THE ROLE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY
FOR KENYA’S DEVELOPMENT
STRATEGY
Presented
By
Eng. Collins Juma
Technical Director and Head of Secretariat
Kenya Nuclear Electricity Board (KNEB)
To
THE 20TH ENGINEERS’ INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE-2013
VENUE: KISUMU
DATE: 8th -10th May 2013
WHAT IS NUCLEAR POWER?
• Nuclear power is the use of sustained nuclear fission to generate heat
and electricity.
• A nuclear power plant is therefore a facility at which energy released by
fission (splitting) of atoms is converted to electrical energy under strictly
regulated operating conditions. Nuclear reactors produce, contain and
control the release of energy from splitting of Uranium 235 atoms. In
electric power plants this energy heats water to make steam which in turn
drives turbine generators to make electricity.
• The various activities associated with production of electricity from nuclear
reaction are referred to collectively as the nuclear fuel cycle which starts
with the mining of uranium and ends with disposal of nuclear waste.
2
NUCLEAR POWER TECHNOLOGY
Pressurized Water Reactor
3
NUCLEAR POWER IN THE WORLD
• Nuclear power plants provided about 5.7% of the world's energy and
13% of the world's electricity, in 2012. In 2013, the International
Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA) reports that there are 437 operational
nuclear power reactors (although not all are producing electricity) in
31 countries, 28 under construction and 222 in the planning stage.
• The uptake of nuclear power technology has been growing over time
across different countries and regions. Various countries without
existing nuclear power technology in their power systems have
expressed interest in investing in nuclear electricity production,
while developed countries with existing nuclear plants have been
expanding their capacities.
4
THE NUCLEAR POWER PROGRAMME
• To attain nuclear status, a country must guided by the International
Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) milestone approach which requires
that a nuclear power programme be developed by the country. The
IAEA is an inter-governmental agency which ensures that member
States comply with their obligations to use nuclear energy for
peaceful purposes only.
• A nuclear power programme is a major undertaking requiring
careful planning, preparation and investment in time, capital and
human resources. Planning for nuclear power can take 10-15 year
until commissioning of the first plant.
5
NUCLEAR POWER PROGRAMME PROCESS
Nuclear Power Programme Milestones & IAEA Services
6
KENYA DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY
• The overall national development objectives of the Government of
Kenya are accelerated economic growth; increasing productivity of all
sectors; equitable distribution of national income; poverty alleviation
through improved access to basic needs; enhanced agricultural
production; industrialization; accelerated employment creation and
improved rural-urban balance.
• The extent to which these objectives can be realized on a sustainable
basis and environmentally sound manner, is dependent on the degree and
economic efficiency with which critical factors of production are made
available and combined with each other to produce the desired results.
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KENYA DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY
• The realization of these development objectives is only feasible if
quality energy services are availed in a sustainable, cost effective and
affordable manner to all sectors of the economy ranging from
manufacturing, services, mining, and agriculture to households.
• The Kenya Governments’ national energy policy aims to achieve
affordable quality energy for all Kenyans by facilitating provision of
clean, sustainable, affordable, reliable and secure energy services at
least cost while protecting the environment.
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ACCESS TO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
BY THE COUNTIES
• The constitution of Kenya provided for devolution and access to
Energy services. In Kenya, it was estimated by 2010 that 22% had
electricity connection in their homes up from 4% in 2003; This
figures are an indication that access to energy services in the
Counties is very limited .
• Counties therefore require affordable quality energy for the
realization of development objectives.
9
KENYA DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY KENYA VISION 2030
• The country’s development agenda is anchored on the Kenya Vision
2030, which aims at creating “a globally competitive and prosperous
country with a high quality of life by 2030”.
• It aims to transform Kenya into “a newly industrialized, middle-income
country providing a high quality of life to all its citizens in a clean and
secure environment”.
• The Vision is anchored on three key pillars: economic, social and
political. Energy is a key foundation and one of the infrastructural
“enablers” upon which the economic, social and political pillars of this
long-term development strategy will be built.
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IMPORTANCE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY
IN KENYA’S ENERGY MIX
• The critical need for nuclear energy is premised on the fact that, with
the rising demand for power in the country due to the accelerated
investment in the economy, it is one of the forms of energy that can
produce enormous amounts of electricity at a relatively economical
cost.
• Kenya’s energy demand has been on a consistent rise in recent years and it
has become imperative to diversify the country’s energy sources to meet this
demand.
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IMPORTANCE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY
IN KENYA’S ENERGY MIX
•
The Ministry of Energy has proposed the use of nuclear energy for purposes of
electricity generation in the Draft National Energy Policy. The Least Cost Power
Development Plan (‘LCPDP’) has also recognized the need for inclusion of nuclear
energy in Kenya’s energy mix.
•
The Least Cost Power Development Plan (LCPDP) forecasts that the country’s
peak electricity demand shall stand at over 16,905MW and peak demand of by
2031 requiring an installed capacity of 21,620MW as a result of the rapidly
increasing use for electricity for industrial, commercial and household use.
•
According to the
LCPDP the first nuclear power plant is expected to be
commissioned in the year 2022.
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IMPORTANCE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY
IN KENYA’S ENERGY MIX
Power Supply Mix for Kenya's System in 2031 as per
LCPDP - MW
140
2,000
5,040
GEOT
COAL
GAS TURBINE
4,000
MEDIUM SPEED DIESEL
WIND
NUCL
IMPORT
2,400
HYDRO
1,500
1,440
2,340
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IMPORTANCE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY
IN KENYA’S ENERGY MIX
• The Government objective is to facilitate provision of clean, sustainable,
affordable, reliable and secure energy services at least cost while
protecting the environment.
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IMPORTANCE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY IN
KENYA’S ENERGY MIX
Advantages of Nuclear Power cont’d
• Nuclear plants are some of the most cost effective sources of power.
• It is a clean non- pollutant way to produce energy as it does not
produce any GHG emissions. This ensures the continuation of our
industrial civilization while protecting the environment
• The fuel for nuclear power plants is uranium which is abundantly
available as it’s a natural resource. Uranium deposits are not
exhaustible for an estimated 1,000 years worldwide.
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IMPORTANCE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY IN
KENYA’S ENERGY MIX
Advantages of Nuclear Power
• Nuclear power is a reliable source of power with an economic life of 70
years with an option of extension of up to 20 years.
• Nuclear fuel can be recycled and re- used. This approach would capture
the vast amount of energy still remaining in the spent nuclear fuel and
reduce on radioactive waste.
• Nuclear power plants have one of the highest conversion factors with a
sustained plant efficiency of up to 98%.
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IMPORTANCE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY IN
KENYA’S ENERGY MIX
Advantages of Nuclear Power
• In comparison with other forms of energy such as solar and wind,
nuclear energy utilizes less land. A site area comparison of the various
forms of energy reveals that for a 1,000MW capacity plant, nuclear
energy
requires
330,000m²,
solar
33,000,000m²
and
wind
165,000,000m².
• It is the only source of energy that can replace a significant part of the
fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) which massively pollute the atmosphere
and contribute to the greenhouse effect
17
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IMPORTANCE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY IN
KENYA’S ENERGY MIX
Advantages of Nuclear Power
• Nuclear power was deployed rapidly to replace coal, oil and gas in the
industrial countries, and is eventually being adopted by developing
countries .
• An intelligent combination of energy conservation, and renewable
energies for local low-intensity applications, and nuclear energy for
base-load electricity production, is the only viable way for the future
• With the new high temperature reactors we will be able to recover fresh
water from the sea and support hydrogen production. i.e. desalination of
sea water and hydrogenation.
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IMPORTANCE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY IN
KENYA’S ENERGY MIX
Economic Benefits of Nuclear Power
• plants provide low-cost, predictable power at stable prices and are
essential in maintaining the reliability of the U.S. electric power system
• Nuclear plants also contribute to national energy security and ensure
stable nationwide electricity supply
• Nuclear energy is not subject to unreliable weather or climate
conditions, unpredictable cost fluctuations, or dependence on foreign
suppliers. In fact, nuclear energy is a strong domestic as well as
international industry, with extensive fuel supply sources.
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IMPORTANCE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY IN
KENYA’S ENERGY MIX
Economic Benefits of Nuclear Power
• They help supply the necessary level of electricity, or "base load
generation," for the electricity transmission network, or "grid," to
operate
• plants provide low-cost, predictable power at stable prices and are
essential in maintaining the reliability of the U.S. electric power
system
• Nuclear plants also contribute to national energy security and ensure
stable nationwide electricity supply
21
IMPORTANCE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY IN
KENYA’S ENERGY MIX
Economic Benefits of Nuclear Power
• Nuclear energy is not subject to unreliable weather or climate conditions,
unpredictable cost fluctuations, or dependence on foreign suppliers. In fact,
nuclear energy is a strong domestic as well as international industry, with
extensive fuel supply sources.
• They help supply the necessary level of electricity, or "base load
generation," for the electricity transmission network, or "grid," to operate.
• Nuclear power plants have long periods of operation. Nuclear power plants
are designed to operate continuously for long periods of time. They can run
about 540 days before they are shut down for refueling.
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IMPORTANCE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY IN
KENYA’S ENERGY MIX
Economic Benefits of Nuclear Power
• The costs involved in producing electricity at a nuclear power plant,
operations and maintenance plus fuel, have been declining over the past
decade. In addition, there are no unexpected additional costs.
• Nuclear power plants have long periods of operation. Nuclear power
plants are designed to operate continuously for long periods of time.
They can run about 540 days before they are shut down for refueling.
• The costs involved in producing electricity at a nuclear power plant,
operations and maintenance plus fuel, have been declining over the past
decade. In addition, there are no unexpected additional costs.
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IMPORTANCE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY IN
KENYA’S ENERGY MIX
Economic Benefits of Nuclear Power
• Another value of nuclear power, transmission system support, is
provision of ancillary services such as voltage support, and play a
key role in maintaining the reliability of the grid, a service with
value in an unbundled market.
• Nuclear power plants have significant additional site value, such as
switchyards, access to the grid, ingress and egress, and spare cooling
capacity. In many cases, they were planned for more units than were
built, providing room to build additional non-nuclear generation.
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IMPORTANCE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY IN
KENYA’S ENERGY MIX
Economic Benefits of Nuclear Power
• Abundant fuel with low cost and stable price. Uranium is a
relatively abundant element that occurs naturally in the earth's crust.
Uranium oxide is about as common as tin. Compared to natural gas,
a fuel also used to generate electricity, uranium is already relatively
low in cost and less sensitive to fuel price increases.
• And a little goes a long way: one uranium fuel pellet-the size of the
tip of your little finger-is the equivalent of 17,000 cubic feet of
natural gas, 1,780 pounds of coal, or 149 gallons of oil.
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IMPORTANCE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY IN
KENYA’S ENERGY MIX
Bonus Economic Benefits of Nuclear Power
• Nuclear plants create as many as 400-700 high-paying, full-time
jobs at each facility.
• Nuclear plants can create the same number of community jobs to
support the plant work force (grocery stores, schools, dry cleaners,
etc.).
• The average nuclear plant generates $430 million in sales of goods
and services in the community.
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IMPORTANCE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY IN
KENYA’S ENERGY MIX
Bonus Economic Benefits of Nuclear Power
• The average nuclear plant generates $40 million in total labor
income.
• The average nuclear plant generates nearly $20 million in state and
local tax revenue, benefiting schools, roads and other state
infrastructure.
• Nuclear energy costs are more stable compared to other forms of
electricity generation, keeping costs low for consumers.
27
IMPORTANCE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY IN
KENYA’S ENERGY MIX
Present Conditions of other energy Resources
• industrial civilization runs on energy and 85% of the world’s energy
is provided by the fossil fuels, coal, oil and gas.
• Coal is found almost everywhere and reserves should last several
centuries.
• Petroleum: Discoveries of new deposits are not keeping up with
consumption and production of oil is about to peak. At the present
rate of consumption, reserves are estimated to last a few decades, but
consumption is growing rapidly.
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IMPORTANCE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY IN
KENYA’S ENERGY MIX
Present Conditions of other energy Resources
• More than half the world’s oil production today is located in the fragile
and politically unstable area of the Persian Gulf, as is an even greater
fraction of our future reserves;(With Kenya’s oil discovery this situation
may change)
• Gas: Reserves are similarly limited and estimated to last for a few
decades.
• These fossil fuels were laid down over geological times and it seems
likely they will have been totally exploited over the few centuries from
about 1,850 to 2,100.
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IMPORTANCE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY IN
KENYA’S ENERGY MIX
Environmental Consequences
• In burning fossil fuels, we inject 23 billion tons of carbon dioxide every year
into the atmosphere – 730 tons per second. This is significantly altering the
composition of the atmosphere and seriously affecting the climate of our
planet.
Conservation and Renewable
• widespread economic development and enhanced life expectancy on the one
hand and finite fossil fuel resources on the other, conservation can only delay
the crisis that will arise from the penury of oil and gas.
• Energy efficiency and alternate sources of energy can and must be developed.
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IMPORTANCE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY IN
KENYA’S ENERGY MIX
• Environmentalists are enchanted by the simplicity of solar cells and the
pristine elegance of wind turbines, and they refuse to accept the fact that
they are quantitatively incapable of supplying the energy required by an
industrial civilization.
• they are useful alternatives and have important niche roles to play – in
remote locations and under special circumstances.
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IMPORTANCE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY IN
KENYA’S ENERGY MIX
• One kilogram (kg) of firewood can generate 1 kilowatt-hour
(kWh) of electricity. The values for the other solid fossil fuels and
for nuclear power are shown in the table below:
•Reason they can make only a marginal contribution to the
energy needs of a growing industrial civilization.
•Mineral resources : By 2100, oil and natural gas reserves will
likely be exhausted. This leaves coal and nuclear energy.
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CHALLENGES OF NUCLEAR POWER
PLANTS
Just like any other power plants Nuclear plants also have challenges as follows:
• Nuclear plants require a relatively higher upfront capital cost investment
compared to other energy sources.
• Proliferation concerns since breeder reactors yield products that could
potentially be diverted and turned into atomic weapons.
• The spent fuel waste is highly radioactive and has to be carefully stored for
many years or decades after use. This adds to the costs of operation and
maintenance of the plants. Globally, there is currently no disposal
mechanism for radioactive and chemical materials.
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CHALLENGES OF NUCLEAR POWER
PLANTS Cont’d
• There are increased global safety concerns especially after nuclear
accidents of Chernobyl, Ukraine (1986) and Fukushima, Japan
(2011). The concerns are even higher within the Kenyan public who
are not adequately informed about nuclear energy.
34
MITIGATION FACTORS FOR NUCLEAR
POWER CHALLENGES
• It is important to note that the international nuclear industry through
comprehensive RD&D has substantially addressed most of the
concerns and challenges that traditionally undermined nuclear energy
as a form of economical and safe energy. This can be evidenced in the
fact that in 2005, the IAEA was awarded the prestigious Nobel Peace
Prize for ‘its efforts in preventing nuclear energy from being used for
military purposes and most importantly for ensuring that nuclear
energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way’.
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MITIGATION FACTORS FOR NUCLEAR
POWER CHALLENGES
Some of the measures to mitigate the challenges include:
(a) Comprehensive nuclear laws, regulations and treaties, in reactor
designs,
operator
training,
public
awareness,
emergency
preparedness, enhanced safety, additional safeguards and security
standards, all which have greatly reduced probability of occurrence of
nuclear accidents and negative impact on public environment, health
and safety.
(b) New reactor types have been designed to make it physically
impossible to melt down. This is due to elaborate regulation
36
MITIGATION FACTORS FOR NUCLEAR
POWER CHALLENGES
(c) Development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) provides an
attractive and affordable nuclear power option for many developing
countries with small electrical grids, insufficient infrastructure and limited
investment capability. Multi-module power plants with SMRs may offer
energy production flexibility that energy market deregulation might call for
in future in many countries. SMRs are also of particular interest for cogeneration and many advanced future process heat applications. Some
SMRs designs reduce obligations of the user for spent fuel and waste
management and offer greater non-proliferation assurances to the
international community.
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MITIGATION FACTORS FOR NUCLEAR
POWER CHALLENGES
(d) Heightened vigilance by the IAEA and the international community
has ensured recent nuclear energy research, development and use are
increasingly for peaceful purposes and not military use.
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CONCLUSION
• Today's global challenge is to develop strategies that foster a sustainable
energy future less dependent on fossil fuels.
• As a proven and environmentally benign technology and with its potential
as a sustainable long term energy supply into the distant future, nuclear
power can be an important contributor to sustainable development. It is a
multipurpose power source providing base load electricity and offering a
wide range of potential applications in the non-electric sector.
• But for nuclear power to play its full role in a less fossil dependent age, its
acceptance and understanding by the public is vital. Kenyan’s must have
confidence in themselves to achieve nuclear energy status
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CONCLUSION
Nuclear Power is Key to achievement of Kenya’s development
agenda of providing affordable quality energy for all Kenyans
by the year 2030.
Quote
Nothing in life is to be feared, it is only to be understood. Now is
the time to understand more, so that we may fear less.
By Marie Curie (7 Nov 1867 – 4 Jul 1934),
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Thank You
Questions ?
41
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