivity of urban areas
Chapter 2
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
COMPONENTS OF THE LOGISTICAL
PROCESS
PRODUCTION
i.e. the qualitative change of a good
DECONSOLIDATION
i.e. shipments are united or dispersed
STORAGE
i.e. goods are stored until they are
called for by consumers
CONSUMPTION
i.e. goods are consumed or further
changed qualitatively
DISPOSAL
i.e. used goods are disposed as waste
Chapter 2
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
PASSAGERS - GOODS
Passangers
Goods
Travel (active)
Must be loaded, unloaded and
transferred
Board, get off and transfer without
assistance
The information must be processed
through logistics managers
Process information and act on it
without assistance
Logistics managers meet choices
between means of transport
rationally
Meet choices between means of
transport without assistance but
often irrationally
Must be loaded, unloaded and
transferred
Chapter 2
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
SINGLE-STEP SYSTEM
Chapter 2
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
MULTI-STEP SYSTEM
Chapter 2
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
COMBINED SYSTEM
Chapter 2
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
TRANSPORT CHAIN
Sequence of technical and organisational interconnected events, by which goods are moved from
an origin (supplier) to a destination (receiver)
Chapter 2
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
ORGANISATION OF FREIGHT TRANSPORT
Chapter 2
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
POSSIBLE
TRANSPORT
CHAINS
Chapter 2
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
SPECIAL FEATURES OF
URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT
Spatial restrictions
Traffic infrastructure
Environmental concerns and sensitivities
Chapter 3
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
RESEARCH ON FREIGHT TRANSPORT
IN URBAN AREAS
particularities of
todays logistic processes
research and
development
new concepts
in city logistic
todays processes
future processes
Chapter 3
strong
constraints
economical
necessities
negative macroeconomic effects
positive macroeconomic effects
political
reglementations
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
POSSIBILITIES FOR CITY DELIVERY
Individual forms of organizations
• Receivers without self-coordinated delivery logistics
• Receivers with distribution company coordinated
delivery logistics
• Receivers with self-coordinated logistics
Superordinated forms of public organizations
• Goods distributions centres
• Freight villages
Chapter 3
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
RECEIVERS WITHOUT SELF-ORGANIZED LOGISTICS
1.
Chapter 3
2.
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
RECEIVERS WITH CO-ORDINATED LOGISTICS
Chapter 3
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
LACK OF OVERSIGHT FOR THE ENTIRE SYSTEM
Freight transport is normally based on rational decisions
• One aspires to minimal operation cost
 Should lead to a reduced use of resources
However, many transport processes are not optimal from a macroeconomic
perspective
• The several subsystems (involved companies) are too small
• Subsystems are optimised under the constraint of business without
taking into account the entire system
Chapter 3
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN TRIPS AND TONNAGE
100%
1%
11%
10%
80%
38%
60%
Semi-trailers
40%
88%
Trucks (> 3.5 to)
Deliv ery v ans (< 3.5 to)
52%
20%
0%
trips
Chapter 3
tons
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
SUBOPTIMAL TRANSPORT CHAINS
FROM A MACROECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE
Companies tend to avoid breakpoints in the transport chain
 Short-haul vehicles (e.g. vans) are used also for midlength
and long stretches
 Combined transport (Rail - Road) is rarely used
Chapter 3
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
NO FURTHER BUNDLING OF TRIPS
No interest by the
enterprises involved
(receivers/distribution
companies)
company A
• des Single enterprises
are in competiton with
one another
company C
company B
with internal process
optimisation
city centre
Chapter 3
• en Doesn‘t go along
 Incentive measures from
the public a necessity
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
POSSIBILITIES FOR OTPIMISATION
New forms of Organisations
• Goods distribution Centres
• Freight villages
New Technical Developments
• New Transhipment Technologies
• Smaller Containers in the Logistical Sphere
Administrative Control Mechanisms
• Creation of regulations
• Taxation
• Subsidy and infrastructure development
Chapter 4
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
GOODS DISTRIBUTIONS CENTRE
(City Terminal)
At a Goods
distribution centre all goods flows with
destination city centre are consolidated and compiled to new
loads. The aim of a city terminal is the Minimisation of the
number of Delivery
Chapter 4
Tips
in City Centres.
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
GOODS DISTRIBUTION CENTRES
AND FREIGHT VILLAGES
1.
1
2
2.
Function of a goods distribution center
Functionaliy of a village with transhipment service
Chapter 4
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
FREIGHT VILLAGES
Freight villages are industry zones with the best connections to
the transport
network, where freight transport intensive
enterprises, are established. Ideally, they have the equipment for the
transhipment between different transport modes.
Chapter 4
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
LOGISTICAL SERVICES AT A FREIGHT
VILLAGE
Chapter 4
•
Long-distance transport
•
Distribution transport
•
Warehousing
•
Deconsolidation
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
INFRASTRUCTURE AT A FREIGHT VILLAGE
• Connections to the network
(high capacity roads, railway network,
waterways, etc.)
• Transhipment services for intermodal transport
• Branch lines
• Environmental protection services
Chapter 4
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
ADMINISTRATIVE AND TECHNICAL
SERVICES AT A FREIGHT VILLAGE
• Distribution service, in the sense of a city
terminal
• Garage for vehicles, containers and
transhipment equipment
• Offices for customs, road traffic
• Safety services
• Information services, communications services
(i.e., conference rooms), consultancy services
Chapter 4
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
NEW TRANSHIPMENT TECHNOLOGIES
Why?
• Cheaper transhipment
• Separation of long distance transport and short
distance transport
• Adequate vehicles for short distance transport
• Promotion of rail transport
Chapter 4
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
NEW TRANSHIPMENT TECHNIQUES TO
PROMOTE COMBINED TRANSPORT
Chapter 4
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
SMALLER CONTAINERS
IN THE LOGISTICS SHEPHE
Why?
• More adequate load units for supply and delivery
• Cheaper deconsolidation
• Long distance container = short distance container
• No interruption in transport chain
• Better degree of utilisation of the loading capacity
Chapter 4
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
SMALLER CONTAINERS
Chapter 4
INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY LOGISTICS
ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL MECHANISMS
Creation of regulations
• Weight
• Emission
• Delivery times
• Access roads
• Loading zones
Taxation
Subsidy and infrastructure development
Chapter 4
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INNER URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT AND CITY