7-3.4 Industrial Revolution Vocabulary
1. Socialism
2. Textile
3. Enclosure Movement
4. Agricultural Movement
5. Crop rotation
6. Proletariat
7. Cottage Industry/Domestic System
8. Urbanization
9. Industrialization
Standard 7-3.4
1. The Beginning
The industrial revolution started with the Agricultural
Revolution and early advancements in farming. (Crop
Rotation, Seed Drill, Selective Breeding)
B. The agricultural revolution led to a population increase
C. This forced small farmers to become tenant farmers
(farmers who worked someone else’s land), or move
into the cities.
2. Seeds for Industrialism
Great Britain was in a great location to industrialize.
B. It had access to natural resources as well as rivers and
C. The people were experienced entrepreneurs
D. Great Britain had experienced a time of stability and
3. Economic Revolution
The industrial revolution had widespread effects on the
economy. The Revolution began with the invention of
B. New textile machines for weaving and spinning that had
been done by hand was now being done in a factory
(end of the cottage system)
4. New Technologies
The flying shuttle revolutionized the textile production
process. It doubled the amount of weaving a worker
could do in one day.
B. The Spinning Jenny allowed a worker to spin eight
threads at once, then came improved tools: water
powered loom, water frame, spinning mule.
C. Water power allowed the machines to work at a much
faster pace.
D. The Cotton Gin, invented by Eli Whitney, allowed for
much faster processing of cotton, and therefore an
increased amount of textiles.
5. Relocation
Because of the need for water power, factories were
built along rivers and streams.
B. Jobs that people had done in the home were relocated
to these places where they could be done cheaper and
C. With the invention of the steam engine factories could
be built anywhere, but the cottage industry was over.
6. Changes in Transportation
The steam engine created a huge increase in new
forms of transportation
B. Steamboats, and steam powered locomotives were
constructed, creating a need for canals and railway
C. Coal was needed to power these machines – increase
in mining/miners
D. Inexpensive travel meant wider distribution of goods.
7. Dividing things Up
The factory system led to standardization of
Interchangeable parts were used, allowing people to
switch out broken parts of an item for working ones
without scrapping the entire piece.
Workers were assigned specific tasks, which increased
productivity and decreased worker training times
Mass production allowed for goods to be built at a
cheaper price.
More money was to be made in factories than on farms,
this led to people flocking to the cities.
8. Rural to Urban Movement
When people moved from the farms into the cities there
were many social changes. Many cities doubled in size!
B. Low pay and living conditions meant that the lower
class often didn’t have basic needs, such as running
C. The middle and upper classes moved into the suburbs,
away from the filth of the cities.
D. This led to an increase in class divisions.
9. Regulation of Industrialism
Laissez-Faire capitalism, or “a hands off approach” to
capitalism was what started the industrial revolution.
B. This led to differences in the distribution of wealth as
the rich got richer and the poor stayed poor.
C. The working class was oppressed or held down by the
upper class and felt socialism, or cooperative
ownership of industry, was the right answer.
10. The ideas of socialism
The workers felt socialism gave them more protection
than capitalism.
B. It promised to better distribute wealth to all people
C. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engles wrote The Communist
Manifesto stating that socieity was divided and the
proletariat (the have nots) would overthrow the
bourgeoisie (The haves).
D. This revolution did not occur, but it inspired many
11. Labor Unions
As a result of the conditions and unfair practices many
workers formed labor unions.
B. Unions were groups that worked together to get better
working conditions, higher pay, and shorter working
hours. They didn’t want to be taken advantage of
C. Eventually they succeeded and in the 1830s British
parliament allowed the first unions.
12. The Effects of Industrialization
Once nations became industrialized, they started to
look for cheap labor and resources.
B. They started to look for weaker, non industrialized
C. This led to imperialism and a competition for resources!

The Industrial Revolution