4. Large PV System
Jun HAGIHARA
Tokyo Electric Power Company – e8 Member
Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
March 31- April 11, 2008
Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4. Large PV system
• Contents
4-1. Grid Connected (Large PV system)
4-1-1. System Configuration
4-1-2. Type of grid connection
4-1-3. Examples
4-1-4. Distribution NW
4-1-5. Problems on distributed generation
4-1-6. Guide line on distributed generation
4-1-7. Voltage fluctuation by reverse flow
4-1-8. Voltage fluctuation on disconnection
4-1-9. Islanding operation
4-1-10. Detection of islanding operation
4-1-11. Diversity of grid connected generator
2
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4. Large PV system
• Contents
4-2. Grid Connected (Hybrid system)
4-2-1. System Configuration
4-2-2. Examples
4-2-3. New components
4-2-4. Planning & design
4-2-5. Check list on planning
4-2-6. One more resource: Energy conservation
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Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4. Large PV system
Date
Title
Sub-title
Grid
connection
Supplied
power
Size
Genset
Other
RNE
Battery
system
Note
April 1
(Tue)
SHS
DC SHS
Off
DC
< 1kW
No
No
Yes
By Mr. Wade
AC SHS
Off
AC
< 1kW
No
No
Yes
By Mr. Wade
April 2
(Wed)
Mini grid
PV Mini
grid
Off
AC
1 - 50kW
No
No
Yes
50 to 600
Households
Battery
charge
station
PV hybrid
systems
within
mini-grid
Off
AC
10 – 500kW
Optional
(a few
hours
per day)
Wind
biomass
micro-hydro
etc.
Optional
New
components
Grid
connected
large PV
system
On
AC
> 40kW
No
No
Optional
With reliable
grid
(24H supply)
Grid
connected
hybrid
system
On
AC
> 100kW
Basically
No.
Optional
(a few
hours
per day)
Wind
biomass
micro-hydro
etc.
Optional
With reliable
grid
(24H supply)
April 3
(Thu)
Grid
connected
Large PV
system &
Hybrid
system
4
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-1-1. Grid connected: Large PV system:
System configuration
PV panel
Inverter
PCS
Grid-connected
Optional battery
For a for village
(> 40kW)
Optional
Grid
24 hours power supply
by existing generators
Battery
Delivers the power to the
households and common
equipments through a grid
5
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
4-1-2. Grid connected: Large PV system:
Type of grid connection
Grid connection
- Low voltage
- High voltage
No
islanding
operation
Reverse
flow
No
reverse
flow
• Buy power from grid
if load > PV output
• Sell power to grid
if load < PV output
• Anytime load > PV output
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
• Reverse power flow relay
Islanding
operation
Reverse
flow
• On reverse flow, same as
above
No
reverse
flow
• With battery system, backup
power shall be supplied even
in power outage
Source: NEDO
6
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-1-3. Grid connected: Large PV system:
Examples (1)
Source: KEPCO
• Installed in 2008 at Funafuti, Tuvalu by E8 (KEPCO)
• Connected with grid
• 40kW PV
• Decrease approx. 50t-Co2/y [100 klbs-Co2/y]
7
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-1-3. Grid connected: Large PV system:
Examples (2)
Source: NEDO
• Installed in 2005 at Beijing, China by NEDO (TEPCO+PVTEC)
• Office use plus connected with 10kV grid
• 140kW PV
• Comparison of various kind of PV modules (crystalline, amorphous)
8
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Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
4-1-3. Grid connected: Large PV system:
Examples (2)
Source: NEDO
9
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-1-3. Grid connected: Large PV system:
Examples (3)
Source: NEDO
• Installed in 2004-2007 at Ohta, Japan by NEDO (Kandenko et al.)
• 553 residential houses
• Total 140kW PV, connected at 100V with 6.6kV distribution line
• Evaluation of the islanding operation protection
10
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-1-3. Grid connected: Large PV system:
Examples (3)
PV
Inverter etc.
Load
Junction
box
Source: NEDO
• Installed in 2004-2007 at Ohta, Japan by NEDO (Kandenko et al.)
• 553 residential houses
• Total 140kW PV, connected at 100V with 6.6kV distribution line
• Evaluation of the islanding operation protection
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Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
4-1-4. Grid connected: Large PV system:
Distribution NW
Maintain system voltage and frequency anytime.
Grid
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
Generator
Load
Voltage(V)
Balance between
 Generation and load
 Transmission power and
installed capacity
Frequency (F)
12
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-1-4. Grid connected: Large PV system:
Distribution NW
Maintain system voltage and frequency anytime.
Grid
Distribution substation
Feeder
13
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-1-4. Grid connected: Large PV system:
Distribution NW
Maintain system voltage and frequency anytime.
Distribution
substation
き線イメージ張りつけ
14
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-1-4. Grid connected: Large PV system:
Distribution NW
Maintain system voltage and frequency anytime.
Load
Grid power
Reverse power
flow from
distributed
generation
Load
Load
G
Load
Load
 Power flows from generator
to tail end of grid
 System size suitable to load
size
15
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-1-4. Grid connected: Large PV system:
Distribution NW
Maintain system voltage and frequency anytime.
Hard to
keep
system
voltage
Distributed
generation
G
Grid
×
Distribution
substation
Feeder
Disconnected
from grid
↓
Hard to keep
system
frequency
16
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-1-4. Grid connected: Large PV system:
Distribution NW
Maintain feeder voltage
Grid
Distribution
substation
High
voltage
Low
voltage
Feeder
Control
voltage at
each bank
Voltage
Proper
voltage
Light load
Heavy load
Distance from substation
17
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
4-1-4. Grid connected: Large PV system:
Distribution NW
Maintain feeder voltage
On-load tap-changer at pole transformer
Distribution
substation
Secondary
side
Primary
side
High
voltage
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
Low
voltage
Voltage
Proper
voltage
Raise voltage by
switching tap-changer
Distance from substation
18
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
4-1-4. Grid connected: Large PV system:
Distribution NW
Maintain feeder voltage
Distribution substation
Control secondary voltage by monitoring
current and changing tap of transformer
High
voltage
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
SVR
Low
voltage
(Step
voltage
Regulator)
Voltage
Proper
voltage
Raise voltage by SVR
Distance from substation
19
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-1-4. Grid connected: Large PV system:
Distribution NW
Maintain feeder voltage
Distribution substation
Reverse power flow
High
voltage
Low
voltage
Distributed
Generation
Voltage
Light load
Proper
voltage
Heavy load
Deviation from
proper voltage
Distance from substation
20
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-2-2. Grid connected: Large PV system:
Distribution NW
Maintain feeder voltage
Distribution substation
Reverse power flow
High voltage
Low
voltage
Can control
voltage by
monitoring reverse
flow from
distributed
generation, but…
Distributed
Generation
Voltage
Light load
Heavy load
Proper
voltage
Distance from substation
21
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-1-4. Grid connected: Large PV system:
Distribution NW
Maintain feeder voltage
Disconnectio
n
Distribution substation
High voltage
Low
voltage
Distributed
Generation
Voltage
Proper
voltage
Deviation from
proper voltage
Light load
Heavy load
Distance from substation
22
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-1-4. Grid connected: Large PV system:
Distribution NW
Earth fault protection of feeder with distributed generation
High voltage feeder
Generator
Without disconnection of distributed
generation, earth fault continues
even by breaking CB at substation.
(Threat of equipment damage and
electric shock)
Distribution substation
It is necessary for distributed generation to be disconnected in
concert with the fault detection of system.
23
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-1-5. Grid connected: Large PV system:
Problems on distributed generation
On grid connection of distributed generation anarchically, the
following problems should be investigated.
• Power quality
• Possibility of harmful effect to other customers via grid
• Become harder to operate grid in maintaining power quality
and/or maintenance
• Safety/security (injury, equipment damage)
• Public safety should be assured especially for distribution line
・ which is easily accessible to public.
It is necessary to clarify/establish technical rule necessary to
orderly dissemination of distributed generation, safety/security,
maintaining of reliability and power quality.
24
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-1-6. Grid connected: Large PV system:
Guide line on distributed generation
Guide line on grid connection
• Electrical system of generator
• Power factor
• Protection relay
• Measures for voltage fluctuation
• Short circuit capacity
• Communication tree on emergency
25
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-1-7. Grid connected: Large PV system:
Voltage fluctuation by reverse flow
• Reactive power control at power receiving end by generator owner
• If not effective, use of exclusive line or reinforcing feeder shall
be made by the cost of generator owner.
P
G
Q
P
G
Deviation
26
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-1-8. Grid connected: Large PV system:
Voltage fluctuation on disconnection
• Automatic load shedding shall be implemented by generator owner
G
Disconn
ection
Load increase
L
Deviation in
voltage
Voltage
G
Load shedding
Load
decrease
L
Maintain
voltage
Voltage
Deviation
Maintain
voltage
27
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
4-1-9. Grid connected: Large PV system:
Islanding operation
①
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
Substation
②
③
CB break
① Crane touches feeder.
② Fault detection, then CB break.
※PV system is running (islanding operation)
③ Threat of electrical shock for worker near crane and public.
28
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
4-1-10. Grid connected: Large PV system:
Detection of islanding operation
Example of detection method
• Active detection
• Add disturbance signal from generator to grid continuously
• On power outage, detect increased response to disturbance signal
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
• Secure detection, but need several seconds
• Passive detection
• On power outage, detect phase change of P, Q balance
• Possible instant detection
• But used as backup of active detection for grid connected
generator in high voltage, because of little change at rotating
generator
→ Use multiple detection to detect absolutely
29
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
4-1-11. Grid connected: Large PV system:
Diversity of grid connected generator
High voltage
Distribution
substation
L
L
L
Load
Load
Load
G
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
Transformer
L
G
L
No reverse Reverse flow
flow (G < L) (G > L)
Low voltage
L
L
L
Load
Load
Load
G
L
G
L
No reverse Reverse flow
flow (G < L) (G > L)
30
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-2. Grid connected:
Hybrid system
Date
Title
Sub-title
Grid
connection
Supplied
power
Size
Genset
Other
RNE
Battery
system
Note
April 1
(Tue)
SHS
DC SHS
Off
DC
< 1kW
No
No
Yes
By Mr. Wade
AC SHS
Off
AC
< 1kW
No
No
Yes
By Mr. Wade
April 2
(Wed)
Mini grid
PV Mini
grid
Off
AC
1 - 50kW
No
No
Yes
50 to 600
Households
Battery
charge
station
PV hybrid
systems
within
mini-grid
Off
AC
10 – 500kW
Optional
(a few
hours
per day)
Wind
biomass
micro-hydro
etc.
Optional
New
components
Grid
connected
large PV
system
On
AC
> 40kW
No
No
Optional
With reliable
grid
(24H supply)
Grid
connected
hybrid
system
On
AC
> 100kW
Basically
No.
Optional
(a few
hours
per day)
Wind
biomass
micro-hydro
etc.
Optional
With reliable
grid
(24H supply)
April 3
(Thu)
Grid
connected
Large PV
system &
Hybrid
system
31
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
4-2-1. Grid connected: Hybrid system:
System configuration
PV panel
Wind
Biomass
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
Micro-hydro
Inverter
Genset (runs for only
a few hours per day)
PCS
For a for village
(> 100kW)
Optional
Grid
24 hours power supply
by existing generators
Battery
Grid-connected
Optional battery
Delivers the power to the households
and common equipments through a grid
32
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
4-2-2. Grid connected: Hybrid system:
Examples (1)
Plant
Separator
Digestive
gas supply
Digestive
gas tank
Scarp
wood
Sludge
digester
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
Biomass boiler for
woody material (1t/h)
School A
Gas engine
Battery system
PV system
Steam boiler
(existing)
School C
School B
School D
Independent line
(power & comm.)
Total 5.4km
PV system
Wind power
PV system
Wind power
Buy power from grid
Office A
Office B
Office C
PV system
Wind power
Grid
Source: NEDO
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Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
4-2-2. Grid connected: Hybrid system:
Examples (1)
• Installed in 2005 at Hachinohe,
Japan by NEDO (Mitsubishi,
Hachinohe city)
Power receiving panel
Woody debris
boiler
• For schools and city ofiice
• Grid connected microgrid
• PV: 50kW, 10kW, 2 * 10kW
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
Gas engine
Gas tank
• Wind: 2 * 2kW, 2 * 8kW
• Gas engine: 3 * 170kW
Heat/gas pipe
Battery system
• Battery system: 1,440kWh
• Woody debris boiler: 1.0t/h
[2.0klbs/h]
• Digestion gas boiler: 4.2t/h
[8.4klbs/h]
Source: NEDO
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Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
4-2-2. Grid connected: Hybrid system:
Examples (1)
GE1 + GE2
GE1
GE1 + GE2
Energy in battery (right
axis)
Battery
PV + Wind
Power flow at PCC
Demand
Control error
Load
Energy in battery
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
GE1
PV + Wind
Battery
Power flow at PCC (power purchased) : pink
Control error (difference from plan) : red
Source: NEDO
35
To use PV widely
To improve Power Quality (PQ)
Utilization of RE
Voltage dip
High Quality
Peak Shaving
Power Supply
PS + PQ
PV
BESS
Problems of PV
- Sudden output
change
- Voltage and frequency
fluctuation
PV output
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-2-2. Grid connected: Hybrid system:
Examples (2) : PV+BESS High Quality Power Supply
Effective
use of PV
PV Output
Stabilization
With BESS
Without BESS
Time
Time
36
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
4-2-2. Grid connected: Hybrid system:
Examples (2) : PV+BESS High Quality Power Supply
PV 80kW
Dip
Interruption
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
AC433V
力
Grid
Max
Use
TR
High Speed SW
Normal: closed
Abnormal: Opened
On Voltage sag,
power is supplied by
battery.
Hi-Tech Farm
DC
480V
Battery
2000Ah
Critical Load
PCS 375kVA
(Power Conversion System)
Mitigate
• Voltage Fluctuation
• Voltage dip
• Momentum interruption
• Load Leveling
BESS
37
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-2-2. Grid connected: Hybrid system:
Examples (2) : PV+BESS High Quality Power Supply
PCS (375kVA)
- High speed switching
- No power interruption
PV (80kW)
- Roof for parking lot
- On rooftop of canteen
building
Advanced Battery System
Remark:
Shown equip. capacity is present targeted
value.
It will be finalized in detail design stage.
Cycle-use Lead Acid Battery
- Load leveling (100kW, 2.5hr)
- PQ protection
- EPS (240kW, 10min)
38
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
4-2-2. Grid connected: Hybrid system:
Examples (2) : PV+BESS High Quality Power Supply
New s/s building for
battery and elec. equip.
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
PV 70kW
Office
Parking
PV 10kW
39
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-2-3. Grid connected: Hybrid system:
New components
•
NAS battery
– Developed by TEPCO
and NGK Insulators Ltd.
– Cycle-use battery
– Suitable for load leveling
Safety Tube
Installed underground of an amusement park,
Tokyo Dome City LaQua.
- Peak shaving
- Backup power (10%-720kWh) for selected loads
Sodium Flow Path
Beta Alumina Electrolyte
Packed Sand
Sodium Electrode
Sulfur Electrode
Safety tube
Beta alumina
Electrolyte
Cell Case
Cell
Vacuum Thermal
Enclosure (upper)
Main Pole
Side Heater
CELL
Fuse
Vacuum Thermal
Enclosure (lower)
50 kW MODULE
40
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-2-3. Grid connected: Hybrid system:
New components
•
Shin-Kobe Electric Machinery, Co., Ltd
– Cycle-use lead acid battery
– Stationary VRLA batteries for power
storage (LL 1500)
– Suitable for load leveling
– 1050Ah (25 degree C, 0.23C)
– 3,000 cycle (70%DOD)
– 10 years lifetime
Source: Shin-Kobe Electric Machinery
41
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-2-3. Grid connected: Hybrid system:
New components
•
Kawasaki Heavy Industry
– Nickel hydrogen battery
– Environment Friendliness
(No usage of rare or
hazardous material)
– Suitable for load leveling
Source: Kawasaki Heavy Industries
42
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-2-3. Grid connected: Hybrid system:
New components
•
•
•
Power systems Co. Ltd.
Wellgeo series
EDLC (Electrical Double Layer Capacitor)
Source: Power systems Co. Ltd.
43
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-2-3. Grid connected: Hybrid system:
New components
• Advanced PV module
– CIS/CIGS (cupper-indium-gallium- serene)
– Thin-film PV (4 micro-meter [1.47 * 10-4 inch])
– 125W
– Developed by Honda
CIGS type
Type
Crystalline
silicon
Amorphou
s silicon
- electrode
Buffer
CIGS
compound
CIGS
+ electrode
Energy used
in production
+ electrode
Generation
cost
Conversion
efficiency
Reliability
Si monocrystal type
electrod
e
N Si
P Si
+ electrode
Source: Honda Soltec
44
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-2-4. Grid connected: Hybrid system:
Planning & design
System, equip. spec., supplier, capacity, supply
characteristics, reliability, cost and so on.
Survey of various REN
Concept design of the system
Demand characteristics, energy cost, electricity tariff
Investigation of target site
REN main unit, inverter, grid connection, battery, env.
measure
Determination of equipment spec.
Estimate supplied power and energy
•
•
•
Estimate project cost
Determine operation pattern
Estimate maintenance cost
•
Estimate total running cost
Same as shown in before
Economic efficiency is important.
Compare generating cost with electricity
charge.
Investigate optimal (economical)
operational pattern
Analyze cost/benefit
Generation cost,
distribution cost,
cash flow
Effect on environmental protection
Effect on energy conservation
Implementation
45
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-2-5. Grid connected: Hybrid system:
Check list on planning (1)
•
•
•
•
•
Same as shown in before
Economic efficiency is important.
Compare generating cost with electricity
charge.
Investigate optimal (economical)
operational pattern
Concept and purpose
– For what?
 Purposed should be shared among concerned parties.
– Where?
 In existing facility or not? Exact location.
– What load?
 Characteristics and size of load. Enough space for
installed equipment?
– Which system?
 Isolated or grid-connected? With battery or not?
– When and how much?
 Construction schedule and cost. Can it be available?
46
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-2-6. Grid connected: Hybrid system:
One more resource: Energy conservation
Energy management at factory (Japanese case)
 Submit periodical reports on the use of energy
 Prepare and submit mid- and long-term plans for measures to achieve energy conservation targets
 Appoint energy managers
Factories/business establishments
with high energy consumption
(Type 1 Designated Energy Management Factories)
Factories/business establishments with medium
energy consumption
(Type 2 Designated Energy Management Factories)
• Annual fuel (thermal) use: 3000 kl [679 kilogallon] in crude oil equivalent or larger
• Annual fuel (thermal) use: 1500 kl [339 kilogallon] in crude oil equivalent or larger
• Annual electricity use: 12 million kwh or larger
• Annual electricity use: 6 million kwh or larger
Business Establishments
Factories
Factories and business establishments
Measures
Measures
Measures
• Appointment of Energy Manager
(Mandatory to possess a license
for a qualified person for energy
management of type 1
designated factory)
• Preparation & Submission of
Periodical Reports
• Formulation & Submission of
Mid- and long-term Plans
• Appointment of a qualified person for energy
management of type 2 designated factory
(Training Required)
• Preparation & Submission of Periodical
Reports
• Preparation and Submission of mid- and
long-term plans (Participation by a qualified
person required)
• Appointment of a qualified person for energy
management of type 2 designated factory
• Preparation & Submission of Periodical
Reports
Business Establishments
Factories
Department Store
Schools
Office Building
Hotel
Source: ECCJ
22
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Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-2-6. Grid connected: Hybrid system:
One more resource: Energy conservation
Improving Equipment Efficiency (Japanese case)
*Top Runner Program:
The concept of the program is that fuel economy standards for vehicles and energy conservation standards for
electric appliances, etc. shall be set exactly the same as or higher than the best standard value of each product
item currently available in the market.
Target
Example of Top Runner Program
Fuel Economy
(km/ )
Energy conservation
standard based on
the Top Runner
Program
 Passenger vehicles
(Gasoline and LP gas)
 Passenger vehicles
(diesel)
 Freight vehicles
(gasoline)
 Freight vehicles (diesel)
 Air conditioners (cooling
& heating)
 Air conditioners (cooling
only)
 TV sets
 Videocassette recorders
 Fluorescent lights
 Copying machines
Computers
Magnetic disc units
Electric
refrigerators/freezers
Space heaters
Gas cooking appliances
Gas water heaters
Oil water heaters
Electric toilet seats
Vending machines
Transformers
Source: ECCJ
26
Energy conservation effect in comparison with FY2000 (against FY1999 figures for transformers)
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-2-6. Grid connected: Hybrid system:
One more resource: Energy conservation
Energy-Saving Labeling System (Japanese case)
 Inform consumers of energy efficiency of home appliances
 Promote energy-efficient products.
Examples of energy-saving labeling
Energy conservation standard
achievement percentage
Energy consumption efficiency
Energy conservation standard
achievement percentage
Energy consumption efficiency
Target year FY2005
Target year FY2005
Label for the product's main unit
As of April 2005, labeling is applied to the following 13 products: air conditioners, refrigerators,
freezers, fluorescent lights, TV sets, space heaters, gas cooking appliances, gas water heaters, oil
water heaters, electric toilet seats, computers, magnetic disks, and transformers.
Source: ECCJ
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Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
4-2-6. Grid connected: Hybrid system:
One more resource: Energy conservation
Energy-Saving Labeling System (Japanese case)
Labeling to be
indicated
Evaluation
Model Number
Label Color
APF (Annual Energy
Efficiency): Key Factor
for Labeling
Cooling
Ranking
Manufacture
Expected Annual
Electricity Bill
Achievement
Rate
Total Consumption
in a year (kWh)
Heating
Name of Product
Average COP in Both
Cooling and Heating
Consumption
in Cooling
Period
(kWh)
COP
Power
Consumption (W)
Max.
Ave
.
Min.
Class name: Cooling Capacity 3.6 kW and Free Dimension
50
Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008
4-2-6. Grid connected: Hybrid system:
One more resource: Energy conservation
• Comparison between high efficient Compact
Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) and normal Incandescent
Lamp bulb
e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M
Compact Fluorescent
Lamp (CFL)
Incandescent Bulb
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