AP Human Geography Week #6
Fall 2014
AP Human Geography 10/6/14
• OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate mastery of Chapter#2Population. APHugII-A&B
• Language objective: Answer questions about population
and write about migration.
• I. Administrative Stuff
-Attendance & Test Directions
• II. Chapter#2 Test
• III. Journal#16
-Chapter#3 Vocabulary
• Homework: Read p. 76-82
1.) Migration
• A change in residence
intended to be
• Examples:
• Emigration-leaving a
• Immigration-entering a
2.) International migration
• Migration from
one country to
(emigration &
• Example:
Immigrants from
Europe to Ellis
Island before 1924.
3.) Internal migration
• Migration from one
part of a country to
another part.
• Example: Chinese
workers from the
countryside to
4.) Cyclic movements
• Journeys that begin at
our home base and
bring us back to it
(shorter periods away
from home).
• Example: Commuting
for work or seasonal
movement (nomads &
5.) Periodic movements
• Like cyclic
movement, involves
returning home,
periodic movement
involves longer
periods away from
• Examples: Military
service or migrant
6.) Chain migration
• Migration of people to
a specific location
because of relatives or
members of the same
nationality already
• Example: Lebanese
immigration to
7.) Refugees
• Those who have
been forced to
• Example: Fighting
in the Darfur
region of the
Sudan has
thousands of
8.) Repatriation
• A refugee or group of
refugees returning to
their home country,
usually with the
assistance of government
or NGO.
• Example: “Mauritania,
March 27 (UNHCR) – UN
High Commissioner for
Refugees António
Guterres has wrapped up
a visit to Mauritania after
witnessing the end of a
repatriation programme
for more than 24,000
Mauritanian refugees in
Senegal and visiting
thousands of refugees
from Mali.”
9.) Remittances
• Money migrants send
back to family and
friends in their home
countries, often cash,
forming an important
part of the economy
in many poorer
• Example: Remittance
is one of the largest
economic activities in
southern Mexico.
10.) Islands of development
• Place built up by a
government or
corporation to attract
foreign investment and
which has relatively high
concentrations of paying
jobs and infrastructure.
• Example: Port cities with
international corporate
Homework Tonight
• Read p.76-82
• Begin work on Ch#3
Guided Readings.
AP Human Geography 10/7/14
• OBJECTIVE: Begin examination of migration. APHugII-C.3
• Language objective: Write about migration.
• I. Journal#17pt.A
-Watch the following:
-The World’s Largest Human Migration
• II. Quiz#9
• III. Return of Chapter#2 Test
• IV. Journal#17pt.B
-notes on migration
• Homework: Read p.83-88
• Migration A change in
residence that is intended
to be permanent.
• Emigration-leaving a
• Immigration-entering a
Little Haiti, Miami, Florida
By the numbers
• On average, Americans move once every 6 years.
• US population is the most mobile in the world
with over 5 million moving from 1 state to another
every year.
• 35 million move within a state, county or
community each year.
• Migration a key factor in the speed of diffusion of
ideas and innovation.
• Our perception of distance and direction are often
distorted-thus a sizable % of migrants return to
their original home due to these distorted
Who Migrates?
• Age selection of migrationusually male.
• Most African slaves were
• Most European immigrants
were male.
• This male or sex-selection
migration is evident in
African and Indian cities
where males out number
Types of Migration
• Forced Migration-migrants have
no choice-must leave.
• Transhumance-seasonal pastoral
farming-Switzerland, Horn of
• Nomadism-cyclical, yet irregular
migration that follows the growth
of vegetation.
• periodic movement-short term
(weeks or months) seasonal
migration to college, winter in the
south, etc.
• Cyclic movement-daily movement
to work, shopping
Commuter train in Soweto,
South Africa
• Forced Migration examples-African Slave Trade, Trail of Tears in the 19th
Cent./India-Pakistan Border/German-Polish Border after WWII/Blacks forced
into Homeland during Apartheid
• Reluctant Migration-1969 Indonesian government aggressive campaign to
move people from densely populated Java to other islands and territories”biggest colonization program in history”
• Periodic Movement-off to college, vacation, military service, migrant workers.
• Cyclical Movement-commuting to work, school, shopping or visiting friendsactivity space is increasing as technology makes travel faster and cheaper.
Many Americans’ daily commute is farther than many Chinese peasants will
travel in a year.
• Transhumance-in Switzerland livestock and herders travel up the mountain as
the season progresses to take advantage of fresh pasture. Horn of Africahundreds of thousands follow livestock herds from lowland to highland and
• Nomadism-cyclical migration that is irregular in arid or semiarid areas-seasonal
changes determine the location of herds, flocks and their caretakers-Masai of
East Africa have a village that they return to for the rainy season-even grow
crops there-when the drought begins, the pack and move.
Homework Tonight
• Read p.83-88
• Continue work on Ch#3
Guided Readings.
AP Human Geography 10/8/14
• OBJECTIVE: Examine the factors of why people
migrate. APHugII-C.3
• Language objective: Write about migration.
• I. Journal#18pt.A
-Watch the following:
Migration Closes Gender Gap
Why Women Matter
• II. Journal#18pt.B
-notes on the factors of migration
• Homework: p. 89-94
Key Factors in Migration
• Direction:
– Absolute-compass directions
– Relative-Sun Belt, Middle East, Far East, Near East
• Distance:
– Absolute distance “as the crow flies”
– Relative distance-actual distance due to routes
taken such as highways or railroads
More numbers
• Low population growth rate in several European
countries due to permanent departures and
declining fertility.
• US low natural growth is offset by migration
• 1980s and 1990s
• Migration from East to West and from North to
• New York lost 330,000 to Florida and 70,000 to
California in the 1980s.
• Early 20th cent. 1920s-40s Blacks from rural
South to Industrial North-job boom caused by
Catalysts of Migration
Italian Immigrants at Ellis Island,
New York in 1905.
• Economic conditions-poverty
and a desire for opportunity.
• Political conditionspersecution, expulsion, or war.
• Environmental conditionscrop failures, floods, drought,
environmentally induced
• Culture and traditionthreatened by change.
• Technology-easier and cheaper
transport or change in livability.
• Poverty has driven millions from their homelands-North
America has received many legal and illegal immigrants from
Mediterranean, Caribbean, across the Rio Grande
• Political-oppressive regimes-Mariel Boatlift from Cuba 125,000,
Boat People from Vietnam in 1970s and 80s.
• Armed Conflict-War-Rwanda-militant Hutus versus minority
Tutsi and moderate Hutus-600,000 died in out migration-2
million fled to Zaire
• Environmental-potato famine 1840s Ireland, also floods,
drought, earthquakes, volcanoes, etc.
• Threat to Culture and Tradition-India-Pakistan, Millions fled,
Soviet Jews fled to Israel.
• Technological advances-easier and cheaper to sail or fly, also
air-conditioning made south and southwest US more desirable.
• Step migration-short moves in stages-e.g. Brazilian
family moves from village to town and then finally Sao
Paulo or Rio de Janeiro
• Push-Pull Factors-push factors induce people to leave.
Pull factors encourage people to move to an area.
• Distance decay-contact diminishes with increasing
distance. (both diffusion and migration)
• Intervening opportunity-alternative destinations that can
be reached more quickly and easily.
Internal Migration Movement within a single country’s borders (implying a
degree of permanence).
Voluntary Migration
Migrants weigh push and pull factors to decide first, to
emigrate from the home country and second, where to go.
Distance Decay
weighs into the
decision to
migrate, leading
many migrants to
move less far than
they originally
Economic Conditions – Migrants will often risk
their lives in hopes of economic opportunities that will
enable them to send money home (remittances) to
their family members who remain behind.
Fun Facts
• 60% of all illegals in the US are from Mexico-about 12 million.
• As of Nov. 07 Mexican government report concluded that the
continued low wages & social inequality will generate out migration to
the US of roughly 500,000 per year for next 15 years.
• Jan. 08 last restrictions on imports of corn, beans and wheat will be
lifted as required by NAFTA-imports of highly subsidized food from
US & Canadian agribusinesses have driven millions of people out of
rural Mexico.
• Mexico’s problem-it is ruled by an oligarchy of rich families in a
system of hyper-crony capitalism-unfortunately NAFTA has only
reinforced this system.
• The dirty little secret of Mexican out-migration is that it is encouraged
by the oligarch run government as a safety valve. The wife of a high
ranking Mexican official stated “If the Americans seal the border, there
will be revolution here.”
• From Jeff Faux’s article What to Really Do About Immigration,
American Prospect. Jan/Feb 2008.
Homework Tonight
• Read p.89-94
• Continue work on Ch#3
Guided Readings.
AP Human Geography 10/9/14
• OBJECTIVE: Review concepts in the second half of
Chapter#3. APHugII-A,B,&C.
• Language objective: Write about migration.
• I. Administrative Stuff
-attendance & administrative stuff
• II. Watch The Following
-America By The Numbers: Mainstream USA
• III. FRQ Day#4
-2008 FRQ#2
• IV. Guided Reading Check
• NOTICE: Chapter#3 Test Monday October 21st
• Homework: p.94-97
America By The Numbers: Mainstream USA
• In the last few decades, the town of Clarkston
has undergone a significant demographic
shift. Whites made up almost 90% of the
residents of this small town in Georgia in
1980, but by 2012 over 80% of Clarkston
residents were non-white. How are these
rapid changes affecting this small town?
Watch the full episode to find out.
• http://video.pbs.org/video/2365331457/
Homework Tonight
• Read p.94-97
• Continue work on Ch#3
Guided Readings.
AP Human Geography 10/10/14
• OBJECTIVE: Examine the laws of migration. APHugII-C.3
• Language objective: Write about the laws of migration.
• I. Journal#19pt.A
-Watch the following:
I’m a subsistence farmer get me out of here!
• II. Quiz#10
• III. Journal#19pt.B
-notes on the laws of migration
White board Friday
Homework: Read p. 97-102
NOTICE: No School Tuesday October 14th
NOTICE: PSAT Testing Wednesday Oct 15th
NOTICE: Journals 13-22 Due Wednesday Oct 15th
NOTICE: Parent Teacher Conf. Oct 16th 5-8PM
NOTICE: US Map Test Friday Oct 17th
NOTICE: Chapter#3 Test Monday Oct 20th
Sneaking Across the Border
• A massive dump site in
Arizona’s Upper Altar
• After walking 40 miles
through the desert, illegal
immigrants are met here
by coyotes.
• They are told to dump
their old clothes & packs
and put on more
“American” looking
clothes the coyotes have
• They then begin the trip to
an urban stash house.
Environmental Conditions –In Montserrat, a 1995
volcano made the southern half of the island, including
the capital city of Plymouth, uninhabitable. People who
remained migrated to the north or to the U.S.
Islands of
Development –
Places within a
region or country
where foreign
investment, jobs,
and infrastructure
are concentrated.
NOTE: The key on this map is WRONG! The Labor in & Commodities out arrows are
In late 1800s and
early 1900s,
Chinese migrated
Southeast Asia to
work in trade,
commerce, and
Cultural Groups
•About 700,000 Jews
migrated to thenPalestine between 1900
and 1948.
•After 1948, when the
land was divided into
two states (Israel and
Palestine), 600,000
Palestinian Arabs fled or
were pushed out of
newly-designated Israeli
Jerusalem, Israel: Jewish settlements on the
West Bank.
Ernst Ravenstein’s “Laws of migration”
1885 he studied the migration of England
Most migrants go only a short distance.
Big cities attract long distance migrants.
Most migration is step-by-step.
Most migration is rural to urban
Each migration flow produces a counterflow.
Most migrants are adults-families are less
likely to make international moves.
• Most international migrants are young males.
• Gravity model is an inverse relationship between
volume of migration and distance to the destination.
• Gravity model was anticipated by Ravenstein.
• The physical laws of gravity first studied by Newton
can be applied to the actions of humans in terms of
migration and economics
• Spatial interaction such as migration is directly related
to the populations and inversely related to the distance
between them.
• International refugees cross one or more borders and
are encamped in a country not their own.
• Intranational refugees abandon their homes, but not
their countries-this is the largest number world wide.
Homework Tonight
• Read p.97-102
• Continue work on Ch#3
Guided Readings.

AP Human Geography Week #6