Rural change: Counterurbanisation In 2007 more than 105,000 people in the UK moved from urban to rural areas: This is known as: COUNTERURBANISATION Counter-urbanisation: the movement of people from major cities to smaller settlements and rural areas. •To know what counterurbanisation is •To understand the causes, consequences and solutions to counterurbanisation Using the images above produce a push and pull table for rural (countryside) and urban (towns or city) areas Extension: Will these be the same for an LEDC? Who is moving to rural areas? • The most affluent and mobile people • Families with children (keen to avoid the possible disadvantages of city locations) What are the push / pull factors? • • • • Traffic congestion Pollution Fear of Crime (muggings, burglary and car theft) Rural dream (idea of the ‘rural idyll’ – pleasant surroundings, quiet etc.) • Estate Agents, housing developers etc.. All encourage outward movement through new developments / building more houses and marketing these areas. What is the stereotyped view of counterurbanisation? • People moving from the inner city or suburbs to isolated rural cottages with roses growing round the door. In reality counterurbanisation is... • People moving to commuter villages. These are settlements that are a few miles away from a large urban area. Many of the new inhabitants commute back to the urban area to work. • Railways and motorways can give affordable and quick access to places that are 60 miles away from city centres. Key definition Commuter range the distance people will travel from their homes to their place of work What factors have helped counterurbanisation? • Technological change – fax, blackberry, email, phones, internet – led to growth of ‘teleworking’ or ‘electronic commuting’ (people working from home – encouraging rural living) • Freezers, telephone, TV etc.. allow rural lifestyle but not isolation • improvements in road / motorway networks make commuting easier encouraging people to move out from the cities (gradually congestion sets in and cycle begins again) Key terms • Commuter Range - The distance that people will travel from their home to place of work. • Rurbanisation - Processes of bringing features of a city to rural areas. Activity Complete the activity to identify the causes, effects and solutions to Counter-urbanisation in the UK Explain why people in MEDCs move from urban to rural areas (4) 1-2 marks: Identify 1 cause and 1 effect of counter-urbanisation: e.g. House prices in the city are too expensive so people move to the countryside, this can lead to a loss of rural characteristics because of new developments 2-3 marks: explain one cause of counter-urbanisation e.g. People are now moving to the countryside because house prices are a lot cheaper and because of improved technology like computers and the internet this means more people are working from home. 3-4 marks: well-developed explanation of 2 causes e.g. People are now moving to the countryside because house prices are a lot cheaper and because of improved technology like computers and the internet this means more people are working from home, there are also better transport links and villages are being developed within the ‘commuter range’ . How might a traditional village compare to a commuter village? • Commuter villages are a relatively recent concept (since 1980s) for people to travel easily to work in cities but live in the countryside • • • • • • • Housing – Modern; large family homes; estates; conversions Population structure – Middle class, middle aged, families Employment structure – Professional; skilled; work in urban area Transport – Good access to main urban area Services – Larger schools, restaurants & more shops… Community spirit – Minimal; divisions between local residents & newcomer commuters Environment – Degradation due to house building, transport pollution Cutnall Green, Worcestershire, UK – case study 1 for counterurbanisation • Small village one hour drive from Birmingham • Grown from 300 to 400 people in last 5 years 1. Read your case study sheet. 2. Has Cutnall Green benefitted from counterurbanisation? Write a paragraph to explain your answer. Cutnall Green has benefitted from counterurbanisation because.... ... However, there are negative effects of counterurbanisation on Cutnall Green that include... ... Therefore I conclude that it is a better/worse place to live because of counterurbanisation Cutnall Green London Case study 2: Skye bucks the Scottish Rural depopulation trend Case study 2: Skye bucks the Scottish Rural depopulation trend Answer questions using p192 of textbook. 1. Why are people moving to Skye? 2. What are the positives of counterurbanisation in Skye? 3. What are the negatives of counterurbanisation in Skye? Mark scheme ^ mark exam question from 2014 paper Better answer (6/6) • • • • • • Cutnall Green is a village in Worcestershire, UK that has been experiencing the trend of counter-urbanisation. The village has grown from 300-400 people in the last 5 years. Cutnall Green has benefitted from counter-urbanisation because the influx of people, from cities such as Birmingham, helps to create demand for services. School closures have occurred in some rural areas as a result of falling rolls, however, Cutnall Green First School has seen rising numbers as a result of counter-urbanisation. Land value and average house prices have also risen due to increased demand. This benefits homeowners and landowners as they will now get a better return on their investment if they were to sell their property/land. However, rising house prices are also an issue of concern for some of the existing residents of Cutnall Green. Higher prices mean first time buyers may not be able to buy a home in the village and may be required to relocate elsewhere. The rising population is also altering the character of the village as there is pressure to build houses on vacant green land surrounding the village. Some existing residents dislike this as it is changing the character of the village and ruining the natural beauty of the area. In conclusion, counter-urbanisation brings both positive and negative impacts. Environmentally the impacts are mainly negative e.g. Building homes .... Plenary – discussion question Because more people want to live in rural areas due to counterurbanisation, houses in the countryside are becoming more expensive. Some local people are struggling to afford to buy in the villages they grew up in. Do you think that people who are born in a rural area should be given special help to be able to stay there?