Climate Change and Water
Resources in Lebanon
Nadim Farajalla, PhD
Director
Department of Land, Water and Environment
SETS
Climate Change in Lebanon
Annual Rainfall in Beirut
1400.0
1200.0
Rain (mm)
1000.0
800.0
600.0
400.0
200.0
0.0
1870
1890
1910
1930
1950
Year
AUB
Linear (AUB)
1970
1990
Anticipated Impacts on Water Resources
reduction of about 20% in precipitation (rainfall
and snowfall)
Anticipated Impacts on Water Resources
reduction in snow cover
Anticipated Impacts on Water Resources
increase in severe storms and their frequency
Anticipated Impacts on Water Resources
increase in evapotranspiration
Coast
Inland
Anticipated Impacts on Water Resources
increase in the occurrence and frequency of droughts
Drought Years
Normal Years
Reference
Condition
1993 - 1998
S 1P↓10%
and
ET↑10%
S 2P↓10%
and
ET↑20%
S 3P↓20%
and
ET↑10%
S 4P↓20%
and
ET↑20%
S 5P↓30%
and
ET↑10%
S 6P↓30%
and
ET↑20%
S 7P↓40%
and
ET↑10%
S 8P↓40%
and
ET↑20%
Anticipated Impacts on Water Resources
increase in forest fires leading to:
 decrease in ground cover
 increase in erosion
 decrease in infiltration → decrease in groundwater recharge
Anticipated Impacts on Water Resources
reduction in surface and ground water quality

higher temperatures reduce dissolved oxygen levels  reduced assimilative
capacity;

reduced stream flow and lake levels  less dilution of pollutants;

increased frequency and intensity of rainfall  more pollution and sedimentation
due to increased runoff
Anticipated Impacts on Water Resources
sea water rise intrusion into
 coastal aquifers
 sewage and stormwater sea outfalls/networks in coastal areas.
Current Status
 There are no comprehensive development plans to adapt to the
anticipated climate changes – Lebanon set a goal at COP 15 to
increase renewable energy contribution to 12% of total.
 Lebanon has issued its first national communication and has
nearly completed the second
 Lebanon has participated in the National Economic and
Environmental Development Studies project
 There have been some individual efforts by some ministries but
these do not construe a national plan (e.g. Ministry of Energy
and Water’s ten-year plan)
Recommended Adaptation Measures
 Improve water resources management on national and local
levels
 This requires the development of a national water management
plan/strategy which is based on three main components:
 Water demand management
 Water storage strategy
 Alternative water sources
NB – Issue of tariffs, economic incentives, etc. will not be discussed
Water Demand Management
 Agriculture:
 Irrigation:
 Improved conveyance and application efficiencies, e.g. reduce leaks, move
from sprinkler and drip methods
 New management techniques, e.g. deficit irrigation
 Control use of groundwater
 Crop production:
 Proper crop selection (i.e. stop growing crops that demand a lot of water and
select crops that are tolerant to drought or low precipitation)
 Develop rainfed agriculture
 Shift crop growing areas to regions that have more rainfall or available water
Water Demand Management
 Domestic:
 Reduce leakage in water distribution networks
 Reduce illegal tapping into the distribution network
 Promote the use of water saving devices in homes and
establishments, e.g. dual flush toilets, automated and/or timed
water faucets, low head showers, etc.
 Recycle wastewater: greywater and blackwater recycling at the
individual and collective dwelling levels
 Strictly limit and control access to groundwater
Water Storage Strategy
 Reservoirs
 Hill lakes
 Groundwater recharge
 Dams
Alternative Water Sources
 Use of treated sewage effluent
 Desalinization
 Water harvesting
Thank You
for further information
Nadim Farajalla
mobile: +961-3-536006
office: +961-1-755411
fax:+961-1-755422
e-mail: [email protected]
Skype: nfarajalla
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(AUB) "Climate change and water resources in Lebanon."