Introductie Dan Veen
Van 1991-1996 studeerde Dan Veen Werktuigbouwkunde aan de
Hogeschool Utrecht. Na het behalen van zijn diploma heeft hij 4 jaar op
divers functies binnen het gastechnisch ingenieurs- en onderzoeksbureau
Gastec Apeldoorn gewerkt. Hierna heeft hij een overstap gemaakt naar een
commerciele buitendienstfunctie bij Freudenberg Simrit in Naarden.
In 2004 is hij bij Wärtsilä Services in Schiedam in dienst getreden als
accountmanager, waar hij verantwoordelijk was voor de commerciele
relaties en verkoop aan klanten in de baggerindustrie.
Tussen 2005 en 2007 heeft hij zijn master in de Bedrijfskunde, specialisatie
Financieel Management gehaald.
Tussen 2008 en medio 2010 is hij verantwoordelijk geworden voor de
Services Sales afdeling.
In 2010 is hij overgestapt naar een functie Manager Sales Development
voor de regio Noord Europa. Zijn specialisme hierin liggen vooral op het
gebied van emissieswetgeving, nabehandeling en het gebruik van
alternatieve brandstoffen zoals LNG.
Shipping in the future
Dan Veen
Sales Development Manager – North Europe
Bebeka Seminar
Europort, 10 November 2011
Absolute
numbers
16 largest ships emit as much as all 800 million cars in the world
One ship can emit 5000 tons of sulphur per year
(source: The Guardian)
If the shipping industry were a country, it would be the 7th largest
producer of CO2 in the world.
(source: Shipefficiency.org)
2
IMO sulphur
limits
4,5%
4,5
4,5
3,5
3,5
3,5
1,5
1,0
1,0
0,5
0,1
67%
78%
71%
86%
97%
World
3,5%
78%
97%
1,5%
SECA
1,0%
0,5%
0,1%
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2022
2021
2020
2019
2018
2017
2016
2015
2014
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
EU in ports
NOx reduction – IMO requirements and
methods
Tier I (present)
Specific NOx emissions (g/kWh)
Ships built 2000 onwards
Engines > 130 kW
18
16
14
Retrofit: Ships built
1990 – 2000
Engines > 90 litres/cylinder
and > 5000 kW
Dry/Wet Methods
12
Tier II (global 2011)
10
Ships built 2011 onwards
Engines > 130 kW
8
6
Selective Catalytic Reduction
4
Tier III (ECAs 2016)
Ships in designated
areas, 2016 onwards
Engines > 130 kW
2
0
0
200
400
600
800
1000 1200
1400 1600 1800
Rated engine speed (rpm)
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2000
Wärtsilä dual-fuel
technology
Introduction - Emission control
areas
Proliferation of ECA areas is expected in the next future
Most used trading routes
existing ECAs: Baltic Sea, North Sea
planned ECAs: Coasts of USA, Hawaii and Canada
discussed ECAs: Coasts of Mexico, Coasts of Alaska and Great Lakes, Singapore, Hong Kong, Korea, Australia, Black Sea,
Mediterranean Sea (2014), Tokyo Bay (in 2015)
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How to eliminate SOX –
Alternatives
Method / Solution
Advantage
Disadvantage
Scrubber
Installation of exhaust gas
cleaning system
Lowest cost
Use everywhere
Easy operation
Works with high % S
ROI depends on LSHFO fuel price
1.5 % S fuel or MDO
Switch over in SECA areas
Flexible
Small investment
High operating cost
Fuel change over
Fuel availability
BN management
MDO
Run full time on MDO
Convenient
No change over
High operating cost
Tank size
Other
Emission trading. Not yet in force for SOX
Cold ironing (shore power). Only possible at berth – not a solution for SOX abatement at sea.
Fresh water scrubber working
principle
Exhaust gas
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• Closed loop works with freshwater to
which NaOH is added for the
neutralization of SOX
• Closed-loop means zero discharge in
enclosed area
m3/MWh
(50 m3*)
• Parasitic losses approx. 0.5% of the
fuel consumption (3% on SW)
pH
NaOH unit
0.1 m3/MWh
0.1 m3/ MWh
Fresh water
pH
(50 m3*)
Scrubber
Water Treatment
Holding tank
Cooling
0.1 m3/MWh (>50 m3)
Process tank
Seawater
Sludge tank
1.3 dm3/MWh
* Values in brackets are related to sea water / open loop based systems for comparison
Scrubber Working
Principle
QuickTime™ and a
decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
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September 8th, 2011
Wärtsilä Dan Veen
Or….gas as a fuel
Why natural
gas?
It is Safe:
•
•
•
•
Narrow ignition area.
High ignition temperature (> 500 °C).
Slow flame rate in atmospheric pressure.
LNG does not burn, it has to evaporate first.
It is Clean:
• No Particulates.
• 85% lower Nox, 20-30% lower CO2, no SOx
• Meets the future Tier3 /CCR4 requirements
It is Available:
• 250 years outlook with current gas reserves.
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Lower Flammability Level,
LFL
- Pipe leaks are ventilated, mixture stays too lean for ignition
- Storage tanks have a too rich environment for ignition
Upper Flammability Limit, 15% Methane
LFL, 5% methane
% of methane in air
50% LFL, 2,5% methane
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Wärtsilä Dan Veen
LNG ship Emissions
CO2
NOX
SOX
CO2 -30%
NOX -85%
SOX -99.9%
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Dual-fuel engine characteristics
 High efficiency
 Low gas pressure
 Low emissions
 High efficiency
 Clean fuel
 Lean-burn combustion
 Fuel flexibility
 Gas mode:
Natural gas + MDO pilot
 Diesel mode:
MDO + MDO pilot / HFO + MDO pilot
 Transfer between modes without loss of power and speed.
 Extensive output range
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 Wärtsilä 20DF:
1.0 to 1.6 MW
 Wärtsilä 34DF:
 Wärtsilä 50DF:
2.7 to 9.0 MW
5.7 to 17.55 MW
Main components – gas fuel supply
system
Bunkering
station
DF-engine
Gas valve
unit
Storage tank
LNG / gas
treatment
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C-type tanks – below
deck
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C-type tanks - Alternative
arrangement
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LNG storage
alternatives
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LNG tank
location
The LNG tanks are located on the upper
deck behind the superstructure
– Located outside
• Good ventilation
– No ventilation casing needed trough
accommodation
– Vent pipe for tanks still needed
– Visible location for good PR
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LNG
BuSINESS CASE
Emission Legislation and Fuel price
Estimation by
Marine and Energy
Consulting
(IBC 2009)
Alternative
moderate estimation
HFO price
indication
Indication of
emission
activity level
A typical Baltic Sea cargo
ship
Yearly emissions, tonnes/year
With LNG fuel:
With low-sulphur HFO
(LS380 with 1% sulfur):
SOx
NOx
CO2
0
31
5 500
50
180
7 250
Particle
emissions
0
4
547 TEU container vessel (5000 GT) Propulsion power 3960 kW
Source DNV
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September 8th,2011
Wärtsilä Dan Veen
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A typical Baltic Sea cargo
ship
LNG
MGO
HFO
CAPEX
LNG Cryogenic Tank / 2
tanks when mono fuel
Gas Valve Units
Double Walled Piping
Automation
SCR (as of 2016)
Heater Units
Booster Units
Scrubbers (as of 2015)
SCR (as of 2016)
OPEX
Lower fuel costs
Lower cargo capacity (?)
Higher Fuel Costs
Lower fuel costs
Typical Baltic Sea cargo ship of approximately 2,700 gross tonnes, 3,300 kW main engine and 5,250 yearly
sailing hours.
LNG Capex +2,5 Million EUR compared to MGO
Scrubber Costs 1 Million EUR
Source DNV
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In the end it all adds
up….
Source: DNV Baltic Report
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Business
Case
Best option varies for every vessel:
• Time Spend in (S)ECA area
• Fuel Consumption
• Remaining vessel lifetime
Questions
• Caustic Soda price
• Scrubber pricing
• Conversion costs
• …….
And Most Important:
• Fuel Prices
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?
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