Prof. Piyush Trivedi,
Vice Chancellor , Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal, M.P.
Prof. V K Sethi,
Director, UIT-RGPV & HOD (Energy)
Prof. Mukesh Pandey,
Dean- Energy Technology, RGPV
INTRODUCTION
• The present paper deals with Energy Efficient &
Environmentally benign technologies, the Green Power
Technologies of concentrated solar power for a
sustainable energy security.
• Solar Thermal Technology related Issues and
Opportunities discussed
• Reduction of Coal Consumption in Thermal Power Plant
through Cross Linear - CSP system, capable of producing
steam at high (>=6000C) temperature.
• Also demonstrating the Cross Linear - CSP technology
as a viable mean for the Energy Security & achieving
the targets of Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar
Mission.
Mission Energy Security and Energy independence
•
•
•
•
•
Climate Change – Nature’s Fury
Solar for Power generation & irrigation
High Efficiency CNT Based PV Cells
Hydrogen as Fuel for future
Accelerated Program on Thorium based
Nuclear Reactor
• Clean coal Technologies like SCR, IGCC
• Bio-fuels for Railways and Mass Transport
• Energy Security by 2020, Energy Independence
by2030
….Ref.: Address by President of India on the eve of Independence Day
Stabilization Wedges
16
Billions of Tons
(GtC) Carbon
Emitted per Year
16 GtC/y
Eight “wedges”
8
Historical
emissions
Goal: In 50 years, same
global emissions as today
8 GtC = 8000 Million Tons
Per Annum of Carbon =
8000x44 / 12 = 29300
MTPA of CO2
Flat path
1.6
0
1950
2000
2050
2100
Wedge Strategies in 4 Categories
A “wedge” is a strategy to reduce carbon emissions that grows in 50 years
from zero to 1.0 GtC/yr. The strategy has already been commercialized at
scale abroad.
Energy Efficiency
& Conservation
Fossil FuelBased CCT
Strategies
Stabilization
Stabilization
Triangle
Nuclear Power
2012
2062
Renewables &
Bio-storage
The Four Dimensions of Low Carbon Technologies
• 1: Low Carbon Technologies (LCT)
Renewable Energy Technologies - Plans for Energy security
and Environmental Sustainability
• 2: Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM)/ Green
Certificates / RPO
Barriers, Policy & Action Plans and Roles of Market PlayersImpact of Low-Carbon Life Style on Climate Change,
Other Mechanisms beyond Kyoto Regime : 2012
• 3: Clean Coal Technology (CCT)
Mega Power Projects based on Supercritical & IGCC
Technologies
• 4: Carbon Capture& Sequestration (CCS)
Impact R & D Projects & Technology Issues – Technology
Transfer Strategies.
Grid Interactive Renewable Power
Renewable Energy
Programme/ Systems
Target for
2012-13
(MW)
Total achievement
during 2012-13
(MW)
Wind Power
2500
1698.8
Cumulative
achievement
up to 31.08.2013
(MW)
19,779.15
Small Hydro Power
350
236.93
3,711.75
Biomass Power
105
114.7
1,264.80
Bagasse Cogeneration
350
352.20
2,337.43
Waste to Power (UrbanIndustrial)
Solar Power (SPV)
20
6.4
99.08
800
754.14
1,968.84
Total
4125
3163.17
29,161.05
Though RE is about 13% of Total Installed Capacity (2,25,793.10 MW) ; but this
contribution has a major social and economic impact . The low PLF of RE Plants
is a matter of concern. The growth of clean energy technologies for mega Power
generation, both Solar Thermal and PV, Clean Coal Technologies, are key to the
success Green Power Mission for abating Climate Change
CAPACITY ADDITION -12TH PLAN IN
INDIA (2012-2017)
• Report of Working Group on Power for 12th Plan
expected shortly. Likely requirement of capacity
addition during 12th Plan - about 80,000 MW. ( RES –
29,000 MW; 55% Capacity - Private Sector; 40% - coal
based supercritical technology)
• Target of energy saving through DSM and Energy
Efficiency measures about 60 BU at bus-bar, avoided
peaking capacity about 12,000 MW.
• Proposed targets in JNNSM: 22,000 MW by 2022
– 100 GW (100000 MW) by 2030 or 10-12% of total power
generation capacity estimated of that year
– 4-5GW of installed solar manufacturing capability by 2017
8
Thermal storage
• All CSP plants have some ability to store heat energy
for short periods of time and thus have a “buffering”
capacity that allows them to smooth electricity
production considerably and eliminate the shortterm variations other solar technologies exhibit
during cloudy days.
• Recently, operators have begun to build thermal
storage systems into CSP plants. The concept of
thermal storage is simple :throughout the day,
excess heat is diverted to a storage material (e.g.
molten salts). When production is required after
sunset, the stored heat is released into the steam
cycle and the plant continues to produce electricity
Project Objectives
Broad Objective
Technology Demonstration of Cross Linear – Concentrated
Solar Power in Indian conditions through a 30 kWth Test Unit
at RGPV, Bhopal
Specific Objectives
 Demonstrate High Temperature (>=6000C) attainment of CL-CSP
 Optimize Simulation Technology of CL-CSP
 Utilize to develop 1 MWe Test Plant and Commercial Plant of 20
MW size
 Strengthen Indian-Japanese technical collaboration
 Promoting Industry – Academia joint venture project in true sense
Collaborating Partners
Universities/Institutions




Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal
Delhi Technological University, Delhi
SolarFlame Corporation, Tokyo, Japan
Asia Sunbelt Development Association, Japan
Industrial Partners



Bergen Solar Power & Energy Ltd, Gurgaon
Toyo Engineering Corporation, Japan
RICOH Corporation, Japan
Concept of CL (Cross Linear) solar concentration system
Linear Fresnel (LF) system
Low construction cost
Hybridization
High concentration
(High efficiency)
Central tower system
Cross Linear (CL) system
Bird view of CL system for large scale (30MW) CSP plant
Receiver
CO2 (600 ºC)
High temp.
concentration
field
Low temp.
concentration
field
300 m
250 m
Heliostat field
CO2 (200 ºC)
High temperature with CL solar concentration system
N
Receiver line (E-W)
N
W
S
N
N
Mirror line
(N-S)
N
N
N
N
E
S
S
Increase in
mirror line
S
S
Increase in
mirror facet
S
S
S
More Solar Energy
Larger concentration
Sun tracking mechanism on CL solar concentration system
Linear Fresnel (LF) system
E
W
Mirror with
curvature
Mirror line
Sun tracking
Receiver with
reflector
S
Individual mirror facet
Sun tracking
N
Structure of CL solar concentration system receiver
CPC
E
W
Quartz glass
Receiver with
reflector
S
N
Receiver tube
Comparison of solar concentration on CL and LF systems
Optical simulation based on Monte Carlo Ray-tracing method
① LF system
Mirror:
1m×1m×64
=64m²
N
S
N
1×8+0.2×7=9.4m
Mirror:
1m×8m×8
=64m²
S
1×8+0.2×6+0.5=9.7m
8m
② CL system
1×8+0.2×6+0.5=9.7m
③ Improved CL system
14.1m
N
S
1×8+0.2×7=9.4m
Mirror:
1m×1m×64
=64m²
•
Mirrors on the north side have higher
cosine efficiency than those on the south
side.
Simulation result of solar concentration for CL and LF systems
Daily Collected power on receiver plane
LF system
①リニアフレネル型
30
CL system
②クロスリニア型
Improved CL
③クロスリニア型(改良版)
system
power (kW)
Collected 照射熱量/kw
25
・②CL system:①LF system
1.52 times on culmination
1.22 times on 1-day
・③Improved CL system:
①LF system
1.76 times on culmination
1.25 times on 1-day
20
15
10
5
0
5
7
9
11
13
時刻/h(h)
Time
15
17
19
Comparison with other Technologies
Temperature
Cross Linear
Tower, Trough, Linear Fresnel
300-600 deg C
Tower: 600 deg C
Trough: 400 deg C
Linear Fresnel: 500 deg C
Concentration
100-1000
Tower: 300-1000
Trough, Linear F <100
Thermal Fluid
Liquid: Water, Oil
Tower: Stem, Molten Salt
Gas: Air, Steam, CO2
Trough: Oil, Steam, Molten Salt
Linear Fresnel: Steam
CL Heliostat
CL Receiver
Axis: 1.01
Tower: 2.0/high precision
Control precision: Moderate or Low
Trough, Linear F: 1.0/middle precision
Cavity, CPC , Pipes
Tower: cavity
Trough: vacuum pipe
Linear Fresnel: pipes, CPC, cavity
Application – Cross Linear/CSP
CL-CSP Technology has the ability to produce temperatures in
excess of 650 deg C, hence it has widespread application in
replacing costly Coal used by Thermal plants in India
Case Study – Thermal Power Plant
Coal Saving Solar Thermal is used to supply Auxiliary Load of coal fired thermal power plant
Installed Generation Capacity in India - Coal Fired Thermal Plants
(Source: Power Info-bank 2012)
Auxiliary Load of thermal Power Plant (Electric + Thermal)
Total Auxiliary Load for all Coal-fired power plant
Total units per hour
Coal Consumed
Coal Consumed in one hour
Coal Cost
Coal Consumed in one hour
Available Sun radiation on average per day
Coal saving incase solar thermal energy is used to supply auxiliary load
Total Sunny days
Cost of Coal consumed in one year
Minimum Net Saving with Auxiliary load of Solar (CL-CSP)
with Thermal Storage Facility
105.00
GW
10%
10.50
105.00
GW
Lacs units/hr
0.70
kg/unit
7350.00
tons/hr
6.00
Rs./Kg
441.00
5.00
2,205.00
300.00
6,615
Say about 7000 Cr.
Lac Rs./Hr.
hours
Lac Rs./day
days
Cr Rs.
Fuel Switching
CSP Solar Thermal Power for Feed Heating
Coal saving 8 – 10 %
CSP Solar Thermal Power for Auxiliary Steam
Production / Auxiliary Power Generation
Fuel Substitution in Old Polluting Thermal Power
Plants having low PLF by Solar Thermal
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Saving potential in 30% Old capacity burning 120 Million Tons per
Annum Coal :by 10% Coal Substitution= 12 Million Ton x Rs. 6000
per Ton = 7200 Cr/ Annum
Economics of the Project
By employing CL-CSP in 10% of the
dormant coal fired power plants, coal
worth billions of dollars can be saved
30% of the Coal Fired Thermal Plants
fall under the below category
CL-CSP technology can be
implemented in Coal Fired Thermal
Plants having shortage of coal supply
Current installed
capacity of Coal
Fired Thermal
Plants in India is
105 GW.
In Rs. the total
Coal cost
comes to
around 2 Lac
40 thousand
Cr..
Consumption of
coal per year is
approx. 411
Million Tonnes
worth Rs. 2400
billion.
OTHER CL-CSP RELATED OPPORTUNITIES
IN THERMAL POWER STATION
(1)
Coal Gasification through Solar Steam in an
IGCC Power Plant.
(2)
Optimizing condenser performance in dry
cooling towers.
(3)
Optimizing feed heaters performance through
Solar Heat Substitution.
(4)
Optimizing auxiliaries’ consumption through
Solar Power.
(5)
Reduction in make-up water consumption
through deslineation in coastal power plants.
11
• Global hub for manufacturing CSP in our
Heavy Industries
• Global test facilities
– Different climatic conditions in MNRE Centers
– Technical man power
• Large scale Power plants
– 4-5 GW by 2020 is easily possible
– Potential States -Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra,
Karnataka, MP, Haryana, AP, TN
Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya , MP, India
Mile Stone of CSP Technology

CSP is poised to become a significant player in the
renewable electricity generation in countries where
a significant solar energy resource is available,
such as those near desert and equatorial regions.

Combined generation of electricity and heat by CSP
is particularly interesting, as the high value solar
input energy is used with the best possible
efficiency, exceeding 85 %.

CL-CSP can be game changer in CSP Technology
• Optimization of Water Supply for Power
Generation.
• Low Turbine efficiency due to low steam
parameters.
• Availability of Power Grid in the vicinity.
• Land availability
• Poor infrastructure in the remote deserts for
material transport and habitat of work force.
Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya , MP, India
Technology Assessment ………

Viability/grid parity is a question as
concerned. It will take a little longer than PV.

A careful analysis needs to be carried out for the
determination of an economically optimized project site that not
only depends on the solar irradiance (DNI) but on many other
influencing parameters.

Designing the projects to meet specific needs
economic benefit using high efficiency CSP technology.

Land is a scarce resource in India and per capita land
availability is low. The amount of land required for utility - scale
solar power plants, currently is about 6 acres per MW.
far
as
CSP
at
is
an
Conclusion
 CL-CSP is perhaps the only technology in the world which can
readily give temperature in excess of 650 deg C. The 30 kW Pilot
Plant at RGPV will pave way for 1 MW to 20 MW commercial plant
under planning at Panipat Thermal Power Station.
 In India it can be used to replace costly Coal in Thermal Power
Plants
 Going by the current installed capacity of Coal Fired Thermal Power
Plants of 105 GW, around 400 Million Tons of coal. And if we target
10% of the dormant plants (30% of total plants, which are old) the
total coal saving every year comes out to be 12 Million Tons every
year amounting to around Rs. 7200 Cr.
Visit our Energy Park at RGPV Bhopal
Thanks for your kind attention