International aviation
and climate change:
where do we stand?
Béatrice Adoléhoumé
Environment Officer of the European Civil Aviation
Conference (ECAC)
European Civil Aviation Conference
44 States
European Civil Aviation
Intergovernmental body established in 1955 with a mission to:
•harmonise civil aviation policies and practices amongst its Member
States and
•promote understanding on policy matters between its Member States
and other parts of the world;
ECAC Directors General meet three times each year, and the
organisation delivers the agreed Work Programme via Working
and Study Groups etc.
ECAC’s strategic priorities are security, safety and the
More than 400 people in Member States, regulatory and
stakeholder bodies are typically involved in delivering ECAC’s
work programmes at any given time.
European Civil Aviation Conference
Environmental activities (1)
 Standing group of experts on the Abatement of Nuisances
Caused by Air Transport (ANCAT)
 fosters exchanges of views and information between Member States
and stakeholders,
 keeps under review scientific, economic, regulatory developments,
 develops, maintains, updates standard methodologies, guidance
 organises seminars on aviation environmental issues, and provides
advice and recommendations to Directors General,
 ANCAT Task Groups develop methodologies
 aircraft noise mapping, classification of NOx emissions, modelling of
European Civil Aviation Conference
Environmental activities (2)
ECAC also –
coordinates European positions on aviation and climate
change, and contributes to establishing a level-playing field
amongst its 44 Member States;
supports its Member States in their implementation of ICAO
Resolutions (notably A37-19)
coordinates its Member States’ inputs to ICAO work in the
environmental field (eg in relation to market-based measures and
alternative fuels, and in CAEP)
Some fundamentals
 According to IPCC, increase in global average
temperature must not exceed 2°C above preindustrial levels (UNFCCC 2010 Cancun and ICAO
2010 A 37-19). Emissions must peak well before 2020 for
that purpose
 International aviation emissions
 The contribution of aviation CO2 emissions to global warming
amounts to 2% (IPCC report) – (1,4% for International aviation)
 But significant growth is expected in spite of 2% annual
improvement in fuel efficiency
ICAO Forecasts: significant
growth in CO2 emissions
How to mitigate emissions?
 KP(2005) : legally binding agreement for national
 States which signed it (37+EU) will reach their national
objectives in order to reach (2008/2012) a 5% reduction of
average emissions (below 1990 level)
 In terms of emissions from aviation, Kyoto protocol addresses
only domestic aviation
 Art. 2.2 of KP: the parties included in Annex I Countries
shall pursue the reduction of emissions from
international aviation, working through ICAO
Any progress in ICAO?
 Resolution A37-19 in 2010 : a significant step forward
 A goal of 2% annual improvement in fuel efficiency, and a global
aspirational goal of carbon neutral growth by 2020.
 States may take more ambitious action, prior to 2020
 Submission of action plans for emissions reductions by States above a
threshold of 1% total RTK and voluntary submission by others,
including request for support and assistance as necessary.
 Development of a global CO2 standard for aircraft aiming for 2013
 Development of policy actions to accelerate the appropriate
development, deployment and use of sustainable biofuels for
 Exploration of the feasibility of a global MBM scheme, and work to
develop a framework for MBMs
Europe fully committed to
implementing the resolution
Although insufficiently ambitious: global aspirational
goal applies only from 2020,
 whereas by 2020, international aviation emissions are projected
to be 70% above 2005 levels - even assuming a 2% annual
improvement in fuel efficiency.
 CO2 emissions from all sources must peak well before 2020.
 nonetheless, ECAC States placed a priority on its
implementation, including
 the delivery of action plans for emissions reductions,
 CAEP work towards a CO2 standard,
 ICAO work on MBMs
Action plans for emissions
 For ECAC States : build upon the Resolution as soon as
possible, and make of the agreement a reality, through
the delivery of States’action plans to ICAO by June 2012.
 ECAC established a coordination and support group
 The delivery of European action plans, regardless of the
threshold in the Resolution showed the European
willingness to act and to undertake early action for
mitigating aviation emissions.
 The action plans comprise a common ECAC Section
(supra-national level), and a national section for Statespecific actions.
Action Plans for Emissions
31 European Action Plans submitted by the deadline
of 30 June
On 30 June ( deadline for submission), ICAO had
received 41 action plans amongst which 31 from
European States ( now 34, some of which publicly
available at
Which actions?
European comprehensive approach to aviation’s climate
change impact: no single measure sufficient on its own
New standards (through ICAO)
Research and development of New Technology
• Clean Sky JTI
• Sustainable alternative fuels
ATM modernisation
• Single European Sky
MBMs (ETS and work towards a global MBM)
ACI Carbon accreditation
New standards
 Developed through ICAO: a priority of its Committee
on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP)
 Huge contribution of Europe into the corresponding
Task Group ( co-led by EASA) and Working Group ( CoChaired by the UK DfT)
 Adoption of a new CO2 metric system on 11 July 2012. It
includes factors which account for fuselage geometry,
maximum take-off weight and fuel burn performance at
three different cruise conditions
 Next steps: definition of certification procedures and setting
a regulatory limit on the basis of various assessments:
technical feasibility, environmental benefit, cost
effectiveness and interdependencies
Clean Sky JTI
European public-private partnership for research in
order to accelerate delivery of new green technologies
Clean Sky initial environmental
Sustainable alternative fuels
 From SWAFEA study, comprehensive analysis of
• technical feasibility,
• environmental sustainability and
• economic aspects
… to European advanced biofuels flightpath,
• targetted to reach 2 Million tons of bio-jet by 2020 on an
annual basis
• But several problem to be solved: scalability, availability
feedstock, life cycle analysis (including land use change
and indirect land use change), and cost
ATM modernisation: single
European Sky
Fundamental principle: to build in Europe a single
airspace continuum with a single regulatory framework
SESAR, the technological component of SES, will
achieve emissions improvements through the
optimisation of air traffic management services
Target for 2020: to enable 10% fuel savings per flight
as a result of ATM improvement alone, leading to a
10% reduction of CO2 emissions per flight
ACI Airport Carbon Accreditation
Scheme, endorsed by ECAC
Launched at ACI Europe’s 2009 annual assembly.
Allows for the assessment and recognition of
participating airports’ efforts to manage and reduce
their CO₂ emissions.
Independent programme administered by an
international consultancy appointed by ACI EUROPE
to enforce the accreditation criteria for airports on an
annual basis.
Airports must have carbon footprints independently
verified in accordance with ISO14064 (Greenhouse
Gas Accounting)
Why are MBMs so necessary?
Why are MBM necessary?
 In order to reduce the abatement costs (high for other
measures of the basket)
 In order to allow significant reduction in emissions
before 2020
 In order to meet the goal of CNG after 2020 ( to fill in
the gap)
Where are the major difficulties?
2 main obstacles
CBDR principle (UNFCCC) and non discrimination non
distortion principles ( ICAO) are not compatible
Scope for MBMs (departing flights vs/national air carriers)
• An MBM applies only to national air carriers
• Applies to all departing flights from the country
Nonetheless, ICAO accelerated the pace of work,
• aiming for an agreement on a framework fo MBMs by the
Assembly, and on a possible global MBM.
It is urgent for aviation to also be allowed access to the
carbon market, likewise other sectors which have access
to low cost emissions reduction
Any questions….?
Béatrice Adoléhoumé
Environment Officer of the European Civil Aviation
Conference (ECAC)