HIGH LINE
MANHATTAN |
NEW YORK
HOO ZHI XIN 0311196 LEE MIN 0308860 LIM YEE ZHING 0311195 PUNG JIA CHYI 0309585 TANG HUI YING 0312089
MANHATTAN
Area: 33.77 sq mi (87.5 km2)
Density: 27,345.9/km2
GRID SYSTEM,1811
-New York utilize the most versatile grid system for its urban planning
during the 19th century.
-Planned under French-American architect Pierre Charles L’enfant in
1811
-The streets are arranged in numerical / alphabetical order
-Although the system is very efficient, in streets’ characteristics wise
it is lack of identity since most of the arrangement of buildings
are identical.
MANHATTAN
Area: 33.77 sq mi (87.5 km2)
Density: 27,345.9/km2
TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT (TOD) MODEL,1993
As time goes by, world population increased and Manhattan as an
emerging city with skyscrapers, TOD model is used for urban planning.
Land use
-Mixed use development
Structure
-Located on an existing/planned trunk transit line
-Interconnected local streets
Architecture
-Human scale buildings
-Roads to form vistas
MANHATTAN
Area: 33.77 sq mi (87.5 km2)
Density: 27,345.9/km2
CONTEMPORARY TRENDS
The authority is now focus more on district level development,
about consensus-based planning and zoning changes for
individual neighborhoods and business districts, as well as
establishing policies and zoning regulations applicable citywide.
Examples:
-Sustainable communities
-Waterfront development
-Green Manhattan
DEVELOPMENT STATUS
-Steady state & organic
-Preserving initial concept at the same time embed post
modernism elements in it
HIGH LINE
INTRODUCTION
-A linear park(1.6km) built on a historic freight rail line(2.33km)
elevated above the streets on Manhattan’s west side that spans
through 22 blocks.
-Owned by the city of New York, and maintained and operated
by friends of the high line.
-The historic structure was under the treat of demolition, now
maintained by the community,
It serves as an extraordinary public space for all visitors to enjoy.
HIGH LINE
HISTORY
1930s
Built as part of a massive public-private infrastructure
project called the west side improvement.
Lifted freight traffic 30 feet in the air, removing
dangerous trains from the streets of Manhattan's largest
industrial district.
1980s
Faced threatens of demolition since no train has run on it.
1999
Friends of High Line founded by the residents of high line
neighborhood. Advocated preservation of high line and
to
be
reuse as public open space.
2006
Construction of section 1 begins, open to public in 2009.
2011
Section 2 opens to the public
2014
Section 3 under construction
HIGH LINE
SITE & ACCESSIBILITY
The high line is highly accessible with the transport system and public
amenities it provided. It is also a very user friendly space.
-Runs from Gansevoort street in the meatpacking district to west 34th street,
between 10th and 11th avenues.
-Access points at various nodes:
Gansevoort St., 14 St., 23 St., West 18,20,26,28,30 St.
-Fully wheel chair accessible, with elevator services provided at some of
the access points
-Street furniture & public amenities provided
-Bike racks & parking available
-Able to reach by subway & bus
HIGH LINE
DESIGN CONCEPT
Combining agriculture and architecture, the high line is a very
sustainable structure which emphasize horizontal green scape in
the vertical city.
- AGRI-TECTURE
-
-
Combines organic and building materials into gradients of
changing proportions that accommodate a variety of natural
and programmatic conditions.
Surface material : Individual pre-cast concrete planks with
open joints
(to encourage emergent growth like wild grass
through cracks in the sidewalk)
-Tapering units : Comb into planting beds creating a “pathless”
landscape
HIGH LINE
LANDSCAPE – Various kind of combinations and designs which merged the man-made structure and the
nature perfectly, and it’s aesthetic and practical.
HIGH LINE
SPACES & PROGRAMMES
The high line has different kind of spaces which house different
activities. There are mean for gathering spots or walkways for
strolling. It accommodate a group of people and also provide
spaces for individual.
Grassland grove
-Gathering space, secluded seating, picnic area
Rail track walk
-Linear walks, exposed & revealed rail tracks
-Evoking high line’s history as an active freight rail line
HIGH LINE
SPACES & PROGRAMMES
11th Avenue Bridge:
-Elevated cat walk
-Overlooking the city scape & Hudson river
Pershing Square beams:
-High line’s concrete deck stripped away, original framework of
steel beams & girders is shown
-Play elements developed exclusively for high line, unique design
features for kids
HIGH LINE
SPACES & PROGRAMMES
Interim walkway :
- Simple path through the existing self-seeded plantings
-Celebrating the urban landscape that emerged on the High
Line after the trains stopped running in 1980.
Others:
-Free tours, workshops, field trip, festivals
-Encourages communities to explore contemporary arts,
horticulture, and urban preservation, creating innovative
experiences that highlight the distinctiveness of the park.
The activities engaged users to the nature and the structure
itself and prompted human’s awareness towards revitalization
of unused open spaces which create different perceptions
and this makes people rethink about negative spaces in urban
design.
HIGH LINE
OBJECTIVES AND AIMS
OBJECTIVES
Form, Activity, Movement pattern
AIM A: CONNECTING PEOPLE FOR A DIVERSE CITY
Emerged a gathering space in the middle of city
Engaging communities
HIGH LINE
OBJECTIVES AND AIMS
OBJECTIVES
Form, Activity, Movement pattern
AIM B: PROMOTE SUSTAINABILITY FOR A HELTHY CITY
Revitalized abandoned open spaces, lengthened lifespan
of the structure
Promote landscape design in the midst of sky scrappers
HIGH LINE
OBJECTIVES AND AIMS
OBJECTIVES
Form, Activity, Movement pattern
AIM C: DECREASE CRIME RATE FOR A SAFER CITY
Redefine unused open spaces
Constant activities held , public surveillance
FORM
‘Human perception’
Aim A:
Connecting People
FOR A DIVERSE CITY
(A) Height – from ground level
-Can be seen in various streets far away due to
Manhattan’s grid pattern.
-Elevated shrubs and trees can be easily noticed from
street level giving out vibrant color, contrasting with
overloading skyscrapers.
-‘Denial and reward’ effect inviting them for the urge of
greenery and breathing space.
Aim A:
Connecting People
FOR A DIVERSE CITY
(B) Height – from Highline
-Floating 25 feet above the ground, connected
to street life yet far away from it.
-Promotes eye contact (void interaction) in
different angles and directions.
Aim A:
Connecting People
FOR A DIVERSE CITY
(C) Facade
- Art deco masterpiece of industrial design.
- A sense of security through the sturdy color and
skin
-Creates identity and pride for Manhattan
Aim A:
Connecting People
FOR A DIVERSE CITY
(D) Typology - Linear
-Stretches linearly above street horizon.
-Provides seating and several viewing spots
framing streets and buildings activities within linear
typology, emphasizing movement and vision
linearly.
-Plants planted in linear congregate pattern to
shape the focal point.
- Balances optic perception between horizontal
(street) and vertical (skyscrapers).
Aim B: PROMOTE
SUSTAINABILITY
FOR A HEALTHIER CITY
(A) Technology
-The plants purify urban air, absorbing pollutant
-Highline is considered as a walkable green
roof/landscape with all the variety of plants and gives out oxygen decreasing urban heat
island effect in Manhattan.
inserted into the construction system.
Aim B: PROMOTE
SUSTAINABILITY
FOR A HEALTHIER CITY
(B) Height & Facade
-Vertical/elevated soft scape emit a frequent
green image imprint to people, satisfying them and
filling their urge for nature. Hence, promotes wellbeing and improve the life style of people in
Manhattan.
Aim C: DECREASE
CRIME RATE
FOR A SAFER CITY
(A) Height
-Elevated above ground, the activities are exposed which
create public surveillance on criminal cases
Aim C: DECREASE
CRIME RATE
FOR A SAFER CITY
(B) Typology
-Shaped in linear directions, this open space increases
public surveillance due to little wide angle turning points.
-Straight forward circulation, making crime harder to take
place due to fast pace.
Aim C: DECREASE
CRIME RATE
FOR A SAFER CITY
(C) Technology
-Lights at the Highline illuminating the streets below,
improved street safety.
-Elevators and stairs are installed in several spots for easy
accessibility.
ACTIVITY
‘Architecture seems to create a particular space where people can display their
activities efficiently, not only daily lives, but also to impact on society, economy,
and culture as a whole.’
Aim A:
Connecting People
FOR A DIVERSE CITY
(A) Recreation
-Each setting of the micro landscapes and outdoor rooms
facilitates different tempos and densities of activity, from
quiet strolling and placid sunbathing to promiscuous
picture-taking and voyeuristic viewing.
Aim A:
Connecting People
FOR A DIVERSE CITY
(B) Interaction
-It offers doubly abundant opportunities for
looking (at the city, at each other, at oneself),
moving (aimlessly or purposefully), and
gathering (with friends, with strangers, with one's
thoughts).
Aim A:
Connecting People
FOR A DIVERSE CITY
(C) Rehabilitation
-People has brought together to advocate for
the High Line's preservation when the structure
was under threat of demolition.
-It is agreed to utilize the preserved iron tracks
and the hulking black steel structure built in
1934 as building components.
Aim B: PROMOTE
SUSTAINABILITY
FOR A HEALTHIER CITY
(A) Recreation
-Planting selections for the recreational park are
determined according to their ranging responses
to, and durability throughout the seasons. 161 out
of the 210 plant species in the design of High Line
are native to New York.
Aim B: PROMOTE
SUSTAINABILITY
FOR A HEALTHIER CITY
(B) Interaction
-Being a public park, it serves as nodes for the preservation of
nature in the city where people gravitate toward social hot spots
and the park thus extends the city's multi-layered density.
“Urban life was defined by the urge to be among other people, including
strangers”.
-William H. Whyte
Aim B: PROMOTE
SUSTAINABILITY
FOR A HEALTHIER CITY
(C) Rehabilitation
-Besides its continuation to historic context, High Line repurposes of a piece of industrial infrastructure as public
green space.
-It is inherently a green structure with its landscape functions
essentially like a green roof.
Aim C: DECREASE
CRIME RATE
FOR A SAFER CITY
(A) Recreation
-The recreational garden may propose or even
instruct its visitors about the garden art, with the green
stimuli that provokes ‘green visionary psychology’.
“This is an aesthetic that celebrates motion and change,
that encompasses dynamic processes rather than static
objects, and that embraces multiple, rather than singular”.
-Anne Whiston Spirn
Aim C: DECREASE
CRIME RATE
FOR A SAFER CITY
(B) Interaction
-Parks Enforcement Patrol officers walk the High
Line all day.
-City parks patrol officers at the High Line also
operate crowd control and manage numbers on
the High Line, limiting access at peak periods.
“The police, the city’s Department of Parks and Recreation and the
founders of the High Line all say there have been no reports of a
major crime since its opening”.
-The New York Times, 2011
Aim C: DECREASE
CRIME RATE
FOR A SAFER CITY
(C) Rehabilitation
-This declined railway offers opportunity of luxurious
makeover from an abandoned elevated railroad into a
favourite among its residents.
-Not only does it appreciate its surrounding land, but it also
gives the city a new image by providing comfortable
outdoor space for people. And thus, new employment
opportunities and economical benefits come along with
the development.
Movement Pattern
‘Line’ that connecting one element to another
Linear Movement Pattern: A response to NYC of grid
pattern urban layout
Aim A: Connecting
People
FOR A DIVERSE CITY
(A) Linkage
-Linear linkage which provides alternative entrances and
exits to various destinations throughout whole stretch of
High Line. These points form nodes that people are
meant to be congregated at these nodes to enter High
Line.
-Connecting people from various part of city.
Aim A: Connecting
People
FOR A DIVERSE CITY
(A) Linkage
-It is a point of convergence by providing seating area to
the public. People are able to interact with others that
makes this to become a gathering place for community.
Aim A: Connecting
People
FOR A DIVERSE CITY
(B) Layering
-Due to the concept of lifting up pedestrian, High Line
has successfully created another layer vertically
apart from the traffic road below.
Aim A: Connecting
People
FOR A DIVERSE CITY
(B) Layering
-Good use of space that build up a pedestrian
pathway/recreational area vertically within high dense
New York City.
Aim A: Connecting
People
FOR A DIVERSE CITY
(C ) Pedestrianization
-Provision of alternative pathways to various destination
for pedestrian. This makes High Line transformed from
train road into pedestrian pathway.
-Separation of vehicle and pedestrian that secured
pedestrian.
Aim A: Connecting
People
FOR A DIVERSE CITY
(C ) Pedestrianization
-Walking instead of driving within enclosed metal
case.
-Speed of walking is slower compared to the
vehicle speed. Therefore, pedestrian will have
more chances to interact with each other.
Aim A: Connecting
People
FOR A DIVERSE CITY
(D) Accessibility
-Easy access to High Line from various entrances that
connects people from different direction of the city.
-Walkable distances from entrances to various exits that
which corresponds to theory of movement distance is
inversely proportional to density of city. This feature of
High Line attracts pedestrian to utilize it.
Aim B: PROMOTE
SUSTAINABILITY
FOR A HEALTHIER CITY
(A) Greeneries
-Increasing area for plantation within compact
city scape.
-Greeneries along pathway attract users
therefore decrease usage of petrol by vehicle.
Aim B: PROMOTE
SUSTAINABILITY
FOR A HEALTHIER CITY
(B) Decreasing Traffic Congestion
-By minimizing traffic load, consumption of petrol is
reduced thus decreasing emission of CO2 and
preventing hot island effect.
Aim C: DECREASE
CRIME RATE
FOR A SAFER CITY
(A) Linkage
-As a linkage to various streets, High Line has high flow
rate of people, hence decreases criminal issues.
-With its linear movement pattern, criminals have not
much alternative route to escape away.
Aim C: DECREASE
CRIME RATE
FOR A SAFER CITY
(B) Layering
-As it is elevated from ground, High Line has a high
visibility from different viewpoints that is easy to be
discovered by people.
Aim C: DECREASE
CRIME RATE
FOR A SAFER CITY
(C) Accessibility
-It is highly accessible that can be reached by people
and guards in minutes, hence enhance its security.
COMPARISONS
BETWEEN URBAN STRUCTURING PRINCIPLES
COMPARISONS
BETWEEN URBAN STRUCTURING PRINCIPLES
FORM
Linear typology
ACTIVITY
Recreational
Height
Pedestrianization
Layering
Interaction
Technology
Facade
MOVEMENT PATTERN
Linkage
Accessibility
Rehabilitation
- CONNECTING
PEOPLE
- PROMOTE
SUSTAINABILITY
- REDUCE CRIME
RATE
CONCLUSIONS
AND IMPACTS
MOVEMENT
PATTERN- Linear
IMPACTS
movement provides
direct integration
ACTIVITY-
FORM- Connecting
Volunteering work
gather neighbourhood
together
people from different
points and directions
Aim A:
Connecting
People
FOR A DIVERSE
CITY
Form, movement patterns and activities offer
to success to connect people for a better
neighbourhood experience as these 3 aspects
provide safety from busy street, linkage from
point to point that is easily accessible as well as
gathering people with same interest.
MOVEMENT
PATTERN- Layering
FORM- Vertical &
of the city provides
more area from
greeneries planting
elevated softscape
emit a frequent
green image imprint
to the city
IMPACTS
ACTIVITYProvides comfort spaces
for outdoor activities
therefore reduce indoor
energy consumption
Aim B:
Promote
Sustainability
FOR A HEALTHY
CITY
Sustainability achieved from the 3 main aspects of
urban structuring principles: form, movement
patterns and activities. By making the abandoned
trail track into walkable recreational space to
decrease usage of vehicle, emission of CO2 can
be reduced. The space was contextually designed
to provide high accessibility to promote healthy
city lifestyle.
MOVEMENT
PATTERN- Linkage
IMPACTS
between points
increases public
surveillance
FORM- Linear
ACTIVITY-
typology provides
clear vision through
the space
Transforming the
identity from (-) to (+)
Aim C:
Decrease
Crime Rate
FOR A SAFER CITY
Crime rate is effectively reduced due to the
effects of urban structuring principles directly.
Transforming the function of Highline from
negativity into positivity has successfully induced
the usage of the space as recreational park and
attracts local users, avoiding misuse of the trail
track. High visibility at higher level enhance site
safety.
OTHER IMPACTS
-A new identity
-Job opportunities
-Proposals for museums along its path
-Promotes art in the Highline
Video:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7CgTlg_L_Sw
CONCLUSION
Harmony between manmade
structures and natural elements has to
be emphasized within this compact
urbanization era of New York city. The
Highline successfully improved quality of
urban life by bringing back nature into
the heart of the city to achieve a
diverse city, healthy city and safe city.
REFERENCES
“Designing the High Line.” Revisiting a funky idea called Agri-tecture. | High Line Blog. (n.d.). Retrieved from
http://friendsofthehighline.wordpress.com/2008/08/12/designing-the-high-line-revisiting-a-funky-idea-called-agri-tecture/
High Line (New York City) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved September 15, 2014, from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Line_%28New_York_City%29#Description
The High Line | Friends of the High Line. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.thehighline.org/
The High Line by James Corner Field Operations and Diller Scofidio + Renfro. (n.d.). Retrieved from
http://www.dezeen.com/2009/06/15/the-high-line-by-james-corner-field-operations-and-diller-scofidio-renfro/
The High Line Section 2 opens - Dezeen. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.dezeen.com/2011/06/13/the-high-line-section-2-by-dillerscofidio-renfro-and-james-corner-field-operations/
REFERENCES
Fink Shapiro, G. (2011, June 10). Looking, Moving, Gathering: Functions of the High Line. Retrieved September 14, 2014,
from http://www.domusweb.it/en/architecture/2011/06/10/looking-moving-gathering-functions-of-the-high-line.html
High Line. (2014). Friends of High Line. Retrieved September 13, 2014, from
http://www.thehighline.org/galleries/images
Martin, A. (2011, May 14). Virtual Progression: The High Line as Verdant Infoscape. Southern Methodist University.
Retrieved September 13, 2014, from
http://www.academia.edu/1287635/Virtual_Progression_the_High_Line_as_Verdant_Infoscape?login=&email_was_tak
en=true&login=&email_was_taken=true
McEntee, P. (2012, April 12). Deconstructing The high Line: The Representation and Reception of Nature In PostIndustrial Urban Park Design. Binghampton University, Retrieved September 13, 2014, from
http://digitool.library.colostate.edu///exlibris/dtl/d3_1/apache_media/L2V4bGlicmlzL2R0bC9kM18xL2FwYWNoZV9tZW
RpYS8xNzUwMTA=.pdf
Watson, V., & Rutherfold, N. (n.d.). Functional Conversion: The High Line Park. Retrieved September 14, 2014, from
http://2012-2013.nclurbandesign.org/generic-post/functional-conversion-the-high-line-park/
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