Feeder based DSM: Efficient
Distribution Management
-- Vijay L Sonavane
Member MERC
29th April 2010
Issues for Discussion

Features of conventional DSM initiatives

Rationale for feeder-based DSM
programs

Feeder-profile & Consumption pattern
analysis

Feeder-based implementation process

Summing up..
Features of
conventional
DSM initiatives
Conventional DSM initiatives
• DSM system initiatives focus on largescale/dispersed promotion of Load Management
& Conservation measures
• Examples:
– CFLs in Urban/Rural sector or FTLs in multiple areas
– Fans, A/Cs and Refrigerators: Urban System
– Commercial building chiller replacements: Metro
System
• Measurement & Verification done through:
– Engineering calculations & Actual metering
• Apparently difficult to notice the savings
TOU tariff: DSM Option
• Time Of Use (TOU) tariff: Important DSM option
• Cost of purchasing peak power is the highest, so
energy charges for peak time should be high
• Basic aim: to reduce peak time use of energy
• TOU tariff concept right from first MERC tariff
order in May 2000.
• TOU tariff for:
HT Industries/ HT PWW/ LT Industries & LT Com:
> 20 KW DEMD/ LT PWW/ HT Com
TOU for IND HT
• Basic tariff EXP: 505 Ps/U,
Non-Exp: 460 Ps/U
Time Slots: TOU Tariff
: TTL tariff
: Hrs in week
06-09 & 12-18 : 00 PS/U : 505 PS/U : 63
09-12
: (+) 80 Ps/U : 585 PS/U : 21
18-22
: (+) 110 PS/U : 615 PS/U : 28
22-06
: (-) 85 PS/U : 420 PS/U : 56
Average tariff
= 505 PS/U
• Consider a consumer uses 1 Unit all throughout the day
• TOU charges: 3x80 + 4x110 + 8(-85) = 240+440-680 = 00 PS
• No incentive for shifting of loads for continuous IND
International practice for TOU tariff
• Pacific Gas & Electric Co. US (Res tariff) (from 1st March 2010)
Residential (E-6): Base line Energy charges:
• Summer: (May-Oct)
Peak : 01-07 PM (Mon Fri)
: $ 0.30142 (30 H)
Partial Peak: 07-09 AM & 10 AM-0100 PM (MF) & 05-08 PM (Sat)
: $ 0.14865 (38 H)
off-peak: All other periods
: $ 0.10324 (100H)
Average Tariff= $ 0.1477 PU
• Winter (Nov-Apr)
Partial Peak: 05-08 PM (Mon Fri)
Off peak
Average tariff = $ 0.092197 PU
: $ 0. 10319 (15 H)
: $ 0.09112 (153H)
TOU in MSEDCL (Feb 2010)
Category
HT IND
Consumer TOD
Nos.
meters
Nos.
Consumpt Consumpt Consumpt Consumpt
ion 2200- ion 06-09 ion 09-12 ion 18-22
0600
& 12-18
12920
12913
32.4%
38.0%
13.0%
16.5%
760
753
33.0%
38.1%
12.6%
16.3%
15,081
4396
27.2%
45.6%
12.3%
14.9%
LT-IND<
27 HP
2,20,219
67,607
16.8%
47.1%
14.5%
21.6%
LT IND>
27HP
46,452
35,147
26.0%
43.0%
15.1%
15.8%
LT COM
9762
5016
21.3%
46.3%
13.5%
18.9%
33.3%
37.5%
12.5%
16.7%
HT-PWW
Other
HT/LT
>27HP
Example
(*)
(*) Consider 1 MW continuous load
Power Factor Penalty/ Incentive
• For HT IND/Com/PWW/ AG/ HT RC/ LT Com & IND >20KW, LT
PWW LT
• For PF> 0.95, 1% incentive of amount of monthly bill, for each
1% improvement in PF > 0.95. For 0.99 PF, incentive is 5% &
for unity PF Incentive is 7%
• For <0.90 PF, penal charges shall be @2% of the amount of
monthly bill for first 1% fall below 0.90, beyond which penalty
is 1% for each % point fall in PF.
• In FEB 2010 billing, 18,647 Consumers paid PF penalty of Rs
7.41 Crores & 30,800 consumers got PF Incentive of Rs 73.17
Crores.
• Installation of Capacitors Higher PF  PF incentive
Rationale for
feederbased DSM
Context of feeder-based DSM initiative
… a scenario
Source
Reliability
Price
Revenue collection
Sub
Station
MW, MU, PF, THD, V, f
--
Demand interface
Consumers – (Domestic, Industrial, PWW, Commercial)
-- Interface leading to reduced demand-supply gaps
Supply position
Advantages of feeder-based DSM
options
• Utility can choose feeders, where:
– Transformer loading is high
– Cost-to-serve is high
• Existing DT and feeder metering & Energy Accounting
infrastructure will be used for feeder based DSM
• Pre & post-DSM implementation: energy throughput
and load data will be used
• Easy to track savings
• Savings can provide essential equity in project
selection
Feeder-based DSM implementation &
SMART-Grids
 Integrated communications … real-time information &
control
◦ Remote data acquisition, real-time triggers (at consumer end)
 Sensing & measurement technologies…remote monitoring,
TOU and DSM
◦ Online/”visible” knowledge of fossil/Green Power & energy
costs; real-time switch over between energy sources
◦ Demand-response programs
 Advanced control methods…rapid diagnosis
◦ Apriori knowledge of grid failures, support to data centers,
hospitals (essential loads)
 Improved interfaces & decision support
◦ Higher integration with the load dispatch functions
Feeder profiles/
Consumption pattern
Analysis
Feeder & DT metering: Issues
•
•
•
•
11,401 feeders (11/22/33KV)/ 2.86 Lakh DTs
Monitoring of feeder & DT Meter status
Metering System: (Meter + CTs + PTs)
At EHV & 33/11KV, 22/11KV substations
hourly meter readings are taken, but at many
places, only Ammeters are available.
• DT metering & DT meter reading is an issue
• Consumer Indexing (DT Consumers)
Analysis of consumption
(per consumer utilization) (1/3)
Category
R- BPL
Consumer
Nos.
MU sale
(Apr 09 –
Feb 10)
Per
consumer
per month
units
Per
consumer
per month
bill in RS
Rs Per unit
AVG billing
rate
2.77 L
57
19
24
1.25
111.51
10586
86
378
4.39
R- HT Res
Complex
379
298
71,500
3,57,390
5.00
Com- LT II
12.02 L
2868
217
1770
8.15
Com- HT
Com
2786
1434
46,792
4,66,950
9.95
Com- LT
Hording
1564
3
1918
29,700
15.48
R- Dom LT I
Analysis of consumption
(per consumer utilization) (2/3)
Category
Consumer
Nos.
MU sale
(Apr 09 –
Feb 10)
Per
consumer
per month
units
Per
consumer
per month
Bill in Rs.
Rs Per unit
AVG billing
rate
HT-IND
Express
1602
13510
7.67 L
38.5 L
5.01
HT-IND
Non Express
8784
7179
74,000
3.77 L
5.07
LT IND
2.37L
2971
1140
63,214
5.55
PWW-HT
767
1230
1.46 L
5.82 L
3.99
PWW-LT
45430
437
874
2101
2.40
St. Light
67619
659
886
3226
3.65
Analysis of consumption
(per consumer utilization) (3/3)
Category
Consumer
Nos.
MU sale
(Apr 09 –
Feb 10)
Per
consumer
per month
units
Per
consumer
per month
bill in Rs.
Rs Per unit
AVG billing
rate
1063
435
45,468
38,700
0.85
LT AG
27.48 L
Met: 13.43 L
Un met
14.05 L
11,802
477
290
0.61
LT Power
Loom
45,430
2259
2466
4990
2.02
MSEDCL
15.87 M
57,596
3299
13,307
4.03
Govt. Tariff
Subsidy
HT AG
Salient Observations for MSEDCL
• Average Monthly Consumption (Units/consumer/month):
Res: 86
Com:217
LT IND: 1140
LT PWW:874
LT AG: 477 LT Hoardings: 1918
St Light: 866
• LT AG/Consumer/Month consumption is higher than Res & Com
• ABR: (PS/Unit) Res: 439 LT, Com: 815, HT COM: 995, St. Light: 365
LT Hording: 1548, HT-R Complexes: 500, LT PWW: 240
HT IND E: 501, LT IND: 555, HT PWW: 399,
HT AG: 85, LT AG: 61, P/L: 202 (AVG ABR: 403 PS/U)
• Taking Consumer/ feeder/ DT meter readings at regular interval is
essential. Billing through Assessment has to be minimized.
• Pilot project results should be discussed at all levels during various
review meetings.
COMPARISON of UTILITIES in
Maharashtra (LT Res Consumers)
Utility
MSEDCL
Average
monthly Units
consumption
in R category
Per Unit billed
revenue in
Ps/unit
Consumers
having
consumption <
100 & < 300
Units/Month
TTL Residential
consumers
86
378
89.70 L
111.51 L
BEST
219
915
100 U:2.20 L
300 U :3.56 L
7.07 L
RInfra-Dist
144
757
100 U:9.53 L
300 U:12.02 L
26.18 L
TPC-Dist
177
734
100 U:39,833
300 U:61,810
1.37 L
Consumer Base Vs Sale (%) analysis
Sector
Consumer base (%)
Utilization /Sale
(%)
Remarks
Residential
72.0%
19.0%
Commercial
7.6%
7.5%
Industrial
1.6%
41.1%
First priority
Power loom
0.3%
3.9%
Second Priority
Agricultural
17.3%
21.2%
Fourth Priority
PWW/ Street light
0.7%
4.0%
Third Priority
Type of Feeders in MSEDCL
Sr. No.
Type of feeder
1
EHV/HV Express
544
4.8%
2
MIDC
816
7.2%
3
Public Water
Supply
243
2.1%
4
Urban
2548
22.3%
5
Mixed Rural
(1 PH + NO LM)
4639
40.8%
6
Separated AG
1353
11.9%
7
Separated
Gaothans
1228
10.9%
11,401
100%
Total
Nos.
%
Feeder-based DSM
implementation
process
Feeder-based DSM Project Development

Feeder identification:
Sequence: EHV/HV IND EXP, Non Express feeders, MIDC feeders,
PWW feeders, Separated AG & Gaothan Feeders, Urban, Rural
feeders





Data generation: feeder wise consumer mapping
Data analysis: Pre DSM consumption data & expected
results after DSM
DSM benefit-cost analysis: Energy savings
Tendering & implementation: Period to be minimum
Monitoring and verification: Third party evaluation
24
DSM Program process
Identify project
& negotiate
with customers
Prepare standard
offer agreement
Initiate project
Utility actions
Submit initial
application
Approve or reject
application
Submit
installation
report
Make performance
payments
Approve initial
application
based on
defined criteria
Allocate / reserve
funding
Finalize measures
and prepare
M&V plans
Submit final
application
Approve or reject
installation report
Make installation
payment
Approve or reject
savings reports
Conduct M&V
activities and
submit
savings reports
Project sponsor
actions
25
Rural feeder-based DSM options
• DSM Scheme can be developed around:
– Energy throughput at the rural 11 KV interface (meter)
– Linking of ( i) agriculture pumping,(ii) rural industries,
(iii) households and (iv) municipal systems (lighting,
water pumping) as a seamless module
• DSM integration options include:
–
–
–
–
Efficient end-use in the rural household (CFL, EE fans)
Efficient pumping: EE pumps (Mangalvedha Project)
Water conservation measures (saving water & Energy)
Productive use of biomass (Gassifiers & Biomass Fuel)
26
Urban feeder-based DSM options
• Mixed feeders with commercial, publicbuildings, water pumping and residential
feeders:
– Energy throughput at dedicated sub-station or
33/11 KV interface (Correct metering)
– Benefits from variety of end-users (Mixed feeder)
– Lighting (CFL, FTL), Star rating Fans, A/Cs &
Refrigerators, EE Society water pump/motor,
Commercial use to be reduced, LT Industries: EE
motors, Capacitors.
27
Summing up …
Conclusions …
• Benefits of DSM are the best on feeders & DTs which are
overloaded. Immediate CAPEX investments can be deferred,
for some time.
• High Quality of metering of feeders & DTs is required for
getting the benefits of demand shift, Energy Conservation &
Load Management
• Sequence of Feeder DSM implementation: Dedicated AG/IND
feeders, MIDC areas,
Commercial buildings, housing
complexes, mixed Urban feeders & mixed Rural feeders with
AG/village loads
• Monetization of benefits of such locations will yield true costbenefit analysis of such efforts.
“If it is to be…
It is up to me!”
Mother Teresa
30
THANK YOU!!
(email : [email protected])
" My motto in life is that…
Nothing is impossible,
No target is unachievable…
One just has to try harder and harder…"
KIRAN BEDI
33
“Dream is not what you see in sleep.
Dream is the thing which does not let you sleep.”
34