Solar Thermal Fuel Production
Christian Sattler1, Hans Müller-Steinhagen2, Martin Roeb1, Dennis
Thomey1, Martina Neises1
1 DLR
Solar Research, Solar Chemical Engineering
2 Technical University of Dresden
[email protected]
1
Overview
Reasons for solar thermal fuel production
Two examples
SET-Plan
Powertrains for Europe
Concentrating Solar Systems
Solar Fuels short and long term applications
Processes
Projects and existing pilot plants
Summary and Outlook
2
Political view: SET-Plan (2007)
European Strategic Plan for Energy Technology
Development of energy technologies plays a crucial role for climate
protection and the security of the global and European energy supply
Goals of the EU until 2020 (20/20/20)
20% higher energy efficiency, 20% less GHG emission,,
20% renewable energy
Actions in the field of energy efficiency, codes and standards, funding
mechanisms, and the charging of carbon emissions necessary
Significant research effort is necessary for the development of a new
generation of CO2 emission free energy technologies, like
Offshore-Wind,
Solar
2nd generation Biomass
Goal of the EU until 2050: 80% less CO2 emissions than in 1990
3
Production-, Storage- and Infrastructure topics of the
European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell JTI
4
Example for industrial view: „Powertrains for Europe“
2010 fact based analysis on a portfolio of power-trains by McKinsey &
Company for:
Car manufacturers: BMW AG, Daimler AG, Ford, General Motors LLC,
Honda R&D, Hyundai Motor Company, Kia Motors Corporation, Nissan,
Renault, Toyota Motor Corporation, Volkswagen
Oil and gas: ENI Refining and Marketing, Galp Energia, OMV Refining
and Marketing GmbH, Shell Downstream Services International B.V.,
Total Raffinage Marketing
Utilities: EnBW Baden-Wuerttemberg AG, Vattenfall
Industrial gas companies: Air Liquide, Air Products, The Linde Group
Equipment car manufacturers: Intelligent Energy Holdings plc,
Powertech
Wind: Nordex
Electrolyser companies: ELT Elektrolyse Technik, Hydrogenics,
Hydrogen Technologies, Proton Energy Systems
NGO: European Climate Foundation
GOs: European Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking, NOW
GmbH
Available online at: http://ec.europa.eu/research/fch/index_en.cfm
5
Development of EU GHG emissions [Gt CO2e]
6
Three Power Trains FCEV, BEV, and PHEV were evaluated against ICEs in three
scenarios, on three types of cars, small, medium and large covering 75% of the
European Fleet
7
Results
8
Total EU car fleet, million vehicles
9
Hydrogen production – benchmark processes for
solar technologies
10
Concentrating Solar Technologies
11
Energy Routes
Solar Energy
Heat
Solar-thermal
Radiation
Fossil Resources
Biomass
CO2
PV
Heat
Synthetic Fuels
Mechanical Energy
Power
Thermochemistry
Electrolysis
Photochemistry
Hydrogen
12
Temperature Levels of CSP Technologies
3500 °C
Paraboloid: „Dish“
1500 °C
400 °C
Solar Tower
(Central Receiver System)
150 °C
50 °C
Parabolic Trough /
Linear Fresnel
13
Annual Efficiency of Solar Power Towers
Optical efficiency and thermal annual use
efficiency [%]
Power Tower 100MWth
Optical and thermal efficiency / Receiver-Temperature
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
Receiver-Temperature [°C]
1200
1300
1400
R.Buck, A. Pfahl, DLR, 2007
14
Solar Towers, “Central Receiver Systems”
PS10+20, Sevilla, E
PSA CESA-1, Almería, E
Solar-Two, Daggett, USA
Solarturm Jülich, D
15
Principle of the solar thermal fuel production
Recourses
Natural Gas
Water, CO2
Chemical
Reactor
Heat
Solar Tower
Fuel
H2
CO + H2
Industry
Transportation
Energy Converter
Fuel Cell
Transportation
Power Production
16
CO2 Reduction by solar heating of state of the art processes
like steam methane reforming and coal gasification
30
CG
25
kg/kg
20
CO2 Reduction 20 – 50%
15
SPCR
SMR
10
SSMR
5
0
SMR
SSMR
CG
SPCR
17
Efficiency comparison for solar hydrogen production
from water (SANDIA, 2008)*
Process
T
[°C]
Solar plant
Solarreceiver
+ power
[MWth]
η
T/C
(HHV)
η Optical
η
Receiver
η
Annual
Efficiency
Solar – H2
Elctrolysis (+solarthermal power)
NA
Actual
Solar tower
Molten
Salt
700
30%
57%
83%
14%
High temperature
steam electrolysis
850
Future
Solar tower
Particle
700
45%
57%
76,2%
20%
Hybrid Sulfurprocess
850
Future
Solar tower
Particle
700
51%
57%
76%
22%
Hybrid Copper
Chlorine-process
600
Future
Solar tower
Molten
Salt
700
49%
57%
83%
23%
Nickel Manganese
Ferrit Process
1800
Future
Solar dish
Rotating
Disc
<1
52%
77%
62%
25%
*G.J. Kolb, R.B. Diver SAND 2008-1900
18
Short-term CO2-Reduction: Solar Reforming
19
Steam and CO2-Reforming of Natural Gas
Steam reforming: H2O + CH4  3 H2 + 1 CO
CO2 Reforming: CO2 + CH4  2 H2 + 2 CO
Reforming of mixtures of CO2/H2O is possible and common
Use of CO2 for methanol production:
e.g. 2H2 + CO  CH3COH (Methanol)
Both technologies can be driven by solar energy as shown in the projects:
CAESAR, ASTERIX, SOLASYS, SOLREF…
20
Solar Methane Reforming – Technologies
decoupled/allothermal
indirect (tube reactor)
Integrated, direct,
volumetric
Source: DLR
Reformer heated externally
(700 to 850°C)
Optional heat storage
(up to 24/7)
E.g. ASTERIX project
Irradiated reformer tubes (up to
850°C), temperature gradient
Approx. 70 % Reformer-h
Catalytic active direct
irradiated absorber
Approx. 90 % Reformer-h
Development: CSIRO,
Australia and in Japan;
Research in Germany and
Israel
Australian solar gas plant
in preparation
High solar flux, works only
by direct solar radiation
DLR coordinated projects:
Solasys, Solref; Research in
Israel, Japan
21
Project Asterix: Allothermal Steam Reforming of
Methan
DLR, Steinmüller, CIEMAT
180 kW plant at the Plataforma Solar de Almería,
Spain (1990)
Convective heated tube cracker as reformer
Tubular receiver for air heating
22
“Indirect heated“ tube receiver:
CSIRO Solargas
Indirect reactor technology
Second tower at the CSIRO Solar
Centre Newcastle, NSW, Australia
Test facility for different Reactors
One will be the volumetric
SOLREF reactor
Coordination by CSIRO, DLR is partner
in an IPHE project
23
Direct heated volumetric receivers:
SOLASYS, SOLREF (EU FP4, FP6)
Pressurised solar receiver,
Developed by DLR
Tested at the Weizmann
Institute of Science, Israel
Power coupled into the process
gas: 220 kWth and 400 kWth
Reforming temperature:
between 765°C and 1000°C
Pressure: SOLASYS 9 bar,
SOLREF 15 bar
Methane Conversion:
max. 78 % (= theor. balance)
DLR (D), WIS (IL), ETH (CH),
Johnson Matthey (UK), APTL
(GR), HYGEAR (NL), SHAP (I)
24
Pilot plant for solar pet-coke reformig - SYNPET
500 kW SYNPET solar reactor
Plataforma Solar de Almería
Production: 100-180 kg/h
Synthesis gas
CIEMAT (E), ETH (CH),
PDVESA (VEN)
T Denk et al., CIEMAT, 2009
25
Example: Possible sites in Algeria
Pipelines
Fields
kWh/m²/y
 50 km distance to pipelines
 Acceptable DNI
 Available Land
26
Analysis of relevant Technologies for H2 Production
(until 2020)
Grid Electricity
electrolysis
Wind
electrolysis
Biomass
12*
€/GJ
31 €/GJ
50-67 €/GJ
25-33 €/GJ
modest
modest high
high
high
high
neutral modest
modest - high
NG
SMR
NG
SolarSMR
H2 production cost
8*
€/GJ
Positive impact on
security of energy
supply
Positive impact on
GHG emission
reduction
negative -neutral
high
high
*assuming a NG price of 4€/GJ; NG Solar-SMR: expected costs for large scale, solar-only
27
Long-term: Water splitting processes
28
Promising and well researched Thermochemical Cycles
Steps
Maximum Temperature
(°C)
LHV Efficiency
(%)
Hybrid Sulphur (Westinghouse, ISPRA Mark 11)
2
900 (1150 without
catalyst)
43
Sulphur Iodine (General Atomics, ISPRA Mark 16)
3
900 (1150 without
catalyst)
38
2
1800
45
1600
42
Sulphur Cycles
Volatile Metal Oxide Cycles
Zinc/Zinc Oxide
Hybrid Cadmium
Non-volatile Metal Oxide Cycles
Iron Oxide
2
2200
42
Cerium Oxide
2
2000
68
Ferrites
2
1100 – 1800
43
4
530
39
Low-Temperature Cycles
Hybrid Copper Chlorine
29
Process scheme of a metal oxide TCC*
1. Step: Water splitting
H2O + MOred  MOox + H2
H2O
MO
MO
H2 red
O
ox
800 – 1200
°C
2. Splitting: Regeneration
MOox  MOred + ½ O2
Net reaction: H2O  H2 + ½ O2
O2red
MO
MO
ox
1200°
C
*Roeb, Müller-Steinhagen, Science-Mag., Aug. 2010.
30
Pilotplant for solar water splitting by ferrites
HYDROSOL 2
100 kW HYDROSOL 2 (EU FP6) Solarreaktor,
Plataforma Solar de Almería, Spanien
APTL (GR), CIEMAT (E), DLR (D),
Johnsson Matthey (UK), STC (DK)
Concentration of hydrogen detected by GC
M. Roeb et al., DLR, 2009
31
Scale-up: 100kW-pilot-plant
32
Modelling of the pilot plant - Overview Modelling:
Parameter
Insulated Power (#1)
Modelling-Control
Software
(Labview®)
Parameter
Temperature (#2)
Parameter
HeliostatfieldSimulation Tool
STRAL (C++)
Temperature
Model
(Matlab/Simulink®)
Hydrogen Production
Model
Hydrogen Amount (#3)
33
Q HS
Modelling – Temperature model:
Collecting formulas of the heat flows (simplified balance!)

Q
GaBa

Q
KGa

Q

Q
aK
GB

Q
KK

Q
KF

Q
aK

Q
KF

Q
HS

Q
aF

Q
aF
Heat flows: heat radiation, heat conduction and convection
34
Modelling – Temperature model:
First Verification of open loop control system
Regeneration
Temperatures East (23.04.2009)
Input:
1400
Simulated power East
1200
Sampling rate (Sim.):
1000
every second
T [°C]
800
Sampling rate (Exp.):
600
Every second
400
Average Deviation: 6.5%
200
Temperature Simulated
Temperature Measured
:0
0
:0
0
:0
0
15
:4
5
:0
0
14
:3
0
:0
0
14
:1
5
:0
0
14
:0
0
:0
0
14
:0
0
:4
5
13
:3
0
:0
0
13
:1
5
:0
0
Time
13
:0
0
:0
0
13
:4
5
:0
0
12
:3
0
:0
0
12
:1
5
:0
0
12
:0
0
:0
0
12
:4
5
:0
0
11
:3
0
:0
0
11
:1
5
:0
0
11
:0
0
:0
0
11
:4
5
:0
0
10
:3
0
10
10
:1
5
:0
0
0
Production
35
Conclusion and Outlook
36
Future Solar Thermal Plants
Production of solar fuels (renewable H2 and CH4 / CH3OH),
Recycling of CO2, Power production and Desalination (H2O)
H2
H 2O
CO2
Power
CH4, CH3OH
Heat
Desalinated
Water
Sea water
37
Conclusion and Outlook
CO2 lean/free hydrogen is crucial for
the energy economy no matter how the
development will be
To achieve the energy/emission goals
for 2020 promising renewable
technologies like solar thermal must be
implemented now, at the right places
Things to be done:
Secure and enhance the know-how by strong co-operations of
industry and R&D
Close technological gaps
Transfer of the technology to industry
Provide technology for growing markets in solar regions
38
Acknowledgment
The Projects
HYDROSOL, HYDROSOL II; HYTHEC,
HYCYCLES, Hi2H2, INNOHYP-CA,
SOLHYCARB and SOLREF were co-financed by
the European Commission
HYDROSOL 3-D and ADEL are co-financed by
the European Joint Technology Initiative on
Hydrogen and Fuel Cells
HYDROSOL was awarded
Eco Tech Award Expo 2005, Tokyo
IPHE Technical Achievement Award 2006
Descartes Research Price 2006
39
Mahalo for your attention!
40
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