India’s Sustainable
Development Challenges
Dr Ritu Mathur, TERI
June 17, 2013
Sustainable development: Global genesis (1)
• The term ‘sustainable development’ was coined by Indian
economist, Nitin Desai, while he was a senior economic
adviser to the World Commission on Environment and
Development (WCED) that was established by UNEP
Governing Council in 1983; this Commission later came to
be known as the Brundtland Commission
• “…development policy, in the broadest sense and
environmental policy be integrated in a common framework.
The concept of 'sustainable development' can provide the
basis for such an integration…” (Desai [1986],
correspondence dated 27 June 1986)
Sustainable development: Global genesis (2)
DEFINITION
Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the
present without compromising the ability of future generations to
meet their own needs. It contains within it two key concepts:
• the concept of 'needs', in particular the essential needs of the world's
poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and
• the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social
organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future
needs.
(Chapter 2, Our Common Future: Report of the World Commission on Environment and
Development, 1987)
Sustainable development: Indian context
The Constitution of India
•
•
Article 21 conferring the Right to Life encompasses right to clean environment, right
to livelihood, right to live with dignity and a number of other associated rights
The Directive Principles of State Policy often referred to as the ‘conscience’ of the
Constitution are intended to ensure ‘distributive justice’ and that political democracy
in India is accompanied side by side with social and economic democracy
The National Environment Policy
•
“only such development is sustainable, which respects ecological constraints and the
imperatives of social justice”
Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-1990)
•
“If the gains in productivity are to be sustained, resources must also continue to be
available over time. This requires that, while providing for current needs, the resources
base be managed so as to enable sustainable development.” (Volume 2, Chapter 18)
Dimensions of Sustainability
Source: Munasinghe, M, (1994)
5 Basic Human-Nature relationship paradigms
• Frontier economics: Focus on materialistic progress; unbridled
exploitation of infinite natural resources;
• Deep ecology: Anti-growth; ‘harmony with nature’ as main
imperative; bio-centric rather than anthropocentric view of the
human-nature relationship
• Environmental protection: Primary imperative to manage ‘trade-offs’
in ecology vs economic growth (optimizing pollution)
• Resource management: Focus on ‘economizing ecology’ &
“interdependence” between environment and development;
“Sustainability” as necessary constraint for “green growth”
• Eco-development: Based on the theme of ‘ecologizing economy’ and
‘ecological uncertainty’; co-developing humans and nature
Components of sustainable development:
Emerging views
Figure Interfaces of the components of sustainable
development
• Also focus on interfaces
around components of
sustainable development
Social
Social
Ecology
Environment
Sustainable
Development
• Social ecology (social and
environment)
Social Equity
• Green economy (economic
and environment)
Green
Economy
Economy
• Social equity (social and
economic)
Also see GoI (2010), official submission to UNCSD
second preparatory committee meeting, pg 30
SD and its many interpretations!
• As a ‘concept’
• the two words in the phrase refer to two different thought systems
and the relationship between the two is often defined/analyzed on
the basis of a particular scientific domain or a specific cultural
context
• As an ‘ethical principle’
• ‘sustainability’ vs ‘SD’; normative and positive approaches
• As an ‘ideology’
• North-South conflicts
• As an ‘area of knowledge
• complexity, cross or trans-disciplinary
Rio +20, 2012
• The Future We Want:
• ‘eradicating poverty the greatest global challenge …. and an
indispensable requirement for SD’
• ‘green economy …. as one of the important tools available for
achieving SD and that could provide options for policymaking but
should not be a rigid set of rules’
• need for an improved and more effective institutional framework for
SD (decision to establish a high-level inter-governmental political
forum)
• SD goals to complement MDGs beyond 2015
• A population of 1.2 billion likely to stabilise only in 2160
at about 1.6 billion!
• Average age of Indian in 2020 26 years
• 70% of this in rural India dependent almost entirely on
agriculture
• Agriculture contributes to ~ 14% of GDP
• Population below poverty line estimated at 37.2% in 2005
• 50% children born under-weight; 59% under-5s stunted
India’s Grand Challenges
• Rural to Urban Migration
• By 2030 over 40% of people in Urban areas
• 63.5 million new entrants to working age group between
2011 and 2016
• Only 15.6% regular salaried employment, 33.5 % casual
labour and 51% self employed in 2009-10
• Human Development Report measures Development in
form of Health, Education and a decent standard of living
• India dropped to 134 out of 187 countries in 2011
India’s Grand Challenges
Available land per capita
Total Annual Rainfall
Fresh water run-off
Water Storage Capacity
Freshwater
Withdrawals
This diagram shows the impact of expected population growth on water usage by 2025,
based on the UN mid-range population projection. It uses the current rate of water use per
person without taking into account possible increases in water use due to economic
growth or improvements in water use efficiency
The importance of small forestry
enterprises in developing countries
Biodiversity
Impacts
Primary energy consumption per capita
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2012
© BP 2012
Mapping Energy Access
Final energy access (non-commercial share) in relation to population density
Environmental
Carrying Capacity
Agricultural vulnerability to Climate Change
• The survey shows the share of the food basket in total consumption
expenditure is coming down in both rural and urban India. The share
of food in consumer expenditure was 57% in rural India and 44.4%
in urban India.
• The share of food in total consumption has declined since 1987-88 by
about 10 percentage points to 53.6% in the rural sector and by about
16 percentage points to 40.7% in the urban sector.
• In rural India, people are spending less and less on cereals, edible oil
and fruits. They are spending more on pulses, milk, non-vegetarian
items and beverages. In urban India, consumption of nearly all food
items is either going down or is constant compared with the earlier
survey.
• In both rural and urban India, consumption of non-food items, which
include consumer durables, education and recreation, among others,
has gone up as a result of the decline in expenditure on food items.
Shape of Things to Come – More
consumption
NSSO, 66th Round
• Needs to provide JOBS – Growth in Manufacturing
Sector
• Needs to create sustainable infrastructure
• Needs to innovate
• Needs new models of development
• Sustainable urbanization
Energy and Resources
India’s Grand Challenges
TERI’S CONTRIBUTIONS
Water
Water Audits: Enhancing Water Use Efficiency
Water use diagram of a typical coal based thermal power plant
Industries, City Supply systems

Surface Water Reservoir
Drinking
water
supply
Filter
House
DM Plant
Fire
Fighting
Steam
Ash water
Tank
Ash water recirculation
Ash
Handling
System
Ash
Dyke
Make-up Water
Boilers
Power
Generation
Unit
Coal
Handling
Raw Water
Treatment
(Clarification)
Cooling
Towers
Closed-Cycle
Water
Recirculation
Feed Water
Auxiliary
uses



Evaporative + Drift
Losses
Turbines
Condensers
Power Plant:
Immediate saving potential of about (81000
m3/day) 23% of total intake water
Total overall water saving potential: ~ 60% of the
total intake water (freshwater).
Significant financial savings from water saving
interventions: ~ INR 7-9 Crores.
Cost benefit of water recycling system: Positive
with a payback period of 2.3 years.
Urban Water Demand Management
BHOPAL
Water losses (%)
GWALIOR
JABALPUR
INDORE
22.8
43.2
33.8
30.5
28.2
43.9
36.9
38.4
Non-revenue water
(NRW) (%)
Integrated
Watershed
Management
Glacier Studies
Phase 1: Establishment of Glacier Monitoring Observatories/
field laboratories
Phase 2: Analysis of satellite data and field experiments for
calculation of modelling constants
Kolahoi Glacier
Phase 3: Development of integrated runoff model
East Rathong Glacier
Kolahoi Glacier (Kashmir)
Lidder Valley, Jammu and Kashmir (N
34º 07‘-34º 12‘: E 75º 16‘-75º 23‘, snout
elevation: 3700 masl north facing)
East Rathong Glacier (Sikkim)
West Sikkim (N 27º 33‘, 27º48‘:
E 88º 46‘, 88º51‘, snout
elevation: 4675 masl, south facing)
Impacts of climate change & watershed development
on agricultural water security
TERI’S CONTRIBUTIONS
Energy
Lighting…
Lighting a Billion Lives
©a
A Solar Lighting Program launched by The Energy and Resources Institute
Official Launch by
Hon’ble Prime Minister of India
Feb, 2008
We commit to enable a billion lives to access
light from solar technologies
Lighting a Billion Lives (LaBL)
©a
A commitment to improving the
quality of lives of rural communities
LaBL sets up solar charging stations in energy poor
villages that offer certified, bright, and quality solar
lanterns for rental to the local people. A trained local
entrepreneur operates and manages the charging station
and leases the solar lanterns every evening for a very
affordable fee.
LaBL: Innovating at Every Step
 Continuous improvements in solar lantern
designs with reputed technology partners,
driving down cost and improving efficiency &
quality
 Charging stations expandable to solar energy
hubs, providing services like water
purification and multi-purpose battery
charging
 Creation of an after-sales service network,
the Technical Resource Center (TRC), for
repair services through local community
representatives
 Implementation of mobile phone charging
facilities through LaBL stations, under the
support of Dept of Telecommunications, Govt.
of India
LaBL Model: Reaching the Base of the Pyramid
Steering Committee and Patrons
Funding
Partners
Corporations, CSR
Initiatives, Cofinancing schemes,
Government,
Individuals
TERI
Program coordination, Implementation,
Monitoring and supervision, Outreach
Technology Partners
Specification
development,
Design testing,
Product
innovation
Quality Product suppliers and Service providers
Partner Organizations
(local NGOs, grassroots organizations)
Ground support, Identification of sites and Selection
of entrepreneurs
Entrepreneurs
(village youth, women, teachers)
Operate & Manage solar energy charging stations
Community: Ultimate users and beneficiaries
Technology
Resource
Centres
After-sales
services
LaBL Impact: Lighting
Facilitates Livelihood in Villages
 Productive hours in the evening with nonpolluting, bright, and reliable lighting
 Income generation for the entrepreneur and the
trained repair service providers
Facilitates Education in Villages
 Better illumination and additional hours for
students to study
Facilitates Health in Villages
 Solar lanterns being rented by village level
Primary Health Centres
Facilitates Bio-conservation
 Solar lighting in villages within & around ecoreserves acts as incentive towards wildlife
protection by providing alternative livelihood
options
Benefiting
farmers in tasks
like picking betel
leaves and
watering plants
at night
Covering 23
tribal residential
schools in
Orissa,
providing
lighting for over
1500 students
Midwives using
LaBL lanterns to
bring life on earth
in a smoke free
environment. More
than 50 such
deliveries reported
across 18 villages
Partnering with
organizations
like Tiger Watch
to support
biodiversity
conservation
Cost of Illuminating a village with 50 lanterns (INR in Thousands)
LaBL: Bringing Technology to the Masses
Lighting a Billion LivesLearning Curve
Hybridization of biomass gasifier based
boiler with trough based, 50 kW CSP to
increase its utilization period.
Solar Hybrid Renewable
Energy Power Plant
•
•
•
•
600+ thermal gasifiers
have been installed in
different sectors
The replications of
thermal applications of
gasifier in various
MSME have clearly
established the gasifier
technology as a cost
effective energy delivery
system.
Generated positive spinoff effects, both within
and outside the country
Energy savings and CO2
reductions (including
MSME component)
Gasifier applications in MSMEs
• Annually one-third of the harvested fruits
and vegetables, worth about USD 12
billion lost due to lack of post-harvest
handling and storage.
• In 2006, we started working on a concept
using indigenously available biomass and
solar resources to operate small,
decentralized cold storage at village level
• The cold storage system developed,
comprises a 15 kW (~5 TR) Vapor
Absorption Machine (VAM) coupled
with a 50 kWe Biomass Gasifier system
and a field of solar concentrating
collectors.
• The first prototype has been installed in
Gurgaon near New Delhi
Solar Biomass Hybrid Cold Storage and Power Generation
Evolving landscape of sustainable habitats in India
CII-Sorabhji Godrej Green
Business Centre, Hyderabad
Ministry of New and
Renewable Energy, GoI
Over 100 audits
Thank you
Download

India`s Sustainable Development Challenges