Small Hydro
Power
ENEA
Paolo Morgante
Small Hydro Power (SHP)
Small Hydro Power (SHP) is hydro plant with
power under 10 MW as defined by United
Nations Industrial Development Organization
(UNIDO):
– Micro hydro plants
P <100 kW
– Mini hydro plants
P <1.000 kW
– Small hydro plants
P <10.000 kW
P= Power plant
Scale of Hydropower Projects
•
•
•
•
•
•
Large-hydro
– More than 100 MW feeding into a large electricity grid
Medium-hydro
– 15* - 100 MW usually feeding a grid (*10)
Small-hydro
– 1 – 15* MW - usually feeding into a grid (*10)
Mini-hydro
– Above 100 kW, but below 1 MW
– Either stand alone schemes or more often feeding into the grid
Micro-hydro
– From 5kW up to 100 kW (*>0)
– Usually provided power for a small community or rural
industry in remote areas away from the grid.
Pico-hydro
– From a few hundred watts up to 5kW
– Remote areas away from the grid.
Choice of technology and
site
• Small hydro technology is mature and
well-established in the market
• Improvements: equipment designs,
differents materials, control sistem
• Q=Flow of water through the pipe (m³/sec)
• H=Head (m)
• The Power (kW) avaiable from the flow:
P=QHgη
g = 9,8 m/s²
η= 80% global efficency plant
Hydro project schematic
Hydro project schematic
Types of Hydroelectric
Installation
Typologies of
Hydropower plants
a) Run of River Plants
b) Pondage Plants
c) Reservoir Plants
Typologies of Hydropower
plants
a) Run of River Plants
– A Run of River plant uses the
available river flow
– A Run of River plant has a little
cumulative water
– High cost
Typologies of Hydropower
plants
b) Pondage Plants
– Cumulative water flows permits
storage of water for few weeks
– Pondage Plant can works when the
level of river is low
Typology of hydropower
plants
c) Reservoir Plants
– Energy prodution of a Reservoir
Plant is based on cumulative
water flows
– Construction of a very large dam
to cumulate water
Usually this kind of plant is not a
SHP
Hydropower and SHP
Potentials
Hydropower now accounts for about 84 % of
the electricity generation from renewable
sources in Europe (EU-25) and for 13 % of
total electricity production in the EU.
In 2001, in EU-15, SHP has contribute about:
– 2 % to the total electricity generation
– 9 % of the RES (Renewable Energy Source)
electricity generation
– 4 % of the RES primary energy
SHP accounts for approximately 4.6 % of
total hydro generation in the new EU
Member States (EU-10new2) and in the
Candidate Countries (CC3). None of the
other renewable energy sources (wind,
biomass, photovoltaic, etc) is able to
compete with small hydropower in these
countries.
In EU-25 about 16'800 SHP plants are in
operation with a total installed capacity of
11 GW, while the total production is about
41 TWh per year.
Potential for hydropower development
in selected countries (World Energy
Conference. UN. 2003)
Country
Hydro as % of total
electricity
Ratio of theoretical
potential to actual
Ratio of economic
potential to actual
Norway
Canada
India
France
Indonesia
U.S.
World tot.
100
63
25
20
14
10
19
5.77
3.81
4.2
1.15
31.3
1.82
18.3
1.8
1.54
3.0
1.0
3.1
1.3
>2.78
Plan SHP
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•
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Control national and regional law
Who using the water and how
Story analisis of river flow
Study hidrogeologic and hidrografic
of site
• Chek principal parameters (Q) river
flow avieble and (H) head for calculate
power of site
• Pubblicity of project and consalting
citizen.
Major attributes of hydropower
Positive
No emissions
Mature tecnology
Renevable resource with higt
efficienty (> 80%)
Long life (40-50 years)
Low maintenance costs
Skilled work
Change using area
Negative
Social impacts (land
inundation, change land use)
High initial capital costs:
3- 4,5 kEuro/kw
Impacts on river flows and
aquatic ecology
Variable output-dependent on
rainfall and snowfall
High costs of dismission
Bureaucracy
Hydroelectric plants
– Start easily and quickly and
change power output rapidly
– Complement large thermal plants
(coal and nuclear), which are
most efficient in serving base
power loads.
– Save millions of barrels of oil
SHP emissions
• As all other renewable energy
sources, SHP plays an important role
in reducing the emissions.
• Externality of SHP are very low.
• This is very important and positive,
expecially for Kyoto protocol.
How to reduce the impact
of hydropower plant
Impacts landscape:
– Built the house power under
ground
– Built electric lines under ground
– Use local material
– The color of power house must be
armony with enviromental
– Check of spoon river
– Little time of costruction
How to reduce the impact
of hydropower plant
Impacts Acustic:
– No noise out of power house
– Try to reduce vibration in power
house
Externality of powerhouse:
– Strain and condition air in
powerhouse
How to reduce the impact
of hydropower plant
• Impact environment:
– Fish passes, temporary diversion
of river
– Faunistic repopulation
– Backwater area
• Infrastructure modification :
– Use local material for new street
and tecnology lines
How to reduce the impact
of hydropower plant
•
Flow river modification :
– Waring level of river
– Study energy production by
avieble flow
– Predict new scenery for
production /request
•
Impact electromagnetic:
– Power house and lines elettricy
mast be underground.
How to reduce the impact
of hydropower plant
• Impact economic:
– New capital investiment
– Skilled work
– Services for worker (temporary)
• Impatct social:
– New work
– Keep out population of prodution
energy area
– Communication to citizen (exchange of
viewes)
Examples of
hydropower
1. Rino Power plant Italy,
Adamello mountains.
2. Pols SHP plant Austria,
Styria.
1. Rino Power
plant
• We describe a plant in a regional
natural park*: it rapresents an
example to be followed, both for
the useful collaboration between
progect staff and environmental
authorities
* Adamello Natural Park
1. Rino Power
plant
• Goal:
– The impacts of power plant are
very low and accept by citizen
– Tanks to rigth collaboration this
project received the financial
support of the Europian
Commission within the THERMIE A
programme.
1. Rino Power
plant
• Good exemple of correct using
bioengineeering thechniques to
consolid slope
• Also the basin doesn’t produce a
relevant modification of
landscape
1. Rino Power
plant
• The turist use the basin as a
recreation area
• For that reason near the basin
there are 5 picnic sites with a car
parking, and a few shops.
2. Pols SHP plants
• River pols is located in Styria,
Austria, in a semi-alpine region.
It build in the 1991
• Rated flow 7 m3/s; net rated head
25 m
• P=1520 kW;Annual production 9
GWh
• Keplan Axial Turbine
2. Pols SHP plants
• The project guaranteed an
accettable result between
ecological demand and tecnical
contents
• The citizen were be information
of every step during costruction
plant
2. Pols SHP plants
• A nice idea of the owner of the
site was to install a museum in
the power house painted outside
by children.
• Lake is very clean and it is highly
accepted by the population.
What to do for goal with
SHP
Act cordinated strategy:
• Informing
• Including the people in the
projects
• Dialogue with opponents
• Implementing social compain
Hydroelettric and SHP Web
sites
• www.hydro.org
• www.hidropower.org
• www.ue.com
The European Commission, Trasport
and Energy DG TREN, 200 Rue de la
Loi, B-1049 Brussels Belgium
Thank you for kind
attenction
Paolo Morgante
[email protected]
Three Gorges Dam (China)