The role of bioenergy
in the European Union
Giulio Volpi
Renewable Energy and Carbon Capture and Storage Policy
DG Energy, European Commission
EU 2020 climate and energy targets
100%
-20%
-20%
+20%
20%
8,5%
Energy
Renewables
GHG emissions
consumption -20% share +20%
-20%
National renewable energy targets
Renewables = 12.7% of EU energy consumption in 2010
Source: Eurostat 2012 and Directive 2009/28/EC for targets
EU renewable energy outlook by 2020
Technology Results from the National Renewable Energy Action Plans
Bioenergy = over 10% of EU total final energy consumption
ktoe
Ktoe
250000
200000
Heat pumps
Biomass
Biomass
150000
Wind
Tide, wave, ocean
100000
Solar
Geothermal
50000
Hydro
0
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
Bioenergy outlook by 2020
Mtoe
Biomass
Wind
Hydro
Domestic biomass sources (2008-2020)
Ktoe
120000
Biomass from
Waste
100000
Biomass from
Agricultural and
Fishery
Biomass from
Forestry
80000
60000
40000
20000
0
2006
2015
2020
Growing energy use of forest biomass
Growing biomass imports
Primary energy from biomass for H&C and electricity (Mtoe)
160
140
120
100
imports primary energy
80
EU biomass supply primary
energy
60
40
20
0
2010
2020
Wood pellets trade (2011, ktons)
Benefits of bioenergy
• Versatility: natural partner to variable sources, or
controllable heat generation, or to make transport fuels
• Cost effectiveness: can be lower cost than other
renewables, built on existing infrastructure
• Security of energy supply: particularly when using
domestic feedstock, including wastes
• Employment/economic benefits: significant
business/job opportunities across supply-chain
• But there are sustainability risks to be managed
EU sustainability criteria for biofuels
• Land exclusion criteria: biofuels cannot come from
land with:
• High carbon stock (dense forests, wetland, peatlands)
• High biodiversity (primary forests, protected areas)
• GHG saving target: Biofuels need to save at least 35%
GHG emissions compared to fossil fuels, increasing to
50% in 2017 (to reduce fossil fuel use in the lifecycle)
GHG
GHG
GHG
Verification of compliance
• Responsibility for checking compliance with the
sustainability criteria lies with national certification schemes
or with EU-recognized certification schemes
14 EU recognised certification schemes
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
ISCC (International Sustainability and Carbon Certification)
Bonsucro EU
RTRS EU RED (Round Table on Responsible Soy EU RED)
RSB EU RED (Roundtable of Sustainable Biofuels EU RED)
2BSvs (Biomass Biofuels voluntary scheme)
RBSA (Abengoa RED Bioenergy Sustainability Assurance)
Greenergy (Greenergy Brazilian Bioethanol verification programme)
Ensus voluntary scheme under RED for Ensus bioethanol production
Red Tractor (Red Tractor Farm Assurance Crops & Sugar Beet Scheme)
SQC (Scottish Quality Farm Assured Combinable Crops (SQC) scheme)
Red Cert
NTA 8080
RSPO RED
Biograce calculation tool
Sustainability of solid biomass and biogas
.
2010 EU recommendations to MS to follow more
or less the biofuels criteria:
- GHG accounting to include end-use conversion
- Small bioenergy installations (below 1 MW) to be
exempted
.
- Biomass origin and quality in small-scale uses (e.g.
households) to be monitored by MS
Ongoing review of the effectiveness of such
approach, considering new market and policy
developments
Biomass sustainability: stakeholders' views
 Bio-energy producers concerned about meeting parallel
(and sometimes conflicting) national sustainability criteria,
 NGOs/academia concerned about risks posed by
biomass on forest biodiversity and carbon (i.e. 'carbon
debt' debate)
 Forest sector sees economic/social opportunities but
concerned about the administrative burden of new criteria
 Non-energy biomass users concerned about possible
feedstock competition
.
.
.
.
Conclusions
Bioenergy is critical for meeting the EU 2020 energy
and climate targets and will play an increasingly
important role in the decarbonisation of the EU energy
sector by 2050
Sustainable production and efficient consumption
are key to prevent unwanted negative side effects
Need to ensure a coherent policy framework (links
with EU Timber Regulation, FLEGT, EU Forest Strategy,
Forest LBA etc.)
On-going assessment on whether to further develop the
EU sustainability framework to include solid biomass
and biogas
Thank you!
More info:
http://ec.europa.eu/energy/index_en.htm
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(ppt file, 4 MB) Giulio Volpi, Policy Officer