POINT 2.2.4
Impacts of technologies on outdoor
environments, including:
– direct impacts, such as recreational
vehicles and snow making
– indirect or deferred impacts, such as
equipment manufacture and transport
Technology: Technology is how people modify the natural world to suit
their own purposes. Technology literally means the action of making or
crafting and generally refers to a diverse collection of processes and
knowledge that people use to extend their own human abilities and to
satisfy their own wants and needs (International Technology Education
Association, 2000).
 Will we be using technology in the Otways?
 What would this include?
Direct impacts are those caused by the action and occur at the same time
and place. Usually observable.
 What are some examples of these?
 What direct impacts do you expect us to have in the Otways due to the
technology we use?
 How can we limit these?
Dirt bikes.. Fantastic form of technology for exploring large environments
in minimal time and great for an adrenaline rush
 What effect do these have on local environments?
 Cost v Benefit.. Is it worth it?.. Weigh up the pros and cons in your
(0-5 on track… 9+ off track)
Four Wheel Driving (4WD).. Gets you in and out of difficult terrains as
well as being an enjoyable recreational activity.
 What direct effect do these have on local environments?
 What is done to minimise these impacts?
Snow making
Direct impacts
 A lot of water is required to make artificial snow which impacts on water
sources and the flora and fauna depending on it.
 The water loss associated with making snow in the Australian Alps is
equivalent to the annual water consumption of city with 500,000
inhabitants (Englebert, 2011).
 With people visiting the snow all season means little time for the
environment to regenerate and replenish
 Man made snow is waterproof unlike natural snow which results in
increased soil erosion.
 Bird communities around ski resorts are being directly impacted as the
artificial snow modifies their habitat and food sources.
Direct Impacts
 Polluting the atmosphere with fumes
 Reduces the need to burn wood and logs
 Impact from incorrect disposal of fuel
Hiking Boots
Direct Impacts
 Compression of local flora
 Transfer of bacteria or fungus to pristine areas
 Transfer of invasive species via seed.
Indirect/deferred impacts: Indirect or deferred impacts are those that are
caused by the action but not immediately, they happen before an event or
later in time but are still reasonably foreseeable.
 What are some examples of these in regards to outdoor camps?
 What indirect impacts do you expect us to have from our trip to the
 How can we limit these?
Dirt bikes and 4WD’s
Indirect impacts
 Massive manufacturing costs
 Consumption of fossil fuels required to run
 Cost in transporting to venue
Snow making
Indirect impacts
 Snow machines are very large and expensive, the manufacturing of these machines as
well as tanks and pipelines for water conveyance alter landscapes and ecosystems
 Snow making usually occurs when the environmental water levels are at their lowest
which means that water has to be transported and stored before it is make into
snow. Using large equipment such as trucks to transport the water uses a lot of
energy and burns a lot of fuel which pollutes the environment from where the water
is being collected as well as the environment to which the water is being taken to
and stored.
 Creating artificial snow means that ski resorts operate for an extended period which
results in increased power consumption and other associated impacts.
 The pumps that are being used to provide the water to the snow making machines
are often run by diesel engines which when in operation expel a high level of
pollution into the atmosphere.
Indirect Impacts
 Requires fuel that needs to be sourced and refined.
 Requires a lot of energy to manufacture a Trangia or other fuel stove, as well as
creating a lot of waste.
 Carbon attached to transportation
Hiking Boots
Indirect Impacts
 Requires a lot of energy and man power to manufacture as well as creating a lot of
waste from leather and material offcuts.
 Rarely recycled, leading to disposal in land fill
 Carbon attached to transportation to retailer
Choose a piece of equipment we will be taking to the Otways and
investigate its origin (explore the store room if you want to find something
 What would be the direct impacts from using this in the Otways?
 What is it made from?
 Where do its components come from? (research)
 What effects might there be on the outdoor environment in its
manufacturing process?
 How far has it travelled between its place of manufacture and you?
 Describe and detail its life cycle (See pg 110 of text book)
Boys vs Girls
We will toss a coin to see who is for and who is against for the topic..
“Technology’s benefits outweigh its impacts”
..15 mins to note down your supportive arguments and the debate will begin

2.2.4 Technologys impacts