TRIBALS,DIKUS AND THE
VISION OF A GOLDEN AGE
module
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1 tribal groups
2 forest laws
3 trade
 What
problems did birsa set out to solve?
 Who were the outsiders?
 How did they enslave the people of this area
?
 What was happening to the forest people
under the british?
 How did it change their lives?
lets answer all these
questiOns…………
Jhum cultivation
this type of cultivation is usually
found in forests and hilly areas
 Some were hunter’s and gatherer’s
they hunted deer, pig etc and
gathered for their survival
 Some were herderer’s
many tribal's lived by herding
and grazing animals they are nomads
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Problem of British with shifting
cultivation?
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They wanted shifting cultivators to settle down and
become peasants
As people engaged in shifting cultivation move
around a lot so calculating tax is very hard
Settled cultivation in those areas where water was
scarce.
Jhum cultivators who were forced to take up settled
cultivation suffered , because their fields hardly
gave good yield
Shifting cultivation
How did colonial rule affect tribal
lives?
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During pre-colonial time tribal chiefs
enjoyed many administrative and
influencing rights, but during the colonial
period there was a loss of power for the
tribal chiefs they had to obey British law
and the government restricted the rights
of the tribal chiefs.
What happened to the shifting
cultivators?
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They wanted the tribal's to settle down.
British government wanted tax therefore they
wanted tribal's to settle down as it is easier to
calculate tax.
Settled cultivation was not successful were water is
scarce and soil is dry.
Facing widespread protests, the British had to
ultimately allow them the right to carry on shifting
cultivation in some parts of the forests.
Forests law and their impact
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The British extended their over all forests and declared that forests
were state property.
Some forests were classified as reserve forests which was used to
produce timber which the British wanted
The colonial officials allowed some land for hum cultivation that they
would provide labor for the forests department for looking after
forests.
impact:many tribal groups reacted against the
colonial forest laws . they disobeyed the new rules , continued
with the practices that were declared illegal . Such was the revolt
of songram sangam of 1906 in assam
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many people for example like moneylenders,
traders for purchasing raw goods and lending
money
These traders made huge profits but only a meager
amount reached the producers.
The condition of people who went to towns for work
was not also better.
They were paid low wages, and prevent them from
returning home.
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Throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries
tribal's rebelled against the forest laws .
the kolas rebelled in 1831-32
Santhal rose in revolt in 1855
The bastar rebellion in central India broke out in
1910 .
Warli revolt in Maharashtra on 1940
Birsa munda-an immortal legacy
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In 1895 bursa urged his followers to recover the past
glory, a golden agewere the tribals held their heads
high
He talked of a goden past were mundas led a good
life, constructed embankments, tapped natural springs,
planted trees and orchards, practised cultivation to
earn their living.
As the movement spread the british officials decided to
act. They arrested birsa in 1895, convicted him on
charges of rioting and jailed him for 2 years.
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When birsa was released in 1897 he began to
gather support against the british by using
traditional methods
They attacked police stations and churches, and
raided the property of moneylenders and
zamindars.
They raised the white flag as a symbol of birsa raj.
In 1900 birsa munda died of cholera and the
movement faded out.
Birsa mundA
Significance of the movement of birsa
munda
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It showed that the tribals could protest against
injustice and express their dissatisfaction over the
colonial rule
It introduced laws so that the govt could not take
away the land of the tribals
questiOns
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What did birsa munda refer to as “the golden age”?
What happened to jhum cultiators during the colonial
period?
What happened to tribal cheifs during the colonial
period?
How were the lives of the tribals affected by the laws
imposed by the colonial government?
How were the tribals exploited by the colonial officers?
In what way was the movement of birsa munda
significant ?
mcQ
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The british described the tribal people as
The method of sowing seeds in jhum cultivation is
known as
The tribals cheifs got
tittles in central
india under the british settlements.
Tribals went to work in the
of assam and
the
in bihar.
Birsa was arrested in
year on charges
of rioting and jailed him for 2 years.
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Tribals,dikus and the vision of a golden age