DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
AARHUS UNIVERSITY
Emissions from Aircraft and Handling
Equipment in Copenhagen Airport
19th International Transport and Air Pollution
conference
November 26-27, 2012
Thessaloniki, Greece
M. Winther, U. Kousgaard, T. Ellermann, M.
Ketzel, P. Løfstrøm, A. Massling, J.K. Nøjgaard
Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH
INSTITUTE
AARHUS UNIVERSITY
Morten Winther Senior adviser
27. november 2012
Introduction
›
Arising from the concern of airport workers health, a detailed
investigation of the air pollution in Copenhagen Airport has
been conducted in 2009-2011.
›
Main focus was the airport apron area where handling occurs.
›
The airport study as such comprises a detailed baseline
emission inventory as well as subsequent dispersion
modeling of the air quality (Ellermann et al., 2011).
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH
INSTITUTE
AARHUS UNIVERSITY
Morten Winther Senior adviser
27. november 2012
Introduction
›
This presentation explains the detailed baseline emission inventory
for aircraft main engines, auxiliary power units (APU) and handling
equipment.
›
Total emission results of CO, HC, NOx and PM will shown for the
apron area in focus and the airport as a whole.
›
PM results for the apron (5m x 5m) will also be shown suited for the
further dispersion modelling work.
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH
INSTITUTE
AARHUS UNIVERSITY
Morten Winther Senior adviser
Disposition
› Activity data - and digitization
›
›
›
›
›
Aircraft movements
APU (Auxiliary Power Unit)
Main engine start-up
Handling equipment
Road transport vehicles
› Emission factors
› Calculation method
› Results
› Conclusions
27. november 2012
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH
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Digitization – aircraft movements
AARHUS UNIVERSITY
Morten Winther Senior adviser
27. november 2012
Aircraft movements digitized from airport data: Flight operation (Start/landing) and time,
lane (04L+04R, 22L+22R, 12, 30), taxi way, gate no., on/off-block time
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH
INSTITUTE
AARHUS UNIVERSITY
Morten Winther Senior adviser
27. november 2012
Digitization – APU, push-back and main engine start-up
•
APU (arrival, start-up, boarding):
Gate no., On/Off-block time.
•
APU and push-back along the
green/red lines (5 km/h).
•
APU and main engine start-up by
the start-up mark (red dot; e.g. P).
APU condition →
APU load →
2 engine aircraft
4 engine aircraft
Arrival
Normal
300 s
300 s
APU Start
Start-up
180 s
180 s
Boarding
Normal
216 s
318 s
Source: ICAO Airport Air Quality Guidance Manual (doc. 9889)
During push-back
Normal
Calculated
Calculated
Main engine start
High
35 s
140 s
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Arrival
Departure
Aircraft category →
B
C
D
E
B
C
D
E
Handling period (min) →
15
20
30
40
15
20
30
40
Equipment type
27. november 2012
Morten Winther Senior adviser
Working time (min)
Working time (min)
Load factor
Baggage truck
9
10
15
25
9
10
15
25
0.15
Conveyor belt
10
20
20
20
10
20
20
20
0.15
Push-back at gate
0
0
0
0
10
10
10
10
0.15
Push-back moving
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.75
Container loader
0
15
27.5
35
0
15
27.5
35
0.45
Container transporter
0
15
27.5
35
0
15
27.5
35
0.35
Fuel (dispenser truck)
10
15
30
50a
0
0
0
0
0.1
Fuel (refuelling truck)
10
15
30
50a
0
0
0
0
0.1
Cleaning highloader
0
0
10
15
0
0
10
15
0.45
Cargo/Post tractor
0
5
5
5
0
5
5
5
0.15
Toilet truck
0
0
0
0
0
10
20
20
0.25
Catering B/C/D/E
1
3
5
5
0
0
0
0
0.1/0.2/0.22/0.22
Water truck
0
0
0
0
0
7,5
15
15
0,25
•Aircraft are grouped into four size categories (B-E).
•Arrival: Handling starts immediately after on-block at the gate.
•Departure: Handling ends immediately before off-block at the gate.
•Handling equipment list from the handling companies: Fuel type, engine size, emission stage/year.
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH
INSTITUTE
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Morten Winther Senior adviser
27. november 2012
Digitization - handling
›
Handling occur on the right side of the aircraft. Area: Aircraft x wing length
›
The working time is increased to cover the full handling period (handling
table); emission rates are decreased correspondingly
›
An exception for push-back; 10 mins before off-block, and movement
towards the engine start up mark
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH
INSTITUTE
AARHUS UNIVERSITY
Morten Winther Senior adviser
27. november 2012
Emission factors – aircraft main engines
› Main engines: flyID (airport) → engineID (global database)
› NOx, CO, HC (g/kg fuel), smoke no., fuel (kg/s): Idle, take off
› Jet engines: ICAO engine exhaust emission database
› Turbo props (TP): FOI Sweden emission database
› Particulate matter (PM): ICAO’s FOA3.0 method (jets), and
from a Swiss survey (TP)
› PM mass depends on smoke number, fuel sulphur and HC
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH
INSTITUTE
AARHUS UNIVERSITY
Morten Winther Senior adviser
27. november 2012
Emission factors – aircraft APU
› APU
› NOx, CO, HC and PM (kg/h): ICAO (air quality manual, doc. 9889)
› Fuel (kg/h): Lasport (German air quality model for airports)
› New/older aircraft types and seating capacity
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH
INSTITUTE
AARHUS UNIVERSITY
Morten Winther Senior adviser
27. november 2012
Emission factors – handling equipment
•Non road diesel: Split into emission levels and
kW sizes according to EU emission directives.
•Non
road
guidebook.
emission
data:
EMEP/EEA
•Road diesel: EU emission limits for Euro 0-V
are used directly (Test cycle, ESC).
•Gasoline (baggage truck): Old ones ~ gasoline
cars from 1970’s. New ones ~ Euro 1 cars.
Fuel type
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Gasoline
Gasoline
Legislation
Non road
Non road
Non road
Non road
Non road
Non road
Non road
Non road
Road
Road
Road
Road
Road
Road
Road
Road
Emission level
<1981
1981-1990
1991-Stage I
Stage I
Stage II
Stage IIIA
Stage IIIB
Stage IV
Euro 0
Euro I
Euro II
Euro III
Euro IV
Euro V
ECE 15/00-01 (> 2l.)
Euro 1 (> 2l.)
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH
INSTITUTE
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Morten Winther Senior adviser
27. november 2012
Calculation method
›
The emissions are calculated as the product of the emission rate
(g/s) and time duration spend in cell i, for the activity:
 E ( t , i )  ER   t ( t , i )
∆E = Emission/fuel consumption (g) for cell = i and time = t
ER = Emission/fuel consumption rate (g/s) for ME, APU, ME start up and handling gear
∆t = Time duration for the activity in cell = i
t = Time of the day (sec.)
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH
INSTITUTE
AARHUS UNIVERSITY
Morten Winther Senior adviser
27. november 2012
PM – handling activities
•The emission contributions from handling are clearly visible on the right side of the aircraft.
•The emission trails from push-back tractors are visible by the most inner part of the gates,
and during the movement towards the main engine start-up marks.
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH
INSTITUTE
AARHUS UNIVERSITY
Morten Winther Senior adviser
27. november 2012
PM – APU activities
•APU emissions are visible at the gates, during push-back to ME start-up marks, and during ME start-up.
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH
INSTITUTE
AARHUS UNIVERSITY
Morten Winther Senior adviser
27. november 2012
PM – Main engines
•The map clearly depicts the ME emissions from the start-up marks, on the taxi ways towards
the runways, and close to the gates moving into aircraft parking position.
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH
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PM – all sources
Morten Winther Senior adviser
27. november 2012
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH
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27. november 2012
Morten Winther Senior adviser
• Inner apron: NOx and PM emission shares are
significantly high for handling and APU.
• Handling: High fuel related emission factors for the
diesel fueled handling equipment.
• APU: Somewhat lower emission factors, but large fuel
consumption.
• ME: NOx and PM emissions are small due to the very
small emission factors during taxiing.
• ME: Large amounts of HC and CO while taxiing and
during engine start-up due to poor combustion.
• Total airport: ME HC and CO emissions are high.
During take off the emissions of NOx are high due to
the high engine combustion temperature.
Apron emission distribution - Copenhagen Airport
Total emission distribution - Copenhagen Airport
100%
100%
90%
90%
80%
80%
70%
70%
Main engines
60%
Handling
50%
APU
40%
Main engines
60%
Handling
50%
APU
40%
30%
30%
20%
20%
10%
10%
0%
0%
HC
CO
NOx
PM
Fuel
HC
CO
NOx
PM
Fuel
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH
INSTITUTE
AARHUS UNIVERSITY
Morten Winther Senior adviser
27. november 2012
Total PM emissions/day - Copenhagen Airport
18
16
14
12
kg
10
8
6
4
2
0
Road transport
APU
Handling
Main engines
S: 942 ppm
Main engines
S: 0 ppm
•JP sulphur content = 942 ppm, according to information from airport refueling services.
•The calculated PM emissions from main engines decrease by more than 50 %, in the case of zero
sulphur in the jet fuel.
•APU: Most likely the PM emissions will be significantly reduced in this case also.
•Emissions from road transport vehicles (traffic counts, five zones) are rather insignificant.
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NOx emissions/day
Predominantly use
of lane 22
Morten Winther Senior adviser
27. november 2012
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH
INSTITUTE
AARHUS UNIVERSITY
Morten Winther Senior adviser
27. november 2012
Conclusions
›
A detailed 5x5 m airport emission inventory has been made, and emission results
are explained by the size of emf. and fuel consumption (activity data).
›
On the airport apron, handling is the largest emission source of NOx (63 %) and PM
(51 %). APU emissions (NOx: 25 %, PM: 45 %) are also considerable. ME emissions of
NOx (11 %) and especially PM (4 %) are small.
›
Conversely, on the apron, ME is the largest source of HC (63 %) and CO (44 %). For
the whole airport, ME becomes the largest emission source for all pollutants.
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH
INSTITUTE
AARHUS UNIVERSITY
Morten Winther Senior adviser
27. november 2012
Conclusions
›
The calculated PM emissions from main engines decrease by more than 50 %, in the
case of zero sulphur in the jet fuel.
›
APU: Most likely the PM emissions will be significantly reduced in this case also.
›
›
›
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH
INSTITUTE
AARHUS UNIVERSITY
Morten Winther Senior adviser
27. november 2012
References
Ellermann, T., Massling, A., Løfstrøm, P, Winther, M., Nøjgaard, J. K. & Ketzel. M.. 2011: Investigation of air pollution at
the apron at Copenhagen airport in relation to working environment (Danish with English summary) DCE - Danish Centre
for Environment and Energy, Aarhus University. 148 p. – DCE report no. 5. http://www.dmu.dk/Pub/TR5.pdf
Løfstrøm, P., Ketzel, M., Winther, M., Kousgaard, U., Christensen, J., Geels, C., Massling, A., Nøjgaard, J.K., Ellerman, T.
2012: AIR POLLUTION LEVELS AT COPENHAGEN AIRPORT ESTIMATED BY MEASUREMENTS AND NESTED REGIONAL
EULERIAN, LOCAL GAUSSIAN PLUME AND CFD MODELS, 5 p., 14th Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric
Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes – 2-6 October 2011, Kos, Greece.
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH
INSTITUTE
AARHUS UNIVERSITY
Morten Winther Senior adviser
27. november 2012
Thank you for your attention!
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH
INSTITUTE
AARHUS UNIVERSITY
Morten Winther Senior adviser
27. november 2012
Aktivitetsdata – kørende trafik
› Trafiktællinger/15 min intervaller fra CPH (kamera):
›
›
›
›
›
Hilton
Busterminal v. T2
Drop off v. T3
Finger B-C
Check Øst
› Køretøjskategorier
› Personbiler, varebiler/minibus, busser (rute/turist),
bagagevogne
› Strækninger opmålt på kort
› Antagelser vedr. tomgang og kørehastighed
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99 Emissions from aircraft and handling equipment in Copenhagen