Energy
Heat from BiomassState of Art and Best Practice Examples
Christian Letalik (Engineer of Agriculture)
C.A.R.M.E.N. e.V.
www.renewables-made-in-germany.de
Content Overview

C.A.R.M.E.N. e.V.

Importance of Biomass in Comparison to other
Renewable Energy Sources

Heat from Biomass
- Sources / Markets / Prices
- Best Practise Examples

Conclusions
C.A.R.M.E.N. e.V.
Central Agricultural Raw materials Marketing and
Development Network , registered association

Coordination office for renewable resources in Bavaria

Founded in1992, 70 members, 20 employees

Consulting, public relations and project management with
regard to energetically use of biomass


Project assessment and project evaluation for the
Bavarian Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry
Further information: www.carmen-ev.de
Bavaria
C.A.R.M.E.N. e.V.
Sponsored BioEnergy-Projects

Approx. 350 heat plants
500 kWth. to 13 MWth.

13 wood-Combined Heat and
Power Plants
40 kWel. to 10 MWel.

6 vegetable oil - CHPs
5 kWel. to 200 kWel.

6 Biogas - CHPs
15 kWel. to 250 kWel.

3 drying plants for animal food
● Heat Plants
■ CHP
▲ Drying Plants
♦ Veg. Oil CHP
X Biogas Plant
Content Overview

C.A.R.M.E.N. e.V.

Importance of Biomass in Comparison to other
Renewable Energy Sources

Heat from Biomass
- Sources / Markets / Economics / Prices
- Best Practise

Conclusions
Physical States of Biomass
Solid Biomass
flüssig
gaseous
liquid
wood, forest residues,
wood pellets
rape, sunflower
Energy crops, slurry
organic waste
Heat and electricity
Mobility
Electricity and heat
Importance of Renewable Energy Sources – FRG in 2010
Source: Federal Ministry
for the Environment,
Nature Conservation and
Nuclear Safety
Importance of Biomass – Final Energy Consumption
Source: Federal
Ministry for the
Environment, Nature
Conservation and
Nuclear Safety
Development of Biomass – Electricity Generation
Source: Federal
Ministry for the
Environment,
Nature
Conservation and
Nuclear Safety
Development of Biomass – Heat Supply
Source: Federal
Ministry for the
Environment, Nature
Conservation and
Nuclear Safety
Importance of Renewable Energy Sources – Heat Supply
Source: HDG Bavaria
58 bn. kWh from
split logs (fire wood)
in private
households (= 2/3 of
solid biomass)
= 20 Mio. tons/a !
Source: Federal Ministry for the Environment,
Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety
Content Overview

C.A.R.M.E.N. e.V.

Importance of Biomass in Comparison to other
Renewable Energy Sources

Heat from Biomass
- Sources / Markets / Prices
- Best Practise Examples

Conclusions
Shares of Residue Biomass Potentials in Germany
11,6% rape straw,
beet and potato leaf
24,5% cereal
straw
Slurry 15,9%
9,8%
wastepaper
13,1% forest
residues
7,7%
used
wood
4,6% residues
from the forest
industry
4,8% organic waste
from households
Source: Knappe et al. 2007
Different Sources and Forms of Solid Biofuels
Traditional
In Future?
Miscanthus
Split logs (fire wood)
Wood-pellets
Wood-chips
Straw
Grains
Wood-Plantation
Wood Pellets; Number of installed Pellet Boilers < 100kW
Wood Pellets
►
Characteristics :
Diameter : 6 or 8 mm
Length : 10 to 40 mm
Cal. value : 5 kWh / kg
Density : 650 kg/m3
Ash content :< 0,5 %
Use of Solid Biomass – Wood Pellets
Fully automatic central
heating system with
wood pellets
Source: www.enendlichviel-energie.de
Pellet Market
Development of Pellet Production in Germany
Source: DEPV
Pellet Production
Plants
Distribution of Biomass Heat and CHP Plants
Schleswig-Holstein
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Hamburg
Bremen
Niedersachsen
Berlin
Brandenburg
Sachsen-Anhalt
Nordrhein-Westfalen
Sachsen
Thüringen
Hessen
Rheinland-Pfalz
Saarland
Bayern
n = 119
0 <=
15
15 <=
25
25 <=
35
Baden-Württemberg
35 <= 100 kW
n = 486
n = 343
n = 52
0
<=
15
0 <=
15
0 <=
15
15
<=
25
15 <=
25
15 <=
25
25
<=
35
25 <=
35
25 <=
35
35
<= 100
1000
n = kW
35 <= 100 kW
Germany: Distribution of small solid biomass
boilers: Source: MAP Evaluation 2007/2008
Hackgutanlage
Kaminofen
Pelletanlage
Scheitholzanlage
35 <= 100 kW
Bavaria
● Heat Plants
■ CHP Plants
Development of Prices for different Fuels
Biomass Heat Plant - System
Accepter
Heating plant
Heating
Pump
Waste gaspreperation
Biomass- Boiler
heat
exchanger
supply
network
Primary
Waterboiler
Secundary
Biomass Heat Plant - System
Different heat sinks
with different annual
curve and peak load
Biomass plant with
wood chip bunker
Biomass Heat Plant - System
2100
Peak
load
Peak
load
800
ground
load
1.000
ground
load
2.000
3.000
4.000
hours per year
5.000
6.000
7.000
8.000
Biomass Heat Plant - System
2100
800
1.000
2.000
3.000
4.000
5.000 6.000
hours per year
7.000
8.000
Biomass Heat Plant – Economics
Recommendations (medium + large scale 0,5-5MW)
1.600
► at least 2.500 h full load for the biomass boiler
1.400
1.200
at least 1.500 MWh of heat to the clients;
600
400
200
Stunden des Jahres
8700
8400
8100
7800
7500
7200
6900
6600
6300
6000
5700
5400
5100
4800
4500
4200
3900
3600
3300
3000
2700
2400
2100
1800
1500
900
1200
0
0
► example: 1 km of heat pipe should transport
800
600
► minimal proportion of heat demand
to pipe length: 1,5 MWh/(m*a)
1.000
300
► total invest < 7,5 * the current receipts for heat p.a.
Wärmeleistung (kW)
► more than 80 % heat production from biomass
Structure of Costs for a Biomass Heat Plant
► Capital Investment (amount of annuity)
► Investment for building (heating house, bunker, chimney) and heat pipe
► wood chip fired boiler; fossil boiler for peak demand
► hydraulic systems, control technology
► pumps, compressor and other components
► installation and commissioning
► technical planning and design, building permission
► Consumption bound Costs
► wood chips, heating gas oil, natural gas;
► electricity waste management
► Operating and other Costs
► manpower costs for maintenance and repair, cleaning
► management, insurances, measurement of fume
Structure of Costs for a Biomass Heat Plant
80
Structure of costs
25
70
Fuel costs for biomass: ~ 35 %
Kostenanteil [€/MWh]
60
Fuel costs for mineral oil: ~ 10 %
50
Costs for electricity: ~ 3 - 4 %
40
Capital costs: ~ 40 %
30
Operating costs: ~ 10%
20
Costs for waste disposal (wood ash): ~ 1 - 2 %
10
0
2001
2005
2008
Content Overview

C.A.R.M.E.N. e.V.

Importance of Biomass in Comparison to other
Renewable Energy Sources

Solid Biomass
- Sources / Markets / Economics /Prices
- Best Practise

Conclusions
Biomass Heat Plant in Altdorf near Nuremberg
Characteristics:
►Heat demand: 3.000 MWh
► Wood Boiler : 850 kWth.
► Wood chips per year:
1.000 tons
► Replace 280.000 liters of fuel oil
► Clients: school buildings, gyms
public swimming pool intended
wood chip boiler
bunker
Number of Biomass CHP Plants
Number of
Biomass
Combined
Heat and
Power
Plants is
increasing
continuously
210 plants with
∑ > 1.000 MW el.
70 plants
> 5 MW el.
100 plants
0,5 – 5 MW el.
Source: EEG
Monitoring Report
40 plants
< 0,5 MW el.
Organic Rankine Cycle in Sauerlach near Munich
ORC Cogeneration Plant Sauerlach
►
►
►
heat and power generation
- electric output 480 kW(el.)
- two wood chip-fired boilers with 6 MWth.
(4 MWth. ORC+ 2 MWth. ), economizer Ø 0,7 MWth.
- heating-/plant-oil boiler (peak load) 4 MWth.
- second (peak load) heating-oil boiler 5 MWth.
- electricity : ~2.500 MWh/a; heat: ~20.000 MWh/a
- fuel need amount: 8.000 - 10.000 tons per year
~ 80% of heat production from biomass
planned in 2011: connection to geothermal plant
with 4MWth.
Organic Rankine Cycle in Sauerlach near Munich
ORC Cogeneration plant Sauerlach
utilisation of heat: 460 customers (from 12 kW up to
1 MWth.) in industrial area, housing estates, and communal buildings;
∑ (peak) load of the heat consumers 15,6 MW; pipeline length 23 km
► investment costs until now
> 17.000.000,- incl. € 2.700.000,- state grants
► first idea in 1996, “sightseeing” in Austria in 1997
► calculation, heat pricing and working out contracts in 1998/99
► Customer acquisition and partial finance solution in 2000
► detailed planning, apply for sponsoring and contracts in 2001
► First groundbreaking in 2/2002; first heat supply in 9/2002 !!
►
Best Practice – Big Biomass CHP Plant

Combined heat and power plant Pfaffenhofen

26,7 MW FWL heat input

40.000 MWh el. electric power generation

120.000 MWh th. (low pressure steam and heat from 45° up to 130°C
for foodstuffs industry, brewery, hospital, offices, 150 clients...)

70.000 tons of natural biomass (up to 1.000 m3 per day)

Length of heatpipe: more than 12 km, Invest 41 Mio.€
Production Of Wood Chips
► From forestry residues in the Forest
► Smaller entire trees or
► Smaller parts (treetops) of larger trees
Source: www.haeckselzug.de
Source: IPF, Univ. of Karlsruhe TH
Solid fuels „Production“ from Industrial Wood Residues
Source: Ass. of timber industry in
Baden Württemberg, Germany
Crooked boles
Sawdust
Strands
Solid Fuels „Production“ from Wooden Garden Waste
Waste material from
nature conservation
Rotating screen
machine in a
composting plant
Solid fuels „Production“ from wooden garden waste
Source:
Komptech
Professional preparation in one step with low speed shredder and star screen
Heat from Biomass – Biogas Plant
Schematic
View on a
Biogas Plant
Source: Biogas - an
Introduction; FNR
Number of Biogas Plants in Germany
Number of German
Biogas Plants
Cumulative
installed electrical
capacity
Source: German Biogas
Association
Renewable Energy Source Act - 2009
Payment for
Electricity from
Biogas in Germany
Source: Biogas - an
Introduction; FNR
Biogas Plant, Irlbach
● feeder,
2 digestors (2 * 1850 m³)
• 1 storage (4000 m³)
• CHP (530 kWe) + transformer
• heat is used in a castle and for drying
wood chips
• substrates:
-farm slurry (sometimes)
-distiller's wash (sometimes)
-maize silage (20 tons/d)
-grass silage (5 tons/d)
-wheat (only corn) (1 ton /d )
-wheat (whole crop) (4 tons/d)
Number of Biomethane Plants in Germany
Regional distribution of realized
and projected biomethane plants in
Germany; about 50 plants in 2010
(Source: www.biogaspartner.de)
Final Arguments for Heat from Biomass

technically mature

short transport distances
(versus oil and natural gas)

reduced dependence on the
fossil fuel market

new market for otherwise
unused fuels

new operation field for
companies

regional added value and
conservation of rural
structures/employment

less environmental damage in
case of accident

saving of fossil resources (we
are running out of supplies)

reduction of emissions CO2
Content Overview

C.A.R.M.E.N. e.V.

Importance of Biomass in Comparison to other
Renewable Energy Sources

Solid Biomass
- Sources / Markets / Economics / Prices
- Best Practise

Conclusions
Possible Conclusions I
General Conditions in Ireland:





Very few forest areas - in average up to 10% of total area Promotion program for reafforestation from the EU;
Timber harvest: 2008: 3,5 mio. m3 per year. Aim: 10 mio. m3 in 2030
Infrastructure (road network) is not yet fully developed , which is
relevant for harvest and transportation costs;
Timber Industry is developing and growing
Economic Circumstances



Prices for natural gas ?
Prices for heating gas oil ?
Debate on peat
Possible Conclusions II
Biomass heat plants:



In regions without natural gas main and high demand for heat e. g.:
hospitals, homes for the aged, public swimming pools, school
buildings, gymnasiums, playschools, offices, town halls, monasteries,
hotels and restaurants etc.
the development of biomass heat plants should be proved !
CHP, Combined heat and power plants



depending on prices for electricity from Renewable Sources (EEG?)
should not be projected without heat sink or demand for steam in the
surrounding (max. 10 km) area of the plant, for example:
any kind of food industries (brewery, creamery, slaughterhouse,
cannery etc.), drying plants for animal food, sludge and plants for
pellet production, timber industries
Possible Conclusions III
Most important aim:
► The substitution of oil, natural gas and peat with
► local wood residues such as sawdust,
► wood chips from treetops etc. and
► bark originating from the forestry and timber
industries by developing biomass heat and CHP
plants in the near of heat sinks
► Development of biogas plants near to heat sinks
► Plants fed on available agricultural raw materials
and residues such as slurry, straw and biowaste.
 leading to economic and environmental
benefits for the population of Ireland.
ÖNorm M 7133
Wood chip drying by heat from biogas – BEST PRACTICE!
Heat from Biomass
Christian Letalik
(Engineer of
Agriculture)
C.A.R.M.E.N. e.V.
www.carmen-ev.de
Thank you for your
attention !