• An ocean trench is formed when two
converging plates collide.
Poisonous Gases
• Hot poisonous gases make breathing
impossible and people succumb quickly
Wind shear
• Wind shear is a factor in hurricane
development and strength
The Coriolis effect
• Coriolis effect is not a function of gravity but
of the Earth’s rotation and air movement
• The troposphere is the atmospheric layer
where most weather takes place
• Aquifers can be recharged through snow melt
and infiltration
• The boundary between two watersheds is
called a divide
• Residence time in groundwater can be many
thousands of years.
Gause’s principle explains that
• No two species can fill the same niche at the
same time
• Gause’s principle explains that no two species
can fill the same niche at the same time.
Chance alterations ins the genetic
material of cell’s nucleus are known as
• Genetic drift
• Random protein breaks or other genetic
changes are known as genetic drift
A species’ placement within a food
chain or web is known as its
• Trophic level
• Trophic levels include producers, consumers,
and decomposers
What population dynamic princilpe is
described by the equation rN+^/^t
• Biotic potential
• Biotic potential is the rate of growth(r) times
the number of individuals (n), which is equal
to the change in the number of individuals
(^n) in a population over a change in time (^t).
The r component describes an individual's
average role in population growth.
What tool do scientists use to study
and predict changes in a population
Age-structure diagrams
• Age-structure diagrams help scientists predict
trends in a specific population
Logistic growth is obtained from the
equation rN(1-N/K) + ^N/^t,. Where K is
• Copyright infringement
• Change in population number over time
(^N/^t) is equal to exponential growth over
time (r times N) times the carrying capacity (K)
of the population size (N). The term (1-N/K)
stands for the relationship between N, a point
in time, and K, the number of individuals
supported by the environment.
All the following are pesticides except
• Odonticides
• Insecticides (kill insects), herbicides (kill
plants/weeds), acaricides (kill spiders and
ticks), and fungicides (kill molds a and fungus)
are types of pesticides.
Old-growth forests have
Never been harvested
• Old-growth forests have wide diversity and
have never been harvested.
The area needed for a population to
provide for itself and dispose of its waste is
called its
Ecological footprint
• Americans’ ecological footprint
(10hectares/person) is larger than that of
other countries
The IUCN focuses the bulk of its
environment efforts on all of the following,
• The IUCN protects hot spots from economic
How many toxic air pollutants are released
yearly from U.S. mining operations as
estimated by the Environmental Protection
• The EPA lists over 200 toxic air pollutants from
U.S. mining operations yearly
Which of the following does the United
States depend on for 85% of its energy
• Fossil fuels
• The United States has become increasingly
dependent on fossil fuels for energy
The term for which energy’s rate of flow or
the rate at which work is accomplished is
• Power
• Power is the term used to describe the rate of
the flow of energy
In 1898, which scientist coined the
term radioactivity
• Marie Curie
• French scientist Marie Curie coined the term
radioactivity and, along with her husband
Pierre, received the Nobel Prize for her work
in radioactivity.
Uranium oxide, found in granite and
other volcanic rocks, is also known as
• pitchblende
• Pitchblende is a common name for uranium
oxide ore.
Of the 439 nuclear power plants
worldwide, how many are in the United
• 104
Nearly 25% of the nuclear power worldwide are
in the United States
When nuclear core temperatures rise out
of control, causing the core to melt
through the Earth’s crest, it is known as
• The China syndrome
• It was feared the core would melt through all
the way to china
The Staebler-Wronski effect describes
• Solar cell degradation
• Thin-film solar cells of amorphous silicon
experience a 15 to 30% decreased yield when
exposed to sunlight.
Electricity sent out in small amounts to
nearby points where it is needed is known
• Distributed power
Hub locations collect power and the n distribute
it to nearby locations that need it
What percentage of United States
power comes from geothermal energy
• 10%
• Fully 10% of our power comes from
geothermal sources, mostly in the western
United States.
Toxic pollutants trapped indoors and
mixed with mold spores has led to
• Sick building syndrome
• Sick building syndrome increases health
problems and results in more sick days off
The Corporate Average Fuel Economy
(CAFÉ) for motor vehicles was created by
• Energy Policy and conservation act
• To reduce fuel consumption and emissions,
the CAFÉ standard requires vehicles to have an
average fuel efficiency of 27.5 miles per gallon
Which of the following pH measurements
from water could indicate acidic mine
• pH 5.1
• A solution with a pH value of 7 neutral, while a
pH value<7 is acidic and a pH value>7 is basic.
Natural waters typically have a pH between 6
and 9

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