FOOD SAFETY AND HYGIENIC PRACTICES
IN AGRICULTURAL MARRKETING
IN INDIA
CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN
PRESENT ERA OF LIBERALISATION
S.S.Randhawa
MD,COSAMB.
Agricultural Marketing means the flow of
agricultural produce and the activities
undertaken after the production till it
reaches
the
ultimate
consumer
Food means any product that may be
processed, partially processed or raw
which is intended for human
consumption including drinks, chewing
gums, or any other substance used in
food
during
manufacturing
or
preparation or during the treatment
Food safety means that the food is
produced
under
the
hygienic
conditions so that it is safe /
acceptable for human consumption
according to its intended use and is
the process to prevent and eliminate
the
food
safety
hazards
Food safety hazards mean any
physical, chemical, or
biological
agents in food or the unsafe condition
at the time of production or handling
(value
addition,
processing
or
transportation) the food articles which
have the potential to adversely affect
the human health if it is consumed
Hygienic Practices mean the series of acts
or measures undertaken consistently which
are necessary for the safety and suitability
of food at all the stages of food supply
chain may be production, value addition
(to fetch better price, regular supply even
in off season and also to increase the shelf
life), processing, storage, handling,
transportation, distribution or any other
activity performed till it is ultimately
consumed
Food business means all the
activities undertaken at any stage
of production, value addition,
processing, distribution or any
other activity undertaken till it is
ultimately consumed keeping in
view the laws related thereto
Market means an area, may be owned,
managed or developed by public authority
or private person or in PPP (shared
responsibility by public authority and
private person), where the food articles are
sold to the person engaged in food
business through the number of separate
units owned by different market
functionaries, covering the wholesale as
well as retail trade
Market
management
means
the
construction, management, maintenance
of the infrastructure, and provision of all
the services and facilities for the activities
undertaken there, may be for profit or non
profit, required in the process of marketing
of agricultural produce in the premises of
market established excluding buying or
selling of the agricultural produce
Market management
responsibilities
Selection of site and area required
-To construct buildings required and
also have sufficient land for future
expansions;
- To supply the produce to the area
and distribution to the distant and
other needy areas economically; and
-The local produce to be sold and other
requirements to be met where from
Planning and designing of the market
- Keeping in view the public, private,
PPP requirements;
- To make provision for the
infrastructure, services, for sale;
value addition or processing;
- Storage of the unsold produce; and
-Reserve area for future requirements.
Provide, construct, maintain and manage the
public areas
- Auction platforms for purchases and sales;
-Display areas viewing the produce before sales;
- Value addition facilities (cleaning, grading,
standardization, waxing, disinfecting and
packing);
-Cold storage and cooling chain for distribution;
-Ripening chambers; and
-Supply, maintain, manage and operate the
equipments related thereto.
Provision of public utility services
-Eatables, drinking water;
-Shade;
-Electricity / power;
-Lighting and ventilation (preferably natural);
-Sanitation ( sewerage, neat and clean
toilets/wash rooms for the public);
-Roads, parking; and
-Stay arrangements etc.
Provision of suitable/reasonable space
for persons to transact business
- Display;
- Sales;
- Storage;
- Rest;
- Office; and
- any other immediate activities to be
undertaken before the sale and to
store the unsold produce.
Control of waste management
(perishable and sewerage)
- Collection, removal and reuse (if
possible) of waste;
- Noise and environmental pollution;
- Cleaning, drying and disinfecting the
market area daily for hygienic
conditions; and
- Maintaining the services regularly.
Managing the traffic regulation in
the market
for the smooth flow of traffic to
save the precious time
Control to avoid adulteration
to check the produce from
admixture of different varieties,
foreign particles, immature,
damaged and rotten produce, and
non edible materials.
Control on the sale of produce as per
quality standards
to fix the quality standard for the
produce to be sold
Dissemination of data
- Related to production;
- Requirement of food articles
(category wise);
- Prices prevailing; and
- Produce sold and in demand to meet
the demand and supply of the area.
Provision of institutional areas
- For offices to run the market;
- Other allied offices;
- Public utility and in routine usable
article areas; and
- Provision of security and clock rooms.
Training and extension activities
for the seller, market functionaries,
traders as well as bulk buyers
Private persons responsibilities
- Must bear the responsibilities and
perform the duties assigned;
- Provide all the equipments and other
services/facilities for which they are
charging;
- Create working atmosphere and
coordinate with all the persons visiting
therein;
….contd
- Provide each and every information
of the activities undertaken;
- Maintain accurate records and pay
the levies or services which they have
used;
- Adopt the food safety norms and
hygienic practices; and
- Obey the regulations to achieve the
purposes of the project.
Main areas concerning food safety
- Non adoption/application of appropriate
agronomic practices of production;
- Use of un recommended and excess fertilizers
and chemicals;
- Use of untreated sewerage water, animal
manures and organic kitchen wastes;
- Irrigation with unfit or untreated waste water;
……. Contd.
- Insufficient infrastructure for storage or value
addition till it is taken to market for sale;
- Poor handling equipments for handling,
packing and transportation;
- Non availability of cool chain facilities;
- Non availability of value addition facilities such
as cleaning, standardization, grading, waxing,
packing materials both at farm and market
levels;
- Poor sanitary and drainage conditions;
….. contd
- Free trade around the world;
- Insufficient scientific facilities for value
addition and processing units to consume the
bulk and seasonal production;
- Poor sanitary and unhygienic conditions at the
time of value addition and processing activities
especially for animal and dairy products;
- Negligible inspection, research and extension
activities; and
- Change in standard of living, excessive
travelling, awareness level and adequate
communication systems etc.
Measures for the food safety and
hygienic practices
Detailed project report for all
activities
- Requirement of the project;
- Population of the area;
- Actual demand/quantum to be handled;
- Supply and quantity of which
produce/products from where, whether
local or distant areas;
- Facilities to be generated;
… contd
- Area required for each activity and
overall area and availability of the land;
- Flow of traffic;
- Eating habits of the locals;
- Natural drainage and disposal of waste
where, how and the means available;
- Equipments and facilities required to
meet the natural calamities;
- Change in food habits, busy schedule of
life and demand of parched or cooked
food;
…. contd
- Institutions to be accommodated;
- Testing facilities to be provided;
- Taste and liking of the market
functionaries and consumers;
- Local laws applicable there;
- Availability of the raw material from
where and how to be constructed,
maintained and managed; and
- Regulations to be adopted for the
smooth functioning etc.
Site selection and required area
- Sufficient area for all the activities;
- Free from traffic hazards;
- Proper drainage system;
- Smooth power supply;
- Proper road and rail connectivity; and
- Easy accessible communication
system.
Planning and designing
- All requirements should be met;
- Each activity should be at suitable
site;
- Infrastructure should be able to
handle the produce easily; and
- Proper supply of all the services and
utilities.
Allocation of premises to the
entrepreneurs
- Suitably located near the sale areas;
- Sufficient area to meet all the
requirements; and
- Easily accessible and approachable.
Construction activities of public, private
and PPP buildings and infrastructure
- Should be in proper design to handle all the
activities and sufficient quantity of produce;
- Easy access for cleaning;
- Lightings and ventilation(preferably natural);
- Material to be used should be of best quality;
- Must satisfy the safety norms; and
- Infrastructure should be regularly maintained
and repaired by trained personals.
Supply of equipments, maintenance,
operation and replacement
- Must be of good quality;
- Satisfy the norms;
- Sufficient to handle the quantity and quality;
- Regularly inspected by appropriate authorities and
properly stamped;
- Should be replaced at optimum time;
- Only new equipment of the standard fit for the job is
to be installed and used; and
- Should be regularly operated, maintained and
repaired by specialized manpower.
Hygienic conditions to check the food
born diseases, growth of bacteria
causing food poisoning and
formation of toxics through
- Environment
- Temperature
- Humidity
- Ventilation
- Contamination(direct or cross),
Cleaning, drying and disinfection
- Design should be such that it should
be easy to clean effectively,
- Natural slope to drain the water while
cleaning;
- All the premises, common areas
should be cleaned regularly; and
- Appropriate cleaning and disinfecting
equipments and agents be available all
the times when required to be used.
Regular electricity/power/services supply
- Appropriate installations in required quantity
and the place where to be used;
- Alternate arrangements around the clock;
- Optimum supply, inputs and required
replaceable parts be maintained through the
specialized manpower; and
- Preference to natural resources.
Personal hygiene conditions
- Primary education;
- Neat and clean toilets, hand wash basins and other
public sanitation facilities;
- Clothes of the work force should be separate than
the normal wears;
- Workers suffering from illness and infectious
diseases not be allowed to work, and be given
adequate treatment and periodical check ups;
- Should work for genuine fixed hours only; and
- Proper rest rooms and availability of good hygienic
food in the community kitchen.
Disposal of the waste
- Waste might be solid, semi solid or liquid of
perishables, other non edible by products,
packing materials or any other material used
in the process should be regularly collected
in the fully mechanized covered containers
and disposed off preferably for alternate
uses;
- Disposal areas should be at appropriate
distance of the normal areas;
… contd
- Appropriate type of containers and
equipments be used for evacuation,
disposal or recycling of the waste
must be able to handle the quantum
daily and also be as per need; and
- Equipment installed be of good
quality, maintained, replaced and
regularly operated by trained staff.
Control of insects, pests, bacteria, viruses
- All activities be performed under hygienic and
controlled conditions;
- Use of quality raw products and additive;
- Use of cleaned, sterilized, the required
and recommended equipments only;
- Control of humidity;
- Storage of produce on the optimum required
temperature; and
- Optimum use of refrigeration facilities.
Provision of the physical, chemical,
biological materials, gases
and other equipments
- Required to meet the food safety norms
to save the produce from unhygienic
conditions, and
- Food safety hazards be prevented from
entering into the food supply chain, if
already present must be removed or
reduced to acceptance level.
Control to avoid adulteration
- Regular inspection to check the produce from
admixture of different varieties, foreign
particles, immature, damaged and rotten
produce, non edible materials; and
- Provision of laboratories for spot analysis.
Research, training and extension
- Area wise research activities for the
subject must be regular to meet the
challenges of the supplies from the
different corners of world;
- Work force engaged in the food
management system must be regularly
trained on the subject; and
- Extension machinery be extended for the
door to door extension.
Appropriate regulations
-The centre/states must enact the suitable
laws keeping in view worldwide scenario
and implement forcefully for the food
safety and hygienic practices for food
articles;
- Norms should be strict and acceptable
for value addition and food processing
activities;
…… contd
- Regulatory authorities must
provide a compulsory framework
and regularly monitor the
implementation; and
- Control measures must be
implemented in one go and in
whole of the country.
Testing and certification
-Appropriate laboratories fully
equipped for spot analysis be
established in the market; and
-A certification authority be there
to issue the worldwide acceptable
certificate.
Ultimately helps to provide
- Good health of residents;
- Healthy working environment;
- More employment generation and
development;
- Healthy competition to other nations;
- Saving the expenditure and precious time in
hospitalization and attending the patient; and
- Better growth and economy etc.
THANKS
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