AP Human Geography Week #6 Fall 2014 AP Human Geography 10/6/14 http://mrmilewski.com • OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate mastery of Chapter#2Population. APHugII-A&B • Language objective: Answer questions about population and write about migration. • I. Administrative Stuff -Attendance & Test Directions • II. Chapter#2 Test • III. Journal#16 -Chapter#3 Vocabulary • Homework: Read p. 76-82 1.) Migration http://greteltroetsch.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/society_10762_1.jpg • A change in residence intended to be permanent. • Examples: • Emigration-leaving a country. • Immigration-entering a country. 2.) International migration http://newyorkguest.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/ellis-island-new-york-city-unitedstates1152_12882341675-tpfil02aw-13013.jpg • Migration from one country to another (emigration & immigration). • Example: Immigrants from Europe to Ellis Island before 1924. 3.) Internal migration • Migration from one part of a country to another part. • Example: Chinese workers from the countryside to cities. http://media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lhcea5BRyR1qcihmg.jpg 4.) Cyclic movements • Journeys that begin at our home base and bring us back to it (shorter periods away from home). • Example: Commuting for work or seasonal movement (nomads & snowbirds). http://www.snowbirdsfla.com/magazine/snowbirdsFLA_win2008.jpg 5.) Periodic movements http://www.arcent.army.mil/media/977955/13.jpg http://i.usatoday.net/news/gallery/2011/n111012migrantlabor/01migrant1012-pg-horizontal.jpg • Like cyclic movement, involves returning home, periodic movement involves longer periods away from home. • Examples: Military service or migrant labor. 6.) Chain migration http://i.ytimg.com/vi/KxI5uXFQ_oE/0.jpg • Migration of people to a specific location because of relatives or members of the same nationality already there. • Example: Lebanese immigration to Dearborn. 7.) Refugees http://farm3.staticflickr.com/2637/3746494439_c212dc9402_z.jpg • Those who have been forced to migrate. • Example: Fighting in the Darfur region of the Sudan has generated thousands of refugees. 8.) Repatriation http://www.unhcr.org/4f71f54c6.html • A refugee or group of refugees returning to their home country, usually with the assistance of government or NGO. • Example: “Mauritania, March 27 (UNHCR) – UN High Commissioner for Refugees António Guterres has wrapped up a visit to Mauritania after witnessing the end of a repatriation programme for more than 24,000 Mauritanian refugees in Senegal and visiting thousands of refugees from Mali.” http://www.unhcr.org/4f71f54c6.html 9.) Remittances http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/42481000/gif/_42481604_africa_migration416x363.gif • Money migrants send back to family and friends in their home countries, often cash, forming an important part of the economy in many poorer countries. • Example: Remittance is one of the largest economic activities in southern Mexico. 10.) Islands of development • Place built up by a government or corporation to attract foreign investment and which has relatively high concentrations of paying jobs and infrastructure. • Example: Port cities with international corporate development. http://www.businessfacilities.com/assets/images/1009-aerotropolis-aerial-hong-kong-internationalairport.jpg Homework Tonight • Read p.76-82 • Begin work on Ch#3 Guided Readings. AP Human Geography 10/7/14 http://mrmilewski.com • OBJECTIVE: Begin examination of migration. APHugII-C.3 • Language objective: Write about migration. • I. Journal#17pt.A -Watch the following: -The World’s Largest Human Migration • II. Quiz#9 • III. Return of Chapter#2 Test • IV. Journal#17pt.B -notes on migration • Homework: Read p.83-88 Migration • Migration A change in residence that is intended to be permanent. • Emigration-leaving a country. • Immigration-entering a country. Little Haiti, Miami, Florida By the numbers • On average, Americans move once every 6 years. • US population is the most mobile in the world with over 5 million moving from 1 state to another every year. • 35 million move within a state, county or community each year. • Migration a key factor in the speed of diffusion of ideas and innovation. • Our perception of distance and direction are often distorted-thus a sizable % of migrants return to their original home due to these distorted perceptions. Who Migrates? • Age selection of migrationusually male. • Most African slaves were male. • Most European immigrants were male. • This male or sex-selection migration is evident in African and Indian cities where males out number females. Types of Migration • Forced Migration-migrants have no choice-must leave. • Transhumance-seasonal pastoral farming-Switzerland, Horn of Africa. • Nomadism-cyclical, yet irregular migration that follows the growth of vegetation. • periodic movement-short term (weeks or months) seasonal migration to college, winter in the south, etc. • Cyclic movement-daily movement to work, shopping Commuter train in Soweto, South Africa Examples • Forced Migration examples-African Slave Trade, Trail of Tears in the 19th Cent./India-Pakistan Border/German-Polish Border after WWII/Blacks forced into Homeland during Apartheid • Reluctant Migration-1969 Indonesian government aggressive campaign to move people from densely populated Java to other islands and territories”biggest colonization program in history” • Periodic Movement-off to college, vacation, military service, migrant workers. • Cyclical Movement-commuting to work, school, shopping or visiting friendsactivity space is increasing as technology makes travel faster and cheaper. Many Americans’ daily commute is farther than many Chinese peasants will travel in a year. • Transhumance-in Switzerland livestock and herders travel up the mountain as the season progresses to take advantage of fresh pasture. Horn of Africahundreds of thousands follow livestock herds from lowland to highland and back. • Nomadism-cyclical migration that is irregular in arid or semiarid areas-seasonal changes determine the location of herds, flocks and their caretakers-Masai of East Africa have a village that they return to for the rainy season-even grow crops there-when the drought begins, the pack and move. Homework Tonight • Read p.83-88 • Continue work on Ch#3 Guided Readings. AP Human Geography 10/8/14 http://mrmilewski.com • OBJECTIVE: Examine the factors of why people migrate. APHugII-C.3 • Language objective: Write about migration. • I. Journal#18pt.A -Watch the following: Migration Closes Gender Gap Why Women Matter • II. Journal#18pt.B -notes on the factors of migration • Homework: p. 89-94 Key Factors in Migration • Direction: – Absolute-compass directions – Relative-Sun Belt, Middle East, Far East, Near East • Distance: – Absolute distance “as the crow flies” – Relative distance-actual distance due to routes taken such as highways or railroads More numbers • Low population growth rate in several European countries due to permanent departures and declining fertility. • US low natural growth is offset by migration • 1980s and 1990s • Migration from East to West and from North to South • New York lost 330,000 to Florida and 70,000 to California in the 1980s. • Early 20th cent. 1920s-40s Blacks from rural South to Industrial North-job boom caused by WWI and WWII. Catalysts of Migration Italian Immigrants at Ellis Island, New York in 1905. • Economic conditions-poverty and a desire for opportunity. • Political conditionspersecution, expulsion, or war. • Environmental conditionscrop failures, floods, drought, environmentally induced famine. • Culture and traditionthreatened by change. • Technology-easier and cheaper transport or change in livability. Examples • Poverty has driven millions from their homelands-North America has received many legal and illegal immigrants from Mediterranean, Caribbean, across the Rio Grande • Political-oppressive regimes-Mariel Boatlift from Cuba 125,000, Boat People from Vietnam in 1970s and 80s. • Armed Conflict-War-Rwanda-militant Hutus versus minority Tutsi and moderate Hutus-600,000 died in out migration-2 million fled to Zaire • Environmental-potato famine 1840s Ireland, also floods, drought, earthquakes, volcanoes, etc. • Threat to Culture and Tradition-India-Pakistan, Millions fled, Soviet Jews fled to Israel. • Technological advances-easier and cheaper to sail or fly, also air-conditioning made south and southwest US more desirable. • Step migration-short moves in stages-e.g. Brazilian family moves from village to town and then finally Sao Paulo or Rio de Janeiro • Push-Pull Factors-push factors induce people to leave. Pull factors encourage people to move to an area. • Distance decay-contact diminishes with increasing distance. (both diffusion and migration) • Intervening opportunity-alternative destinations that can be reached more quickly and easily. Internal Migration Movement within a single country’s borders (implying a degree of permanence). Voluntary Migration Migrants weigh push and pull factors to decide first, to emigrate from the home country and second, where to go. Distance Decay weighs into the decision to migrate, leading many migrants to move less far than they originally contemplate. Economic Conditions – Migrants will often risk their lives in hopes of economic opportunities that will enable them to send money home (remittances) to their family members who remain behind. Fun Facts • 60% of all illegals in the US are from Mexico-about 12 million. • As of Nov. 07 Mexican government report concluded that the continued low wages & social inequality will generate out migration to the US of roughly 500,000 per year for next 15 years. • Jan. 08 last restrictions on imports of corn, beans and wheat will be lifted as required by NAFTA-imports of highly subsidized food from US & Canadian agribusinesses have driven millions of people out of rural Mexico. • Mexico’s problem-it is ruled by an oligarchy of rich families in a system of hyper-crony capitalism-unfortunately NAFTA has only reinforced this system. • The dirty little secret of Mexican out-migration is that it is encouraged by the oligarch run government as a safety valve. The wife of a high ranking Mexican official stated “If the Americans seal the border, there will be revolution here.” • From Jeff Faux’s article What to Really Do About Immigration, American Prospect. Jan/Feb 2008. Homework Tonight • Read p.89-94 • Continue work on Ch#3 Guided Readings. AP Human Geography 10/9/14 http://mrmilewski.com • OBJECTIVE: Review concepts in the second half of Chapter#3. APHugII-A,B,&C. • Language objective: Write about migration. • I. Administrative Stuff -attendance & administrative stuff • II. Watch The Following -America By The Numbers: Mainstream USA • III. FRQ Day#4 -2008 FRQ#2 • IV. Guided Reading Check • NOTICE: Chapter#3 Test Monday October 21st • Homework: p.94-97 America By The Numbers: Mainstream USA • In the last few decades, the town of Clarkston has undergone a significant demographic shift. Whites made up almost 90% of the residents of this small town in Georgia in 1980, but by 2012 over 80% of Clarkston residents were non-white. How are these rapid changes affecting this small town? Watch the full episode to find out. • http://video.pbs.org/video/2365331457/ Homework Tonight • Read p.94-97 • Continue work on Ch#3 Guided Readings. AP Human Geography 10/10/14 http://mrmilewski.com • OBJECTIVE: Examine the laws of migration. APHugII-C.3 • Language objective: Write about the laws of migration. • I. Journal#19pt.A -Watch the following: I’m a subsistence farmer get me out of here! • II. Quiz#10 • III. Journal#19pt.B -notes on the laws of migration • • • • • • • • White board Friday Homework: Read p. 97-102 NOTICE: No School Tuesday October 14th NOTICE: PSAT Testing Wednesday Oct 15th NOTICE: Journals 13-22 Due Wednesday Oct 15th NOTICE: Parent Teacher Conf. Oct 16th 5-8PM NOTICE: US Map Test Friday Oct 17th NOTICE: Chapter#3 Test Monday Oct 20th Sneaking Across the Border • A massive dump site in Arizona’s Upper Altar Valley. • After walking 40 miles through the desert, illegal immigrants are met here by coyotes. • They are told to dump their old clothes & packs and put on more “American” looking clothes the coyotes have brought. • They then begin the trip to an urban stash house. Environmental Conditions –In Montserrat, a 1995 volcano made the southern half of the island, including the capital city of Plymouth, uninhabitable. People who remained migrated to the north or to the U.S. Economic Opportunities Islands of Development – Places within a region or country where foreign investment, jobs, and infrastructure are concentrated. NOTE: The key on this map is WRONG! The Labor in & Commodities out arrows are reversed. Economic Opportunities In late 1800s and early 1900s, Chinese migrated throughout Southeast Asia to work in trade, commerce, and finance. Reconnecting Cultural Groups •About 700,000 Jews migrated to thenPalestine between 1900 and 1948. •After 1948, when the land was divided into two states (Israel and Palestine), 600,000 Palestinian Arabs fled or were pushed out of newly-designated Israeli territories. Jerusalem, Israel: Jewish settlements on the West Bank. Ernst Ravenstein’s “Laws of migration” 1885 he studied the migration of England • • • • • • Most migrants go only a short distance. Big cities attract long distance migrants. Most migration is step-by-step. Most migration is rural to urban Each migration flow produces a counterflow. Most migrants are adults-families are less likely to make international moves. • Most international migrants are young males. • Gravity model is an inverse relationship between volume of migration and distance to the destination. • Gravity model was anticipated by Ravenstein. • The physical laws of gravity first studied by Newton can be applied to the actions of humans in terms of migration and economics • Spatial interaction such as migration is directly related to the populations and inversely related to the distance between them. • International refugees cross one or more borders and are encamped in a country not their own. • Intranational refugees abandon their homes, but not their countries-this is the largest number world wide. Homework Tonight • Read p.97-102 • Continue work on Ch#3 Guided Readings.