Experiential learning from
Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing(TSSM) Project, 2007-10
on
Monitoring Progress and Program performance, and
Sequencing of CLTS and Sanitation Marketing
Nilanjana Mukherjee with inputs from
Amin Robiarto
IDS Workshop on Monitoring CLTS. Malawi. August 2012
1. Monitoring progress in
communities
Experience from 29 districts in East Java
during Scaling Up Rural Sanitation showed:
 Communities are able to monitor
access to improved sanitation, and
progress towards ODF achievement,
in ways that satisfy JMP monitoring
requirements.
 Key pre-condition – Establish and use locally relevant,
commonly agreed definitions for Improved/unimproved
sanitation and criteria for ODF status, which are easy to
understand and communicate in local language.
Examples of maps E. Java communities make and use
for monitoring - households color coded by sanitation practice ( open
defecators, sharers, users of improved/unimproved latrines)
Examples of Improved latrines,
by local definition
Examples of Unimproved latrines,
by local definition
Community register- updated monthly from map
Data picked up from community maps/registers by
Health Extension worker – recorded in Primary Health
Center format
But,
•Manual pick up and transfer of data to district often
late.
•When triggered communities ran into hundreds
and thousands, manual monitoring data collection
systems failed to keep up.
Possible solution - Cell phone text messagebased reporting introduced in 2010
Data Base
•Data more accurate
•Quick data transfer
•Resource-efficient
• WSP-developed software installed in district Health Office
computer gateway.
• Auto-checks for validity of data received via text messages.
• Only from phones registered with the gateway.
DATA
SOURCE
# community households reported via phone
text message every month.
- Baseline report – one time
- Monthly updates thereafter
Improved Permanent
Improved-semipermanent
Sharing/unimproved
Open defecator
0
5
1
75
Improved Permanent
Improved-semipermanent
Sharing/unimproved
Open Defecator
21
13
10
41
ODF Verification guidelines providedFor use by sub-district agencies/Puskesmas
Guidelines include:
 Definitions – Improved/Unimproved sanitation, ODF.
 Recommended community-level process
 Recommended composition of Verification team
 Checklist for household latrine observation
 Checklist for environmental observation
Open Defecation Free Certificate
presented to verified ODF community by
District Government
2. Monitoring program
performance
Using monitoring data to improve
program efficiency within districts
District government have used it for:
 Identifying bottlenecks, high/low performing subdistricts
 Comparing outputs and outcomes from different
program approaches (e.g.CLTS vs. other approaches)
 Advocacy with district legislatures for budget allocation
for rural sanitation
Household investment generated for improving sanitation
access, using different program approaches
(District Lumajang , East Java. 2007-08 )
10
9.2
9
8
7
Household investment 6
generated for
improving sanitation
5
access, per Rp 1 million
program investment
4
(in millions rupiahs)
3
2
1
1.0
1.0
1.0
WSLIC2 Program
"Gerbang Mas"
Program
Subsidies latrine PNPM/P2KP
0
CLTS-SToPS
Program
No. of new latrines built as result of each Rp 1 million program
investment
40
No. of new latrines built as result of each Rp 1 million
program investment from various approaches
(District Lumajang, East Java , 2007-08 )
37
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
3
2
1
-
CLTS-SToPS Program
Nov'07-Apr '08
WSLIC2 Program revolving credit
"Gerbang Mas"
Program -stimulant
Subsidised latrine PNPM/P2KP
Using monitoring data to improve
program efficiency in province
Province and national governments have used it for:
 Comparing program performance across districts
 Generating competition among districts – linking
program outcomes to award ( annual Good Governance
evaluation by JPIP Media Foundation)
 Annual Stakeholder Learning Reviews – publicizing
cross-district performance data, generating learning
analysis by district government personnel- sparking
mutual support/sharing of knowledge and expertise from
one district to others.
Annual Average of Household Investments Leveraged per
Rp. 1 million LG investment in 29 districts 2008-09-10.
BOJONEGORO
GRESIK
MALANG
TRENGGALEK
MOJOKERTO
PACITAN
LUMAJANG
MAGETAN
LAMONGAN
SAMPANG
BLITAR
PAMEKASAN
PONOROGO
PROBOLINGGO
SITUBONDO
JOMBANG
NGANJUK
NGAWI
KEDIRI
TULUNGAGUNG
SUMENEP
BANGKALAN
JEMBER
BONDOWOSO
PASURUAN
MADIUN
SIDOARJO
BANYUWANGI
TUBAN
43
27
16
14
12
11
11
8
7.0
7
6
6
6
5
5
4.4
4
4
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
1
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Household investment generated for improving sanitation access,
per Rp. 1 million program investment
(in million rupiahs)
35
40
45
50
Household Sanitation Access Gains in 29 districts per
Rp.1 million program intervention (annual average from 2008-09-10)
BOJONEGORO
GRESIK
MALANG
TRENGGALEK
MOJOKERTO
PACITAN
LUMAJANG
MAGETAN
LAMONGAN
SAMPANG
BLITAR
PAMEKASAN
PONOROGO
PROBOLINGGO
SITUBONDO
JOMBANG
NGANJUK
NGAWI
KEDIRI
TULUNGAGUNG
SUMENEP
BANGKALAN
JEMBER
BONDOWOSO
PASURUAN
MADIUN
SIDOARJO
BANYUWANGI
TUBAN
172
107
64
54
46
46
44
32
28.1
26
23
23
22
21
20
17.8
17
16
15
14
14
13
13
12
11
9
7
3
1
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
Annual average of additonal households gaining access to improved sanitation,
per Rp. 1 million program investment
180
200
21
FINANCING:
Local government
budget for sanitation
OUTCOME:
Access increased per 1
million Investment
10
10
10
10
OUTCOME:
Program investment by
ODF Communities
OUTCOME:
% Access increas to
Improved latrine
DEMAND CREATION:
number of triggered
communityies
10
10
OUTCOME:
Community investment
per 1 million program
investment
FINANCING:
% Local government
sanitation budget
For non-construction
category
5
15
SUPPLY IMPROVEMENT:
number of masons
trained per sub-district
which provide “WC-ku
Sehat”
5
15
OUTCOME:
Number of ODF
commuities
SUPPLY IMPROVEMENT:
number of “WC-ku
Sehat” vendor per subdistrict
22
3. Sequencing CLTS and
Sanitation marketing
interventions
What we learned about sequencing CLTS and
Sanitation Marketing in rural sanitation programs
at scale
It is critically important to invest in market research
BEFORE creating demand (e.g.with CLTS and Behavior
Change Communication) at large scale , because:
 Market research findings identify how best to move forward in
scaling up so as to maximize program impact.
 Market research findings prevent funds being mis-allocated and
wasted at scale.
Sanitation marketing interventions at scale need 12-18
months’ preparation time. Start market research as early as
possible in new projects.
Lesson learned from TSSM implementation experience and research on Factors
associated with achieving and sustaining ODF communities (WSP, 2011)
See following examples…………
6
Rich Households
Middle income households
Poor Households
5
Rp.5-12 million
4
Rp.2-4 million
3
Rp.1 – 1.5 million
2
Rp.300,000 – 500,000
1
Rp.50,000– 300,0000
Labor + 0 cost
OD
WHO IS BUILDING
WHAT- AT WHAT COST
IN EAST JAVA 2008-2010.
(WSP,2011)
T5
T4
Concrete slab
and ceramic pan
T3
Concrete offset
Slab
T2
Concrete Slab
with a lid
1
Wooden slab
with a lid
Bamboo clay-lined
slab with a lid
Missing option - Consumers
want T5 technology, but at
much lower than T5 cost – WSP
Market Research (Nielsen,2009)
Market research finding used by local sanitation entrepreneur
to identify and develop missing options desired by consumers.
His products are in very high demand
Sumadi’s 1-page promotional flyer ” Informed Choice Catalogue for
Affordable and Progressively Upgradable Healthy Latrine”
WC TUMBUH SEHAT
WC TMBUH se-Harga Rp. 180.000,1.Closed Keramik Duty
2.Dudukan closed 1 buah, aman dari kemancetan
barang asing
3. Paralon 3 “ 1,5meter 1 buah
Dalam waktu 2 tahun penampung peresapan penuh,
dengan harapan sudah dapat membangun septictanknya.
Ingat ” Kaedah Sanitasi Harus Tetap dipakai”.
Hubungi . SUMADI,ST ( sanitasi Nganjuk)Hp. 081 335
265 157. . e-mail. [email protected]
Masyarakat Menyiapkan galian dgn ukuran panjang dan
lebar 1m kedalaman 75 cm sebagai penampungan
peresapan. Artinya Penampungan peresapan tanggung
Jawab masyarakat.
Harga. Rp.600.000,Specifik material :
1.Closed Keramik Duty
2. Paralon 3 “ 4meter 1 buah
3. Paralon 2” 4 meter 1 buah
4. Buis beton 4buah dengan spesi , semen : pasir =
1: 5
5. Dudukan closed 1 buah, aman dari kemancetan
barang asing
6. Slap deker 3 buah dengan besi bertulang 6 B.
7. Garan 4 tahun pemakaian untuk 5 orang/KK
Pesanan minimal 10 unit untuk Kab. Nganjuk, Untuk
Luar Nganjuk 20 Unit ditambah tranport kendaraan.
Hubungi . SUMADI,ST ( sanitasi Nganjuk)Hp. 081 335
265 157. e-mail. [email protected]
Masyarakat menyiapkan galian panjang dan lebar
130cm dalam 160 cm dan yang satu dalam 60 cm
Harga. Rp.850.000,Specifik material :
1.Closed Keramik Duty
2. Paralon 3 “ 4meter 1 buah
3. Paralon 2” 4 meter 1 buah
4. Buis beton 7 buah dengan spesi , semen : pasir =
1: 5
5. Dudukan closed 1 buah, aman dari kemancetan
barang asing
6.. Slap deker 5 buah dengan besi bertulang 6 B
7. Garan 8 tahun pemakaian untuk 6 orang/KK
Pesanan minimal 4 unit untuk Kab. Nganjuk, Untuk Luar
Nganjuk 10 Unit ditambah tranport kendaraan.
Hubungi . SUMADI,ST ( sanitasi Nganjuk)Hp. 081 335
265 157. e-mail. [email protected]
Masyarakat menyiapkan galian panjang 250cm, lebar
130cm dalam 160 cm dan yang satu dalam 60 cm
Post-project action research in 20 districts :
TSSM-trained masons found in only 9% sampled communities(all
ODF). Rest gone to cities/abroad/ not serving rural consumers.
Where trained entrepreneurs are present, they are providing,
reduced-cost versions of what consumers want/aspire to, e.g.
 Pour-flush latrines at Rp.250,000 – 750,000
 Offset pit latrines with lids at – Rp.59,000O
 Providing designs upgradable over next 1-2 years
 Offering installment payments terms of
Rp 20,000 – 50,000 monthly
 Need to increase numbers of locally resident masons capable of
serving poor customers in these ways. (WSP Action research, 2011)
 Need to intervene at enterpreneur level (higher than masons)
for impact at scale (WSP market research, Nielsen, 2009)
TSSM INFORMED CHOICE CATALOGUE–developed as a
communication tool for masons to use with customers
But –information tools on options, made available
from TSSM, are NOT reaching rural consumers –
copies lying in District/PHC offices.
Action researchers showed, discussed and left behind the TSSM
Informed Choice Catalogue (ICC) in 40 Not ODF communities….
Frequency of responses
Never seen before:
in 40 of 40 communties
Interest expressed in the options:
in 21 of 40 communities
Action initiated immdtly with local mason
to build 1 or more options from ICC : in 11of 40 communities
No interest in the Dry pit options:
in18 of 40 communities
No interest in latrines (river OD-ers):
in 4 of 40 communities
(WSP, 2011)
Recommendation : Make available informed-choice
communication tools on market-research-based options in
the hands of locally resident masons in communities !!
THANK
YOU !
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Improved - Community-Led Total Sanitation