Life on the margins: the inequality of food and nutrition security GUIDE TO THIS PRESENTATION AND UNIT PowerPoint presentation by Médecins Sans Frontières / Doctors Without Borders (MSF) UK Schools Team: Mary Doherty and Severa von Wentzel January 2014 MSF/GA A level geography resource This presentation has been developed in collaboration with the Geographical Association (GA) and MSF and with a working group of practising teachers of A level geography. MSF would like to thank the GA and members of the working group for their contributions and help in developing these materials: John Lyon of the Geographical Association Janet Carlsson of Alleyn's School, Dulwich Adam Thomas former MSF Logistician Ed Jennings of Hayes School, Bromley John Lyon of the Geographical Association Nicky Martin of Coloma Convent Girls’ School, Croydon Rick Vasconcellos of Acland Burghley School, Camden Jo Woolley of Dulwich College Thanks also to Noreen Richardson of Christ The King, Sixth-Form College, Lewisham and students Maya Patel and Tara Watumull. Contents Famine and Feast is a complex, interrelated and wide ranging presentation addressing the theme of food security including hunger, malnutrition, inequality, marginalisation, urbanisation, drylands and desertification. The presentation also includes the views of the population thinkers, the green and gene revolution, the impact of transnational companies, land grabbing, the impact of conflict and natural disasters on food supply and production, and an overview of the economics of food supply and production. Local, national, international and global responses to food security are also included. The authors decided that, in light of the complexity of Famine and Feast, a rigorous, thorough and comprehensive approach would be adopted in the preparation of the materials. For manageability the presentation consists of nine, inter related PowerPoint slide shows which include up to date research, data, opinions, maps, videos, images and commitments made by governments globally and nationally. contents Flexible A level resource The presentation is intended to be used flexibly by teachers with the prime target group being students of A level geography. It also meets many of the requirements of the International Baccalaureate and some of the slides could be used with students of A level Biology. Teachers may also want to select specific slides to use with students studying GCSE Geography or indeed as foundation for study during the early years of secondary education. Throughout the presentation students are encouraged to take an active, organised and responsible approach to their learning and preparation for Public Examinations. It is anticipated that teachers will select, adapt and, most importantly, mediate and tailor the slide shows to match the requirements of their Examination Specification, the learning needs of their students and the context and culture of their school or college. contents Customisation of this presentation • • • • In examinations with pre-release materials teachers may wish to select slides which encourage students to develop a comprehensive overview. Then in light of the specific focus of the pre-release information teachers may work with students to select and interrogate slides which will enable students to undertake the most appropriate preparation for the Report they will be required to write in the examination. Throughout this presentation teachers will need to select regular view to access the Note for Teachers. Teachers will also want to select slide sorter to choose slides appropriate to their teaching and their examination specification. NB: As this is a PowerPoint presentation, bullet points have been used. Teachers will need to ensure that students choose the appropriate format in their report writing (audience, purpose, focus on literacy). Guide to this presentation Reference to teaching specifications Definitions in violet Action for students Further info Video Direct quote Key Link to appendix Teacher resource slide Source teacher image: http://school.discoveryeducation.com/clipart/images/teacher2.gif Teacher resource slides In each unit, these teacher resource slides are identified with this icon. The title of the slide in the Teacher resource Slide section is given in the teacher note section. Teacher Resources include: – – – – Maps Graphs Data Complex text • Many of these resources will enhance the teaching and learning and will benefit from being enlarged and provided to students as handouts for discussion and annotation. • These slides could benefit from the teachers interrogating and familiarising to inform their decision about whether or how to use with students. PART I YOUR RESEARCH AND WRITING A2 SYNOPTIC RESEARCH UNIT Synoptic research unit with case studies: thinking and linking Do you know what synoptic means? • This unit provides flexibility in your study of geography. • You will learn subject content and develop your learning skills, particularly, selection and analytical skills. • You will study this unit for several months. Pre-release materials will guide you in your exam preparation.* • This is a synoptic unit that stresses the interrelation of specific issues to overall themes in geography and draw on earlier work across units. Edexcel global synoptic content Your investigation of issues around food supply, distribution and nutrition, challenges and responses will need to highlight: • Places, people and power and • Risks, vulnerability and patterns. People Places Source: Dunn, Cameron and Kim Adams, “A2 Geography Advice for students” endorsed by Edexcel, Phillip Allan Updates. http://www. hodderplus.co.uk/philipallan/pdfs/Edexcel-A2-Geography-9780340949542.pdf Power The synoptic element of each enquiry question Distil big concepts, implications and influences by looking at political, economic, social, technological, health and environmental risks and uncertainties and their adverse combinations and links. These factors help organize and evaluate information around people, places and power. • People: Who suffers from food insecurity and over-nutrition? • Places: Feast or famine - where are the margins of survival? • Power: Who are the players involved in food security? Source: Dunn, Cameron and Kim Adams, “A2 Geography Advice for students” endorsed by Edexcel, Phillip Allan Updates.; http://www.hodderplus.co.uk/philipallan/pdfs/Edexcel-A2-Geography-9780340949542.pdf Edexcel Awarding Bodies Specifications The scope of this presentation This presentation can be used to teach: • • • • • * Edexcel A level geography Unit 4,Option 3: Life at the margins: The Food Supply Problem* AQA A level geography Unit 1, Optional human topics: The food supply issues and health issues, it could contribute to Unit 2 Geographical skills, Unit 3 Development and globalisation, and also to contemporary conflicts and challenges OCR A level geography Option B3: Development and inequalities, Unit F764: Geographical skills Geographical aspects of the IB Diploma-using slide sorter to customise The presentation could also be customised using the slide sorter for GCSE Geography. Edexcel Specification: http://www.edexcel.com/migrationdocuments/GCE%20New%20GCE/UA024843%20GCE%20Geography %20Issue%203%20210510.pdf Edexcel A level geography specification match • This Famine and Feast presentation addresses the Edexcel specification requirements of Unit 4: Life at the Margins in full and also incorporates guidance from the Examiners’ Reports of recent years with regard to students’ response to the reports set for the examination. • The presentation also guides students in their research and preparation for the Report they will be required to write in the examination. • It is, of course, the responsibility of individual teachers to ensure they meet the Awarding Body specifications in full, matching teaching and learning appropriately to their own students prior learning and current learning needs. AQA A-level geography specification match This Famine and Feast PowerPoint presentation addresses some aspects of AQA A level geography Unit 1, Optional human topics. It is, of course, the responsibility of individual teachers to ensure they meet the Awarding Body specifications in full, matching teaching and learning appropriately to their own students prior learning and current learning needs. Food supply issues including: Health issues including: • • • • • Global patterns of food supply, consumption and trade. The geopolitics of food Food supplies in a globalising economy: the role of transnational corporations in food production The potential for sustainable food supplies. Case studies of two contrasting approaches to managing food supply • • Food and health-malnutrition, periodic famine, obesity Health matters in a globalising world economy - transnational organisations Gender and its influence on access to good nutrition The presentation could also contribute to Unit 2 Geographical skills, Unit 3 Development and globalisation, and also to Contemporary conflicts and challenges OCR A level geography Specification match This Famine and Feast presentation could be used by teachers to address aspects of: Option B3: Development and inequalities: the ways countries vary in their levels of economic development and quality of life, the contrast in the level of development and the quality of life between LEDCs and MEDCs. A2 Unit F764: Geographical Skills. A synoptic and skills based unit where students are required to have undertaken individual research and fieldwork on a geographical topic of their choice. Schemata for report style essay Your report Defining Marks , defining topic 10 Research Research and methodology 15 Analysis Analysis, application, understanding 20 Conclusion Conclusion and evaluation 10 Quality Quality of written expression and sourcing 15 Total Marks 70 NB Keep generic mark scheme DRACQ in mind, but pay attention to the command words and the ‘twist’ in the examination question. Usually the question is not as straight-forward as it might appear, so should give rise to a debate and for you to take a view on the title. Answer the examination question • • • • • • Evaluate each word in the examination question and let this close reading guide you to a considered analysis and coherent focus. Be clear what command words and phrases (e.g., to what extent) in the examination title expect you to do. For example: – Explore refers to relevant background concepts, processes, theories and models – Research refers to the geographical places, case studies and examples helping illustrate these Avoid ‘question spotting’, rushing in with preconceived ideas of a title (e.g., defining food security instead of food insecurity) It may be helpful to refer to the specific title before deconstructing and rephrasing the question to demonstrate your understanding and explaining your approach, framework and methodology for your answer. Use and accurately define key words such as factors, impacts, challenges and use subject specific and higher level terminology accurately when you relate them to places, people and power. Consider causes, issues and responses and define management strategies. Argue a case and link the introduction, main body and conclusion back to the view you are taking on the question. Keep your focus on the title and your plan throughout your Report Show the complexity of the title (and the ‘twist’) in evaluations or sub conclusion building evidence of your assertions in your analysis. In the conclusion, return to the grouping of examples and ideas, main points and concepts, referring back to case studies and models in your report to give emphasis to your final conclusion(s). Do not introduce new material.in the conclusion. Report style • • • • • • Spend 5 to 10 minutes on the important planning stage: using short hand, show understanding of the examination question and give evidence of framework and methodology. Construct spider diagrams to map evidence of analysis and multi-factoral aspects. A conceptual framework (e.g., local-regional/national-global; FAO pillars of food security) helps you plan and structure your report. It provides more flexibility than a case study or economic development framework for evaluating differences within a country based on economic, social, political and environmental factors or a urban/rural divide, for example. A ‘one-case-study-one-factor approach’ tends to oversimplify complex issues. The methodology fits in best between the introduction and main analysis and should explain the choice of specific sources. In the analysis, do not describe or download rote learning of case studies or a gazetteer of facts generally related to the question – choose extended examples and case studies and tailor models to make and analyse the connections. Use clear sections with linking statements between sections as you are writing; avoid too many mini headings or headings obviously added at the end of your report writing. Refer to and evaluate dated references and integrate clearly labelled diagrams and maps in the process of writing rather, not at the end. Do not waste your time drawing world outline maps. Case study • • • • • • Read the exam question closely to identify very clearly what kind of case study or studies you need to include. Detailed examples are generally better than superficial ones. Choose real, not hypothetical, case studies that are as current as possible. Choose pertinent facts and write them down as bullet points on the paper. Then write a couple of sentences to explain each bullet point. Make sure you use a variety of sources for your in-depth research to answer: what, when, where, why it happened and who was affected? The best case study material is at the regional level, as there can be an enormous range of variation of food insecurity within continental sized global regions such as US and China, dryland (ecosystem areas limited by water) ones such as Ethiopia or cities such as Mumbai. Avoid sweeping statements and erroneous conclusions about the role of the environment; e.g., Ethiopia is not uniform dryland but the Omo valley, Ethiopia is a dryland area. Mumbai is a megacity and Dharavi is a slum in Mumbai. Often two contrasting case studies are required. Contrasting case studies from the same country means you can be more sensitive to regional differences and may mean having to provide less background information. Synoptic content and more or less developed countries Students do well answering exam questions when they use a conceptual framework to compare and contrast case studies and examples that allow for a balance of breadth and depth. Use pairs such as: • Positive and negative • Primary and secondary • Direct and indirect • Short and long term • Human and physical • Micro and macro • Sustainability* • To compare and contrast factors: Economic Social Political Environmental Sustainability is the principle that “everything that we need for our survival and wellbeing depends, either directly or indirectly, on our natural environment. Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the social, economic and other requirements of present and future generations.” (http://www.epa.gov/sustainability/basicinfo.htm) Source: Dunn, Cameron and Kim Adams, “A2 Geography Advice for students” endorsed by Edexcel, Phillip Allan Updates.; http://www.hodderplus.co.uk/philipallan/pdfs/Edexcel-A2-Geography 9780340949542.pdf Question statistics, maps and indicators EXAMINE CRITICALLY: • Who collected the numbers? Using what method and for what reason? Statistics need to be collected in the same way to be compared. • Definitions of indicators may vary (e.g., GDP, PPP). • Simply because they are published does not make them facts. Many are actually estimates. • Location matters. Collecting statistics in remote rural areas of developing countries or densely populated urban settlements, for example, can be difficult if they have been collected at all. A disaster event, instability or conflict adds complexity. • Numbers can be political. There may advantages to manipulating numbers by overstating or understating them. • Country statistics may not reveal great regional differences and inequalities within regions. World maps can over-aggregate information, for example, about food (in)security – highly variable within countries and even within communities. Sources, bias and referencing • In your research, make sure you keep sources alongside the notes and always include references of your information and images. Use Harvard style referencing (see: http://www.staffs.ac.uk/support_depts/infoservices/learning_support/refzone/harvard/index.jsp) • Use a wide range of sources, including text books, specific text books, academic journals and named documentaries to provide evidence to support your arguments – not just a wide range of websites . • Demonstrate your awareness of potential bias and of the nature of the source when referring to resources in your methodology section. – Who is the author? How does the author’s role or job relate to the topic? – Is it a primary or secondary source? How reliable is it? Is it a source (an article) or a medium (e.g., youtube). – Does the website verify what it publishes or is it an open forum where anything can be posted? Who owns and contributes to it? – Is the information up to date? – Make sure you understand and use key vocabulary such as reliability, bias, crossreferenced, peer-reviewed and topical. • During the exam, refer to and reference your sources throughout your report. Do not tack on a vague bibliography at the end. Statistics and agriculture There is no reliable map of food output, because there are issues with measuring agricultural output: • Scarcity of output records especially in areas with dominant subsistence culture • No agricultural output measure that is universally agreed • Diversity of agricultural production, so question of what is included – food products, crops, livestock? Surrogate measures: • Dependence on agriculture • Balance of trade in agricultural products Source: Witherick, M. And S. Warn, Farming, Food and Famine, Nelson Thornes, 2001; Your research Action for students: 1. Print out the examiner’s guidance PDF and read – The Geographical Association’s “A2 Examinations: Developing your skills in extended writing” http://www.slideserve.com/elsa/a2 examinations-developing-your-skills-in-extended-writing – Dunn, C. and K. Adams’ “A2 Geography Advice students”endorsed by Edexcel, Phillip Allan Updates. http://www.hodderplus.co.uk/philipallan/pdfs/Edexcel-A2-Geography-9780340949542.pdf 2. Start a “Famine and feast” folder for your research and case studies. 3. Throughout your study extract the key information and retain the findings, graphs and maps in your folder. 4. Remember to add Harvard style references for the work of others and to add definitions for key terms by compiling a glossary of definitions (e.g, food supply, food security) in your folder. Many key terms are defined in this presentation and other can be found on sites such as http://scalingupnutrition.org/resources-archive/key-terms-glossary 5. Start a mind map of organisations and players relating to nutrition, food supply and distribution issues and inequalities. Add to this map as you research the topic. Spider diagrams are a useful planning tool. Humanitarian information Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO): http://www.fao.org FAO’s “mandate is to improve nutrition, increase agricultural productivity, raise the standard of living in rural populations and contribute to global economic growth.”(fao.org) Médecins Sans Frontières / Doctors Without Borders: http://www.msf.org.uk MSF is an independent international medical humanitarian organisation that provides emergency aid in more than 60 countries to people affected by armed conflict, epidemics, natural or man-made disasters or exclusion from healthcare. Reliefweb: http://www.reliefweb.int “ReliefWeb is…source for timely, reliable and relevant humanitarian information and analysis…to help you make sense of humanitarian crises worldwide.”(reliefweb.int) Alert.net: http://www.trust.org/alertnet/ Humanitarian news website covering crises worldwide, including “hidden crises” Irin news: http://www.irinnews.org Humanitarian news and analysis by the UN Office of Humanitarian Affairs World Food Programme (WFP): worldwide: http://www.wfp.org/news/hunger-in-the-news WFP is the largest humanitarian agency fighting hunger . Gapminder: http://www.gapminder.org/ “Gapminder is a non-profit venture – a modern “museum” on the Internet – promoting sustainable global development and achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals.”(gapminder.org) MSF: Contact us or find out more Visit our website: www.msf.org.uk About MSF: http://www.msf.org.uk/about.aspx Email us: [email protected] Find us on facebook: www.facebook.com/MSF.english Follow us on Twitter: www.twitter.com/MSF_UK Follow us on You tube: www.youtube.com/user/MSFUK MSF Timeline: http://www.msf.org.uk/msf-timeline Being a doctor with no borders: 10 tips from Damien Brown http://www.trust.org/item/20131016162218-nb0ji/?source=dpagehead The MSF movement was awarded the 1999 Nobel Peace Prize.