John W. Adams
A&C Green Energy
 Based on known oil reserves and the worldwide




consumption rate, most estimates suggest this reserve
has only 50 more years of production left in it.
89% of US total energy comes from fossil fuels
Fossil fuel combustion represents a global environmental
problem
U.S. winds could generate more electricity in 15 years than
all of Saudi Arabia's oil, without being depleted
The choice is:
 Invest in discovery of new oil reserves (e.g. off-shore, shale oil)
 Invest in clean coal technology (20% of the worlds supply of
coal is in the US)
 Invest in alternative energies
Evaluation
PV (Solar)
Hydro
Wind
Capital Costs
Large
Enormous
Moderate
Operating Costs
Moderate
Negligible
Small
Efficiency
5 -10%
80%
42%
Pollution
Waste Heat
None
Visual
Levelized Costs
16 cents/kWh
4 cents/kWh
4.5 cents/kWh
Environmental
Impact
Large
Enormous
Small
1888, San Angelo
Aeromotor markets their
windmills to pump water to
irrigate crops and feed
cattle. This new system
opens up the South Plains
of Texas and makes living
in West Texas possible. Oil,
cattle, cotton industries
shape the new economy of
Texas.
Texas is still #1
In 2006, Texas
overtook California
and continues to
lead the nation in
total installed wind
capacity, shaping
our state’s future
economy and
strengthening our
importance in the
global marketplace.
Presently
With advanced
engineering and
aerodynamic
designs, today’s
wind turbines are
more powerful than
their predecessors.
What are wind energy applications?
Power usage
•Irrigation pumps
•Electric fences
•Entire residence
•Street lights
•Barn dances
•Appliances
•Etc..
Industrial systems
•1+ megawatts
•1 mW = 1,000,000 watts
•Weigh over 100 tons
•Each blade is over 100’
•200’ tower
•Also $1,000,000 turbines
•Not more efficient, just bigger
Small wind systems
• Up to 100kW
•1 kW = 1,000 watts
•Weigh 5oo lbs to 5 tons
•Blades are 6’ to 30’ each
•Towers up to 100’
•Home, ranch, farm, business
•Eligible for grants and rebates
Grid-Tie
Off-Grid
Check list:
•Make sure you are allowed
to install a wind turbine
•Make sure you have
sufficient wind speed
•Find out what your
electrical usage is
•Find funding/grant
sources for your area
Zoning Approval
•NIMBY
•HOA
•City
•County
•Minimum acreage
•Height restrictions
•110% rule
Finding the wind speed?
Resources
•Anemometer
•Local airport
•Local media
•Internet
•Trees and flags
OUTPUT POWER CURVE
10000
Monthly Energy Output (kWh)
14000
12000
Output Power (W)
MONTHLY ENERGY OUTPUT
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
9 11 13 15 18 20 22 24 27 29 31 34 36 38 40
Instantaneous Wind Speed (mph)
9 11 13 15 18 20 22 24 27 29 31 34 36 38 40
Average Wind Speed (mph)
Monthly Electricy Usage
•Electric usage is listed
in kWh.
•This data is on every
monthly statement.
 Convert turbine’s output power (W) into kW
 (W) x (.001) = kW
 Convert kW into kWh
 How many hours in a year?
 (365.25) x (24) = 8,766 hrs/year
 How many hours in a month?
 8,766 / 12 = 730.5 hrs/month
 (730.5) x (kW) = kWh/month
MONTHLY ENERGY OUTPUT
 Wind speed?
 Monthly electrical
Monthly Energy Output (kWh)
10000
usage?
 Typical sizes needed
9000
8000
7000
6000
 2kW – ½ of your energy
5000
 5kW – almost all energy
4000
 10kW – all, plus surplus
3000
2000
 20kW – small biz, ranch
1000
 30kW – med. biz, ranch
0
9 11 13 15 18 20 22 24 27 29 31 34 36 38 40
Average Wind Speed (mph)
 <100kW – large ranch, village
Years Install
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Gross Cost ($17,500)
30% Tax Credit
$5,250
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0
Utility Savings
$0 $2,214 $2,298 $2,385 $2,475 $2,569 $2,666 $2,767 $2,871 $2,980 $3,092 $3,209 $3,331 $3,456 $3,587 $3,723
ANNUAL CASH
FLOW ($12,250) $2,214 $2,298 $2,385 $2,475 $2,569 $2,666 $2,767 $2,871 $2,980 $3,092 $3,209 $3,331 $3,456 $3,587 $3,723
Cumulative Cash ($12,250) ($10,036) ($7,738) ($5,353) ($2,878) ($309) $2,357 $5,124 $7,995 $10,975 $14,067 $17,276 $20,607 $24,063 $27,650 $31,373
Flow
 Store in batteries
 Off-grid or grid-interactive systems
 Transfer excess to utility company
 Grid-tie or grid-interactive systems
 Net metering
 Similar to ‘roll-over’ minutes on wireless phone plans
 At the discretion of the utility company
 Texas is one of the last states NOT mandating net
metering
 Only through Austin Energy or Green Mountain Energy
 kWh buy back
 Not at the same rate charged TO you
Monopoles
•Single tapered pole
•“Cleaner” look
•More expensive
•Urban applications
•Single concrete base
Lattice Towers
•Lattice design
•Longer on-site construction
•Less expensive
•Rural applications
•Either single concrete base or
separate concrete pads (one per leg)
•Usually taller
•Taller is better
•At least 30’ above wind obstacles
•Wide open spaces
•Maybe a clearing by a shoreline
•Hill crest
 30% Federal tax credits
 American Recovery and Re-Investment Act (Stimulus Bill
2009)
 <100 kW project
 IRS Form 5695 for individuals
 IRS Form 3468 for businesses
 Non-profit businesses can apply for 25% grant money
 25% REAP grants
 Rural Energy for America Program
 <50,000 population (based on latest census)
 SECO – State Energy Conservation Office grants
 www.seco.cpa.state.tx.us
 DSIRE
 Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency
 www.dsireusa.org
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Find out if there are any restrictions against
installing wind turbines in your area
Find out your area’s wind speed
Find out your monthly electric usage
Find a good site for your wind turbine
Find a wind turbine that will produce what you need
Find any funding, tax breaks or grants to help with
your project
Find an installer and set your project in motion
Relax and let Mother Nature do the rest
Download

Small Wind: Home and Ranch Applications