MAY 2013
Background Information on CP
• Located in Bagli Block – Dewas District, MP
• A Cluster of 44 Tribal Villages in Bagli Block
• SPS has been working in this area
Area – 26082
Population - 37000
Households – 7400
Gram Panchayats – 28
• Primarily agricultural with low non-farm jobs
• Before watershed interventions, heavy external
migration and low incomes
Background Information on CP
• Low incidence of landlessness – less than 8%; but
mainly, small and marginal farmers
• Main crops: Maize, Wheat, Soybean, Red Gram,
Black Gram, Green Gram, Chickpea, Cotton
• High incidence of forests – forest used to be a
major source of livelihoods
• High incidence of livestock population – dairy
animals, work bullocks and small ruminants
• Located far away from organised markets
• Poor banking penetration (pre-SHG years)
• PRI system is very weak or non-functional
Design of CP and Strategy
• Some Watershed interventions had already taken
place in the area; CP Villages include:
– 13 villages in old/closed watersheds;
– 16 villages where watershed work is ongoing; and
– 15 villages where new watershed work is proposed
• Pilot Strategy 1: Layer rainfed agriculture
interventions on water-based interventions
• Pilot Strategy 2: Converge interventions with
ongoing public investment programmes
• Pilot Strategy 3: Scale up rainfed agriculture
interventions to the block as a whole over time
Highlights of Work Done
• Situation Analysis: Analysis conduced of production systems,
their constraints and potential in the CP Location
• Formulation of the Action Plan for three years
• Initiation of Project Activities in Rabi Season 2012
• Deployment of Dedicated Human Resource for Pilot
Implementation (2 Co-ordinators and 7 Full time Persons)
• Build the Institutional base for Implementation in the CP
Location: SHG federations and co-operatives
• Link smallholder farmers with markets – formation of a new
producer company, Ram Rahim Pragati Producer Company
Limited (RRPPCL) for crop produce aggregation.
• Strengthening Linkage with Government Departments and
ongoing public investment programmes
• Leveraging of Public Funds for implementation
Situation Analysis: 1.Water
• Low Rainfall and Associated Water Shortage
• High runoff; annual water deficit (P-PET) of 540 mm
• Soil moisture deficit – LGP of less than 180 days
• Gaps in the rainfall at crucial periods in the crop
growth cycle can prove fatal for the crop
• Groundwater availability variable on account of on
account of the underlying hard rock geology.
• Traditional, less water-intensive crop varieties have
been replaced with varieties that require high
Situation Analysis: 2. Soils
• High rate of soil erosion - loss of soil fertility
(biological function) and low capacity of soils to hold
water (hydrological function)
• Declining levels of soil organic matter application in
the soil
• Low recycling of agricultural residues; burning of
crop residues
• Depletion of soil fertility due to poor land
management practices – rotation of crops and
intercropping systems are fast disappearing
• To compensate -extensive use of chemical fertilizers
• No practice of soil testing
Situation Analysis: 3. Seeds
• Timely availability of good quality seed
material at affordable prices
• Scarcity of seed for repeat sowing with early
dry spell after sowing
• Non-availability of seed late in the season for
contingency crops and traditional intercrops
• Poor availability of seeds and planting
material of fodder grasses, fodder trees,
horticulture and seeds of green manuring
• No practice of seed treatment
Situation Analysis: 4. Livestock Systems
• Low milk yield of animals
• Lack of veterinary support for livestock, resulting in
– High incidence of animal diseases
– High mortality of animals, esp. high calf mortality
• Poor coverage and reach of cattle insurance
• Lack of nutritive varieties of fodder
• Inadequate feeding practices of large and small
• High mortality and danger of theft of small ruminants
• Inadequately developed marketing system for small
ruminants – mostly local sale
• Draught Power – most neglected aspect
Situation Analysis: 5. Fisheries
• Low use of potential – large number of small
tanks exists but are not productively used for
• Licensing systems of community tanks unclear.
Usually, these are given on lease and the lessee
implements his/her own management practices
• No awareness of land management required for
fish production
• Lack of awareness on feeding practices of fish
• Low quality fish seeds/fingerings
• Fish mostly sold in local market. No effort at
value addition or processing
Situation Analysis: 6. Markets
• Distance to big markets, mandis and electronic
commodity exchanges
• High distress sale, especially in the immediate post
harvest season
• Long chain of intermediaries, reducing farmers’
share in the price paid by the final consumer.
• Need for “Tide over” finance to take care of
immediate consumption and production needs of the
poor farmers while they wait for good price
• High price risk which is difficult for smallholder
farmers to take
• Banking systems not tuned to meeting requirements
of marketing of agricultural produce
Emerging 6 Key Propositions
1. Operationalisation of the idea of “water-as-security”
2. Location-specific package of soil fertility
enhancement (land treatment and organic matter
3. Non-pesticide Management (NPM) agriculture and
creation of identity for NPM produce
4. Package for animal healthcare for better survival
(reduction of mortality & diseases)
5. Establishment of pond-based fisheries as a
livelihood option in the area
6. Linking smallholders to outside markets –
organisation, financing, institutions and value
How to Scale Up? “Building Redundancy”
Develop proof of concept on key propositions
Link these with ongoing government programmes
and leverage resources
Create a demand system for services at the grassroots level
Create institutions and institutional platforms to
generate demand and manage program
components – PRIs, SHG Federations, cooperatives, producer institutions, companies
Build capacities in institutions for decentralised
planning and implementation
Scale up the key propositions (and ancillary ones)
to the block as a whole
What is the Main Takeaway from 1st Year?
The RRA-CP has established links with five line
departments and their programmes:
District Panchayat / Rural Development – MGNREGA
and Integrated Micro-Plan Project (GoMP)
Agriculture Department – RKVY, Seed Villages
Horticulture Department – National Horticulture Mission
Animal Husbandry Department – Animal Health, Animal
Feed, Goat Rearing, Poultry
Fisheries Department – pond-based fisheries
Main Challenge: Creation of Institutional
Capacities at district, block and village levels for
design, plan, implementation and monitoring of
Crucial gap: Human Resource at required level
Way Forward
Develop detailed plans in consultation with each of
these departments at the block level
Link these plans with ongoing programmes being
implemented by the district/block
Establish systems for implementation of plans and
careful monitoring of results
Document and disseminate of processes and
results for wider advocacy
Develop an evidence-based policy argument for
more investment in rainfed agriculture
Build people’s institutions capable of playing a
leadership role in implementation of programmes
My Email:
[email protected]

Bagli block, Dewas district, Madhya Pradesh (SPS