DIVISION OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES
NCSR “DEMOKRITOS”
Innovative hybrid desalination unit for
potable water production with simultaneous
removal of harmful substances.
Scientific Coordinator : Dr. - Ing. C. Makropoulos
DIVISION OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES
NCSR “DEMOKRITOS”
The Problem and Solution

Brackishness of
underground
waters especially in
insular areas
 Contamination of
water with nitrates,
pesticides and
heavy metals
 Shortness of
potable water
resources

Development of an
innovative hybrid system
for desalination and
removal of harmful
substances
 High quality potable water
production without any
further chemical treatment
 Use of renewable energy
sources for better efficiency
DIVISION OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES
NCSR “DEMOKRITOS”
DIVISION OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES
NCSR “DEMOKRITOS”
DIVISION OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES
NCSR “DEMOKRITOS”
Reverse Osmosis method
Reverse osmosis is considered as one of the most effective and financial
feasible methods for the desalination of waters containing high Na+ and Clconcentrations, like sea and brackish water.
Usual pretreatment of RO feed water includes:

Chlorination for microorganism’s disinfection

pH regulation for the prevention of Calcium Carbonate scaling

Adding of antiscallant substances for the prevention of insoluble Calcium
and Barium salts precipitation

Dechlorination (using NaHSO3) for protection of membranes from the free
Chlorine

Adding of poly- electrolyte for colloids precipitation
DIVISION OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES
NCSR “DEMOKRITOS”
FLOW SHEET OF CONVENTIONAL R.O.
B 100
B 112
B 113
B 101
B 194
B 192
B 111
Brackish
B 121
B 001
FM 260 DT
Water
FC 141
FS 131
Permeate
B 122
B001..Antiscaling Dosing B112..Cleaner A
FM260.. RO membranes B194..CaCO3
B101..Acid Dosing B113..Cleaner C
B192..Permeate B122..Brackish Tank
B111..Cleaning 1st/2nd B671..Conc.Batch
B100.. NaOCl B121..NaHSO3 FS131..Sand
Filter FC141..Cartridge Filter
B 671
Concentrate
DIVISION OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES
NCSR “DEMOKRITOS”
HYBRID DESSALINATION UNIT
Simplified Flow Sheet
Feed
(Brackish
Water)
Stage
RO
2nd
Stage
Activated
carbon
NF
1st
Rock Filter
Sand
Filter
Concentrate
Potable
Water
DIVISION OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES
NCSR “DEMOKRITOS”
Hybrid Desalination Unit Flow Sheet
B 112
B 113
B 111
Br. water
B122
FS 131
FC 141
FM 260
FM 260
SW
SW
FM 160
FM 160
DTF
DTF
B 192
Second Stage
RO
Permeate
First Stage NF
B112..Cleaner A FM260.. RO membranes
B113..Cleaner C B192..Permeate
B122..Brackish Tank B111..Cleaning 1st/2nd
B671..Conc.Batch FS131..Sand Filter
FC141..Cartridge Filter
B 671
Concentrate
DIVISION OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES
NCSR “DEMOKRITOS”
DIVISION OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES
NCSR “DEMOKRITOS”
Membrane Surface
:
7,7 m²/ 9,7 m²
Module Diameter
:
8”
Module Length
:
1,2 m/ 1,43 m
Max. oper. Pressure
:
62 bar
Max. oper. Temp.
:
40°C
pH Range
:
3-11
Ion Rejection
:
>99%
Test Conditions:
60 bar, NaCl Solution (32 g/l), T= 25°C, pH =7, Water
Recovery Ratio<25%, Feed Flow 1200 l/h

Minimization of membrane
scaling and fouling.

Long membrane life.

Lower membrane replacement
costs.

Easy access to all membranes
films.

Less or no chemical
pretreatment of the feed water
(up to 15%/min SDI)

Better membrane cleaning

Higher efficiency with lower
pressure drop due to the
advanced flow pattern
DIVISION OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES
NCSR “DEMOKRITOS”
DT MODULE
DIVISION OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES
NCSR “DEMOKRITOS”
Chemical Analysis Results
Feed
Product
Water
Limits
Mineral Bottled
waters
Conductivity
(μs/cm)
36300
540
-
390-700
Ca2+ (ppm)
460
45
100
11 – 100
Mg2+ (ppm)
830
25
50
1 – 72
Cl- (ppm)
16000
220
250
12 – 180
Να+ (ppm)
9200
98
200
3 – 120
K+ (ppm)
267
2.8
12
0.8 – 3
ΝΟ3- (ppm)
300
6
50
3 – 10
Atrazine
(ppm)
8.35
0.01
0.1
-
DIVISION OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES
NCSR “DEMOKRITOS”
DIAGRAMS I
Energy Consumption
Εcons.(KWh/m3)
35
RO (KWh/m3 permeate)
NF-RO (KWh/m3 permeate)
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
20
25
30
35
P (bar)
40
45
50
DIVISION OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES
NCSR “DEMOKRITOS”
DIAGRAMS II
System Performance
Efficiency %
60
50
40
30
20
RO %
NF - RO %
10
0
20
25
30
35
40
P (bar)
45
50
55
DIVISION OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES
NCSR “DEMOKRITOS”
Solar Collectors
Photovoltaic Cells
Wind Turbine Generators
DIVISION OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES
NCSR “DEMOKRITOS”
Financial Data I
Unit Capital Expenses 200 m3/d
350.000 €
Water Production Cost
0.8-1.5 €/m3 max
Water buying & transport Exp.
3.0 €/m3
Annual Profit
158500 -108000 €
Payback Period
~2.2 – 3.2 years
DIVISION OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES
NCSR “DEMOKRITOS”
Financial Data II
Unit Capital Expenses 500 m3/d
1.000.000 €
Water Production Cost
0.8-1.5 €/m3 max
Water buying & transport Exp.
3.0 €/m3
Annual Profit
396000 - 270000 €
Payback Period
~2,5 – 3,7 years
DIVISION OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES
NCSR “DEMOKRITOS”
Final Configuration of NF-RO System
11.6 m
DIVISION OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES
NCSR “DEMOKRITOS”
2.27 m
2.5 m
DIVISION OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES
NCSR “DEMOKRITOS”
DIVISION OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES
NCSR “DEMOKRITOS”
DIVISION OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES
NCSR “DEMOKRITOS”
Key Competitive Advantages I






Desalination and removal of harmful substances (nitrates,
pesticides, heavy metals, etc) in one pass,
Production of potable water without any further chemical
treatment that misquotes its quality,
Reduce in the energy consumption up to 15%,
Up to 35% increase in the water production,
retention rate of ions and other harmful substances that
exceeds 97% - with the retention of nitrates exceeding 99,5%
Further decrease in the energy cost and higher System
performance by using solar energy or other mild or renewable
energy resources,
DIVISION OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES
NCSR “DEMOKRITOS”
Key Competitive Advantages II





Use of DT modules with high tolerance in relation with the feed
water specifications
Flexibility in the use of the unit as Hybrid or as RO
Higher operational life of membranes
Use of natural rocks bed in order to enrich the desalinated
water with the necessary trace elements,
Tele-monitoring System to ensure the reliable operation of the
System.
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DIVISION OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES NCSR