Trends of phosphorus use efficiency in
the food chain of China
Lin Ma1, Zhaohai Bai2, Wenqi Ma3, Gerard Velthof4, Oene Oenema4, Fusuo Zhang2
1 The Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 China Agricultural University, 3 Agricultural University of Hebei, 4 Alterra,
Wageningen University and Research Centre.
E-mail: [email protected]
5th Phosphorus in Soils and Plants Symposium, 29th September, Montpellier, France
Outline
1. Why study phosphorus (P) use efficiency in the
food chain of China?
2. Definitions of phosphorus use efficiency (PUE)
3. Changes of PUE in the food chain of China
4. Options of sustainable P use in the food chain
Why study PUE in the food chain of China?
Question: Is it a sustainable food system?
Changes relative to 1961, %
900
800
Cereals yield per agriculture land
Livestock density
700
Changes relative to 1961, %
8000
Cereals yield per agriculture land
7000
Fertilizer consumption
6000
600
5000
500
3000
200
2000
100
1000
0
0
1961
1964
1967
1970
1973
1976
1979
1982
1985
1988
1991
1994
1997
2000
2003
2006
2009
300
Year
1961
1964
1967
1970
1973
1976
1979
1982
1985
1988
1991
1994
1997
2000
2003
2006
2009
4000
400
Year
FAO database
NUFER model (NUtrient flows in Food chains, Environment and Resources use)
Atmosphere N2, NH3, N2O
Human
consumption
Exports
and
losses
Food processing
imports
Animal
production
Crop production
(soil accumulation)
Erosion
and runoff
• Regional and
national scale of
China
• 1950-2010, and
2030
• 18 main crops
• 11 animal
categories
• Households in
rural and urban
N
Leaching
Groundwater
P
Surface
waters
(Ma et al., JEQ 2010)
Indicators of nutrient use efficiency
• P cost of food (kg/kg)
• PUEf - Phosphorus use efficiency in the food chain, %
• PUEc - Phosphorus use efficiency in crop production, %
• PUEa - Phosphorus use efficiency in animal production, %
(Ma et al., JEQ 2010)
P flows in food chain in China
P
P
1980
2005
Households
0 exports
0.2 (20%) losses
0.4
0
1.6
(100%)
Imports
0.3
(19%)
0
0 exports
0.5
1.3
(81%)
0.2
0.6 (37%)
0.1 (10%) losses exports
Exports
/losses
Animal
production
0.5
0 0.2
Crop production (soil)
Accumulation in soil 0
0
0.1exports
0.9
0.5
0.3 (10%) losses
0.6
Food processing
0.2
0.1 exports
Households
0.6 (60%)
losses
0.5
exports
1.0 (63%)
losses
0.1 (10%)
losses
0.5exports
Food processing
1.4 (18%)
exports
0.2 (9%) losses
1.5
1.1
7.8
(100%)
1.3
2.6
(33%)
Exports
/losses
0
0 exports
Animal
production
Imports
1.0
5.2
(67%)
0.3
1.7
0 0.2
Crop production (soil)
2.1 (70%)
losses
0.8
exports
3.0 (38%)
losses
0.4 (11%)
losses
Accumulation in soil 3.4 (44%)
• Total P input was 5 times larger in 2005 than in 1980;
• P cost of food production was 4 kg/kg in1980 and 13 kg/kg in 2005.
(Ma et al., 2012)
PUE in the food chain of Chian
100
PUEc
PUEa
PUEf
80
USA and NL
60
PUEc = ~ 60%
40
PUEa = ~ 35%
20
0
1950
PUEf = ~ 20%
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
Note: PUE= (O Main product / I Total)*100,Phosphorus use efficiency.
PUEc, PUEa and PUEf are the PUE in crop production, animal production and food chain.
(Ma et al., Unpublished data, Smit et al., 2010 and Suh et al., 2011 )
P flux increased dramatically in the
food chain of China
P flow (10000 ton)
1600
1400
1200
Household
Food processing
Animal production
Cropland production
1000
800
600
400
200
0
1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
Year
(Ma et al., Unpublished data)
1950
1952
1954
1956
1958
1960
1962
1964
1966
1968
1970
1972
1974
1976
1978
1980
1982
1984
1986
1988
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
P cycling rate decreased in the food
chain of China
Recycled P
New P
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
(Ma et al., Unpublished data)
P losses in food chain in China
1980
1950
15%
Crop production
Animal production
0%
2010
12%
19%
30%
38%
9%
7%
Food processing
Household
47%
66%
44%
P losses (104 ton)
Percentage of P losses from sub-systems
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
1950
13%
Household
Food processing
Animal production
Crop production
1960
1970
(Ma et al., Unpublished data)
1980
Year
1990
2000
2010
Options of sustainable P use in the food chain
1. Improving PUE in crop production
2. Improving PUE in animal production
3. Recycling wastes from the whole chain
P cost in the food chain (kg/kg)
4. Lowering human consumption of animal products
Ma et al., EST 2013
1980
2005
2030
Year
Double High Technology:
from technology to farmers’ practices
----Increase yield and PUE by 30-50%
Field school
Training
(Chen et al., PNAS, 2011)
Improving PUE in animal production
Phosphorus use efficiency %
Phosphorus use efficiency in dairy production in China
40
30
20
10
0
Traditional
Grassland-based
Animal
Collective
Industrial
Herd
Average
System
Animal: Milking dairy; Herd, including milking dairy, calves and heifers; System, crop-dairy production chain
PUE at herd level is 25-35% in EU and USA.
Bai et al., JEQ 2013
Recycling wastes from the whole chain
P footprint of China’s pig production in 2010
By-product + Import
987
New
Applied
792
911
Crop
Feed
227
1511
Pig gain
Carcass
Pork
79
394
Consumed
38
43
283
119
14
53
631
329
558
Field loss
P not taken
Manure loss
Manure
export
32
22
Slaughter Processing
waste
waste
5
Food
waste
Bai et al., EST 2014
25
20
1961
1963
1965
1967
1969
1971
1973
1975
1977
1979
1981
1983
1985
1987
1989
1991
1993
1995
1997
1999
2001
2003
2005
2007
Food protein supply quantity
(kg/capita/year)
Lowering human consumption of
animal products
30
animal food
plant food
The Chinese food dietary guidelines
15
10
5
0
Year
(Ma et al., JEQ 2013)
Regional variations in P management
P losses from crop production and animal production
(Ma L. et al., STOTEN 2012)
Summary
• Food P cost increased dramatically in the past several
decades in China, following with low PUE and high P
losses.
• Optimizing diets and implementation of integrated
nutrient management would decrease P losses, and
would greatly increase PUE in the whole food chain.
Atmosphere N2, NH3, N2O
• A food chain approach is really
needed to improve sustainable P
management in the food systems.
Human
consumption
Exports
and
losses
Food processing
imports
Animal
production
Crop production
(soil accumulation)
Erosion
and runoff
N
Leaching
Groundwater
P
Surface
waters
Some main publications
• Ma L., Wang F. H., Zhang W. F., Ma, W. Q., Velthof G.L., Qin W., Oenema O., Zhang F.S.,
Environmental assessment of nutrient management options for the food chain of China. Environmental
Science & Technology, 2013, 47 (13), 7260-7268.
• Ma L., Zhang W. F., Ma W.Q., Velthof G.L., Oenema O., Zhang F.S., An analysis of developments and
challenges in nutrient management in China. Journal of Environmental Quality, 2013, 42 (4): 951-961.
• Bai Z.H., Ma L., Oenema O., Chen Q., Zhang F.S., Nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiencies in dairy
production in China. Journal of Environmental Quality, 2013, 42 (4): 990-1001.
• Hou Y., Ma L., Gao Z. L., Wang F. H., Sims J. T., Ma W. Q., Zhang F. S., Nitrogen and phosphorus
flows and losses in the food chain in China, 1980-2010. Journal of Environmental Quality 2013, 42 (4):
962-971.
• Ma, L. G. L. Velthof, F. H. Wang, Z. Liu, Y. Zhang, J. Wei, J. P. Lesschen, W. Q. Ma, O. Oenema, F. S.
Zhang et al.(2012) Nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiencies and losses in the food chain in China at
regional scales in 1980 and 2005. Science of the Total Environment 2012, 434: 51-61.
• W.Q Ma, Ma L., Li J. H. et al., Phosphorus flows and use efficiencies in production and consumption of
wheat, rice, and maize in China, Chemosphere, 2011, 84(6): 814-821.
• F. Wang, J.T. Sims, Ma L., W. Ma, Z. Dou, and F. Zhang, The Phosphorus Footprint of China’s Food
Chain: Implications for Food Security, Natural Resource Management, and Environmental Quality, JEQ,
2011, 40(4): 1081-1089.
• Ma L., W.Q. Ma, G.L. Velthof et al,. Modeling Nutrient Flows in the Food Chain of China, Journal of
Environmental Quality, 2010, 39(4): 1279-1289.
• Bai Z.H., Ma L., Qin W., Oenema O., Chen Q., Zhang F.S., Changes in Pig Production in China and
Their Effects on Nitrogen and Phosphorus Use and Losses. Environmental Science & Technology, 2014
(Minor revision)
Thanks for your attention!
Our food pyramid in the future
5th Phosphorus in Soils and Plants Symposium, 29th September, Montpellier, France
Download

Field school Training Phosphorus use efficiency in dairy production