th
8
Grade Science EOG
Review
Chemistry 8.P.1
• 8.P.1.1 Classify matter as elements, compounds, or mixtures based on how
the atoms are packed together in arrangements.
• 8.P.1.2 Explain how the physical properties of elements and their reactivity
have been used to produce the current model of the Periodic Table of
elements.
• 8.P.1.3 Compare physical changes such as size, shape and state to chemical
changes that are the result of a chemical reaction to include changes in
temperature, color, formation of a gas or precipitate.
8.P.1.1 Classifying Matter
1. Which of the following best describes an element?
a.
b.
c.
d.
A pure substance used to describe matter
A substance that cannot be changed easily into another substance
A substance that can only be found in mixtures
A substance that is chemically combined
2.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Which of the following represents a mixture?
A piece of copper wire
Air in the atmosphere
Sugar
A gold coin
3. H2O and H2O2 are two compounds that are formed by bonding hydrogen
and oxygen. These compounds demonstrate that
a.
b.
c.
d.
Elements combine in many different ways to make compounds
Elements combine randomly
Both compounds are gases
Hydrogen peroxide has more elements in it
4. You are trying to separate a mixture of water, sand and iron that are frozen
together. The mixture is relatively easy to separate because
a.
b.
c.
d.
The substances are chemically combined
The substances are physically combined
The mixture is a homogenous mixture
The mixture is a solution
5. Which of the following is the BEST example of a homogenous mixture?
Choose the best answer and explain why you chose that answer.
•
•
•
•
Soil
Cement
Salt water
Chicken noodle soup
8.P.1.2 Periodic Table
1.
a.
b.
c.
d.
What do elements in the same family have in common?
Number of protons
Masses of their atoms
Similar chemical properties
State of matter
2.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Which of the elements listed below has properties most like helium?
Fluorine
Gallium
Xenon
Mercury
3. The Noble gases are found in family 18 of the periodic table. Which
statement about the Noble gases is correct?
a.
b.
c.
d.
They consist of solids, liquids and gases
They are highly reactive with other elements
They have a full shell of valence electrons and are unreactive
They form compounds easily
4.
a.
b.
c.
d.
According to the periodic table, most nonmetals are
Liquids
Poor conductors of heat and electricity
Easy to hammer and shape
Shiny in appearance
5. In order to find carbon in the periodic table, what group and period must
you use?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Period 14, group 2
Period 16, group 6
Period 15, group 3
Period 2, group 14
6. Explain the organization of the modern periodic table.
8.P.1.3 Physical and Chemical Reactions
1. Which of the following is a chemical property of matter?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Luster
State of matter
Malleability
Flammability
2.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Which of the following may happen during a physical change?
New substances are created
Reactants form products
Phase changes may occur due to a change in temperature
A precipitate may form
3. A student plans to build an electric motor for his science fair project. He decides to
test how well different materials conduct electricity from the batteries to the motor.
Which of the following materials will be the best conductor for the motor?
a.
b.
c.
d.
A rubber band
A copper wire
A glass rod
A plastic rod
4. When baking soda and vinegar are combined, what evidence suggests that a
chemical change has occurred?
a.
b.
c.
d.
The baking soda dissolves in the vinegar
A gas is produced
Light is given off
The state of matter changes
5. Observe the picture to the right. Explain in your
own words the difference between a physical and a
chemical change in matter.
6. Describe 4 indicators of a chemical reaction.
• _________________________
• _________________________
• _________________________
• _________________________
7. If 94 grams of a product (WX) are produced from a chemical reaction that started
with 44 grams of X, how many grams of W went into the chemical reaction?
8. Give an example of each of the following:
• Element
• Compound
• Solution
• Heterogeneous Mixture
9. Which of the following statements refers to a physical property of a
substance?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Carbon combines with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide
The density of copper is 8.93 g/cm3
Acids are corrosive
Zinc metal reacts with an acid to produce hydrogen gas
10. What physical properties make metals suitable for use in electrical wiring?
a. Malleability and ductility
b. Conductivity and ductility
c. Solubility and malleability
d. Magnetism and ductility
• Describe the picture of
talking to a person who
the duck as if you were
was blindfolded.
• Think about the physical properties of the duck as you describe it.
Energy 8.P.2
• 8.P.2.1 Explain the environmental consequences of the various methods of
obtaining, transforming, and distributing energy.
• 8.P.2.2 Explain the implications of the depletion of renewable and
nonrenewable energy resources and the importance of conservation.
8.P.2.1 Environmental
Consequences of Obtaining Energy
1.
a.
b.
c.
d.
People object to the burning of fossil fuels because
They are cheap
They produce a lot of energy
They release polluting gases
They are renewable
2. Opponents of hydraulic fracturing would most likely agree with which of
the following statements?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Fracking is good for the economy and land
Natural gas is a good renewable energy source
Fracking is environmentally safe
Fracking could lead to an increase in natural gas/methane in water sources
3. A negative effect of nuclear energy is
a.
b.
c.
d.
Too much energy
Radioactive waste
Clean energy
All are negative effects
4. Positive impacts of drilling for natural gas in the US include all of the
following except
a.
b.
c.
d.
An increase in jobs
Less reliance on importing natural gas from other countries
Cleaner burning energy source
An increase in traffic and construction
5.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Which of the following is NOT true of wind energy?
Wind energy is reliable
Wind energy will not produce any waste or greenhouse gases
Wind energy uses no fuel to run the turbines
Wind energy is renewable
8.P.2.2 Renewable and Nonrenewable Energy
1. Which of the following statements can be used to describe renewable
energy?
a.
b.
c.
d.
It will run out
Most renewable energy resources do not need to be burned
It pollutes the environment
They all use the power of the sun
2. A non-renewable energy source
a.
b.
c.
d.
Can be plugged in and charged
Will eventually run out
Will not work for new appliances
Can be used over and over again
3. Which of the following best describes why fossil fuel supplies are limited?
a. Only small amounts of fossil fuels ever formed and early humans used most of
the supply
b. Fossil fuels exist in large quantities, but they are difficult for scientists to locate
c. Fossil fuels formed over millions of years and they are being used more rapidly
than they can be replaced
d. People are not allowed to use large amounts of fossil fuels
4. Which of the following is NOT a biomass energy source?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Wood
Crops
Petroleum
Animal waste
5. Predict what will happen to non-renewable energy sources as the US
population increases and energy consumption increases.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Our resources will run out faster
Our resources will last longer
There will be no change in the amount of resources used
Renewable resources will also run out
8.E.2 Earth History
8.E.2.1 Infer the age of Earth and relative age of rocks and fossils from index
fossils and ordering of rock layers (relative dating and radioactive dating).
8.E.2.2 Explain the use of fossils, ice cores, composition of sedimentary rocks,
faults, and igneous rock formations found in rock layers as evidence of the
history of the Earth and its changing life forms.
8.E.2.1 Age of Earth, Rocks and Fossils
1. The diagram shows a cross section of land that
has not been overturned and contains fossils. Which
event occurred last at this location?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Shale was deposited
Glacial till was deposited
Basaltic lava flows became solid
Glossopteris thrived and then became extinct
2. A scientist wants to find the absolute age of a rock. Which of these is the
scientist most likely to use?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Radioactive dating
Law of Superposition
Geologic Time Scale
Ice cores
3. Cobalt-60 has a half-life of 5 years. How many years will it take for 100
grams of Cobalt-60 to be reduced to 6.25 grams?
a.
b.
c.
d.
5 years
10 years
15 years
20 years
4. An unstable isotope has a half-life of 10 years. If there were 60 grams of
the isotope to begin with, how many grams of it would remain after 40 years?
a.
b.
c.
d.
15 grams
7.5 grams
3.75 grams
30 grams
5. Which life form is most likely to be found in the lowest level of sedimentary
rock?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Dinosaurs
Early humans
Simple marine organisms
Sabre toothed tigers
6. According to the diagram, which statement
is true about the fossils in the rock layers?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Fossil 1 is older than fossil 4
Fossil 1 is younger than fossil 2
Fossil 3 is younger than fossil 5
Fossil 3 is the same age as fossil 5
7. According to the diagram, what can
you infer about the age of the igneous
intrusion compared to the other layers
of rock. Explain your reasoning.
8.E.2.2 Fossils, ice cores and rocks as evidence
of Earth’s history
1.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Fossils are useful to develop
A timeline of future species
A history of the stability of life
Predictions about the future
A history of the Earth
2. A scientist finds fossils from the same organism in India and Africa. What is
a possible explanation for the presence of these fossils on two different
continents?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Adaptation
Continental drift
Climate change
Law of superposition
3. When scientists analyze the fossil record, they find organisms that are similar to
some organisms of today with noticeable changes. How does this help scientists to
interpret the past?
a.
b.
c.
d.
It doesn’t help them at all
It allows them to see how organisms have changed over time
It allows them to see how organism have remained the same over time
It allows them to see that there is no relationship between the past and today
4. How can fossils tell us about Earth’s past?
a. Fossils give clues about environmental changes where organisms lived
b. Fossils can be used to date the time period of rocks and rock layers when
the organism lived
c. Fossils can give clues of changes in the organism body structure over time
d. All of the above
5. Ice cores provide evidence of Earth’s
a.
b.
c.
d.
Rock layers
Atmosphere and climate change
Ocean composition
Index fossils
8.L 4 Evolution and Genetics
• 8.L.4.1 Summarize the use of evidence drawn from geology, fossils, and
comparative anatomy to form the basis for biological classification systems
and the theory of evolution.
• 8.L.4.2 Explain the relationship between genetic variation and an organism’s
ability to adapt to its environment.
8.L.4.1 Biological Classification Systems and
the Theory of Evolution
1. The front leg of a cat, the front flipper of a dolphin,
and the wing of a bat have the same structure and order
of bones. These structures do not look alike and do
not have the same function, but their bones are similar.
What might scientists say about the cat, dolphin and bat based on this evidence?
a. They are homologous structures and indicate a common ancestor b. they are
analogous structures and indicate different ancestors c. they all live in an aquatic
environment d. they all have the ability to fly
• 2. Which of the following is not an example of a vestigial structure?
a. Appendix in humans
b. Leg bones in whales
c. Wings of bats
d. Wisdom teeth in humans
• 3. Which is a basis for biological classification?
a. Sharing similarities in behavior
b. Sharing the same ecosystem
c. Sharing a common ancestor
d. Sharing similar places in the food web
8.L.4.2 Genetic Variation and Adaptation
• 1. How does a species survive a climate change over thousands of years?
a. It reproduces more rapidly
b. It hibernates and waits for better climate conditions
c. It makes no changes
d. It adapts to the changing climate
• 2. The snowshoe hare has the ability to change its coat color. It is brown during the
spring, summer and early fall but changes to white as winter approaches. What
adaptation does the snowshoe hare have that allows it to hide from predators?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Symbiosis
Commensalism
Camouflage
All of the above
• 3. Which of the following, over time, is most likely to lead to speciation?
a. Geographic isolation
b. A forest fire
c. An earthquake
d. Falling sea levels
• 4. Which of the following plant adaptations would not protect the plant
from being eaten by herbivores?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Leaves that are covered by tiny, sharp spines
Leaves that have a very bitter taste
Leaves that contain a poisonous chemical
Leaves that store large amounts of water
8.L.1 Structure and Function of Living
Organisms
• 8.L.1.1 Summarize the basic characteristics of viruses, bacteria, fungi and
parasites relating to the spread, treatment and prevention of disease.
• 8.L.1.2 Explain the difference between epidemic and pandemic as it relates to
the spread, treatment and prevention of disease.
8.L.1.1 Microbes and Disease
1. Which best explains how a virus affects other organisms?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Viruses increase the survival of other organisms
Viruses immediately destroy all cells they come in contact with
Viruses live and reproduce in between the cells of other organisms
Viruses invade the cells of other organisms, using them to reproduce
• 2. Which of the following structures are not found in a bacterial cell?
a. Cytoplasm
b. Nucleus
c. Ribosomes
d. Cell membrane
• 3. Which would be the least effective in treating an illness caused by a virus?
a. Drinking plenty of fluids
b. Widespread vaccinations
c. Getting extra sleep
d. Daily treatment with antibiotics
• 4. Which kind of organisms are disease causing yeasts and molds?
a. Bacteria
b. Fungi
c. Parasites
d. viruses
8.L.1.2 Pandemic and Epidemic
• 1. Which of these is best described as a pandemic?
a. A student catches the flu from her younger brother
b. Three members of a soccer team come down with the flu
c. Dozens of people in two neighboring towns have flu at the same time
d. Tens of millions of people worldwide are infected with the flu in the same
year
• 2. Which of the following is an example of an epidemic?
a. Dengue fever in an African village
b. Smallpox outbreak on several continents
c. Swine flu cases reported in multiple countries
d. Many people affected by tuberculosis worldwide
• 3. Which poses the greatest challenge for researchers when attempting to
locate the source of a nationwide food based salmonella outbreak?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Cost of the study
Number of food producers involved
Time needed for the study
Number of people infected
• 4. Which best explains why researchers are working to improve antimicrobial
drugs?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Microbes are becoming more resistant to current drugs
Microbes are learning to detect current drugs
Microbes are growing too large to be stopped by current drugs
Microbes are being wiped out by antimicrobial drugs
8.L.5 Molecular Biology
• 8.L.5.1 Summarize how food provides the energy and the molecules required
for building materials, growth and survival of all organisms (to include
plants).
• 8.L.5.2 Explain the relationship among a healthy diet, exercise, and the
general health of the body (emphasis on the relationship between respiration
and digestion).
8.L.5.1 Food and Energy
• 1. Which process releases energy from food molecules?
a. Meiosis
b. Photosynthesis
c. Cellular respiration
d. symbiosis
• 2. How do animals obtain the carbon and nitrogen they need for building
materials?
a.
b.
c.
d.
By eating food
By breathing
By performing photosynthesis
By performing cellular respiration
3. How do plant cells release the energy they need to carry out their life
processes?
a. By photosynthesis in the chloroplasts
b. By respiration in the mitochondria
c. By mitosis in the nucleus
d. By absorption in the cell membrane
• 4. In which process do cells take in carbon dioxide and use it to make food
molecules?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Decomposition
Meiosis
Photosynthesis
respiration
8.L.5.2 Diet, Exercise and Health
• 1. Which describes digestion in the human body?
a. A process that breaks down food into smaller molecules that cells can use
b. A process that releases energy from food molecules
c. A process that delivers oxygen throughout the body
d. A process by which the body gets rid of wastes
• 2. Which is most likely to improve a person’s respiratory and cardiovascular
systems the most?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Eating more vegetables
Exercising two hours a week
Quitting tobacco smoking
Taking multivitamins
• 3. Which system delivers nutrients to the body’s cells?
a. Circulatory
b. Digestive
c. Respiratory
d. nervous
8.L.2 Biotechnology
• 8.L.2.1 Summarize aspects of biotechnology including:
• Specific genetic information available
• Careers
• Economic benefits to North Carolina
• Ethical issues
• Implications for agriculture
8.L.2.1
• 1. Which is an example of biotechnology?
a. Developing hydropower energy sources
b. Studying how viruses cause disease
c. Developing crop plants that are resistant to weed killers
d. Using bioindicators to monitor water quality
• 2. Which describes a risk of biotechnology?
a. Bacteria can be used to make insulin and other human chemicals less expensively
b. DNA fingerprinting can prove that an accused person did not commit the crime
c. Health insurance companies may refuse to insure people who have genes for
diseases
d. Human gene mapping can lead to treatment or prevention of disease
• 3. Studying biotechnology is most likely to be useful for which career?
a. Computer scientist
b. Nuclear physicist
c. Agricultural researcher
d. Archaeologist
• 4. Which is a possible risk of gene-modified crop plants?
a. They may help increase the world’s food supply
b. They will allow farmers to reduce the use of pesticides
c. Fruits and vegetables from such plants stay fresh longer
d. Genes from the plants may cross over into wild plants
8.L.3 Ecosystems
• 8.L.3.1 Explain how factors such as food, water, shelter, and space affect populations in an
ecosystem.
• 8.L.3.2 Summarize the relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers including
the positive and negative consequences of such interactions including:
•
•
•
•
•
• coexistence and cooperation
• competition (predator/prey)
• parasitism
• mutualism
8.L.3.3 Explain how the flow of energy within food webs is interconnected with the cycling of
matter (including water, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and oxygen).
8.L.3.1 Populations
• 1. Which is an example of an abiotic factor that would strongly affect the
population of water lilies in a pond?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Sunlight
Fish
Insects
rocks
• 2. Suppose most of the rabbits in an area suddenly die from a disease. What would
happen to the populations of the rabbits’ predators and competitors?
a. Populations of both predators and competitors would increase
b. Populations of predators would increase, and those of competitors would
decrease
c. Populations of predators would decrease, and those of competitors would
increase
d. Populations of both predators and competitors would decrease
• 3. Which biotic factor would have the greatest impact on the number of
rabbits in a meadow?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Water
Trees
Squirrels
foxes
8.L.3.2 Interactions in Ecosystems
• 1. On the Serengeti Plain, zebras eat grass and giraffes eat the leaves at the
tops of trees. Which term best describes the relationship between zebras
and giraffes?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Competition
Coexistence
Predation
mutualism
• 2. Which of these organisms is a decomposer?
a. Rainbow trout
b. Button mushroom
c. Northern cardinal
d. Flowering dogwood
• 3. Which term best describes an organism that lives in or on another
organism?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Decomposer
Parasite
Consumer
predator
• 4. Cleaner fish are fish that eat the parasites on larger fish. Which term best
describes the relationship between the cleaner fish and the larger fish?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Competition
Predation
Mutualism
parasitism
8.L.3.3 Food Webs/Cycling of Matter
• 1. Which correctly describes an event in the carbon cycle?
a. Animals take in carbon through respiration
b. Plants release carbon through photosynthesis
c. Plants and animals release carbon through decomposition
d. Plants and animals take in carbon through combustion
• 2. Think about how energy flows in this food web.
Which organisms are found at the level with the most available energy?
a.
b.
c.
d.
fox, snake, hawk
Birds, toads, spiders
Mice, squirrels, rabbits
plants
• 3. How does nitrogen gas in the air become nitrogen in the molecules of
living things?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Decomposition
Nitrogen fixing bacteria in the soil
Lightning fixation
Producer uptake
8.E.1 Hydrosphere
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
8.E.1.1 Explain the structure of the hydrosphere including:
• Water distribution on earth
• Local river basin and water availability
8.E.1.2 Summarize evidence that Earth’s oceans are a reservoir of nutrients, minerals, dissolved gases, and life forms:
• Estuaries
• Marine ecosystems
• Upwelling
• Behavior of gases in the marine environment
• Value and sustainability of marine resources
• Deep ocean technology and understandings gained
8.E.1 Hydrosphere
•
8.E.1.3 Predict the safety and potability of water supplies in North Carolina based on physical and biological factors, including:
•
• Temperature
•
• Dissolved oxygen
•
• pH
•
• Nitrates and phosphates
•
• Turbidity
•
• Bio-indicators
•
8.E.1.4 Conclude that the good health of humans requires:
•
• Monitoring of the hydrosphere
•
• Water quality standards
•
• Methods of water treatment
•
• Maintaining safe water quality
•
• Stewardship
8.E.1.1 Structure of Hydrosphere
• 1. Which describes a characteristic of river basins?
a. They are a source of groundwater
b. They flow down from aquifers
c. They drain into the ocean
d. They are saltwater ecosystems
• 2. A small creek flows through a gorge before it joins a larger river. Which
term best describes the creek?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Aquifer
Estuary
Tributary
Watershed
• 3. Where is most of Earth’s freshwater located?
a. In the ocean
b. In polar ice caps
c. In lakes and rivers
d. In underground aquifers
4. About what percentage of Earth’s surface is covered with water?
a.
b.
c.
d.
90 percent
70 percent
50 percent
30 percent
8.E.1.2 Earth’s Oceans
• 1. Which organism is most likely to be found in an estuary environment?
a. Whale
b. Crab
c. Jellyfish
d. dolphin
2. What are the most likely effects of ocean upwelling?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Decreased photosynthesis and increased chemosynthesis
Increased nutrients and increased populations of algae and fish
Increased pollution and decreased animal and plant populations
Increased water temperature and decreased dissolved oxygen
• 3. Which organism is most likely to be found near the surface of the open
ocean?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Clam
Crab
Snail
whale
8.E.1.3 Water Quality
• 1. What is the relationship between water temperature and dissolved
oxygen?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Water temperature has no effect on the amount of dissolved oxygen
As water temperature goes up, the amount of dissolved oxygen increases
The amount of dissolved oxygen decreases as water temperature decreases
Cold water can contain more dissolved oxygen than warm water can
• 2. Which is a biological indicator of water quality?
a. Turbidity
b. Salinity
c. Diversity of insect larvae
d. pH level
• 3. What is the most immediate effect of high levels of nitrates and
phosphates in a body of water?
a.
b.
c.
d.
The pH decreases
The population of algae increases
The fish population decreases
The levels of dissolved oxygen decrease
• 4. Which pair indicates a healthy water source?
a. High levels of phosphates and algae
b. High levels of dissolved oxygen and the presence of fish
c. High salinity and an absence of insect larvae
d. Low turbidity and high pH levels
8.E.1.4 Water Quality and Human Health
1. Which is most likely to improve water quality?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Fewer laws about water
Reduced use of pesticides
Increased use of fertilizers
Release of factory wastes into rivers
• 2. Phosphates help detergents make clothes whiter and clean dishes better.
Which is the best reason why phosphates have been removed from
detergents?
a.
b.
c.
d.
To improve turbidity levels
To prevent pollution of aquifers
To improve the health of humans
To prevent algal blooms
• 3. Which of these is most likely to have a harmful effect on water quality?
a. Having water laws and regulations
b. Treating sewage to kill pathogens
c. Letting pollutants wash out to sea
d. Using chemical indicators to check water quality
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