WATER QUALITY
MANAGEMENT IN TURKEY
1
Scope
Current Situation Analysis of Water
Quality Management
Current potential of water resources
Quality of water resources,
WWTP situation in Turkey and the
technologies used,
Financial size of water sector,
Administrative structure
Progress in Water Quality Management
 EU legislation
 National legislation
 Studies carried out
Bottlenecks and challenges faced in
Water Quality Management
Strategies and policies for future
2
Available Water Resources Potential
in Turkey
Total Water Use of 2010:
43 billions m3/year
Total Amount of Water
Targeted for Serving to
Use in 2023:
112 billions m3/year
3
Amount of Water Used on the Basis of Resource
When looking at the distribution with drinking network in municipalities
and villages and when looking at the distribution of water used by industry
and mining enterprises on the basis of water resources, it is seen that sea
water is used mostly.
Water Drawn in 2010 on the Basis of
Resource (TÜİK)
Sectoral Distribution of Water Used
It is seen that water drawn from water resources are largely
used by the municipalities when a sectoral analysis is done
Water Drawn in 2010 on the Basis of Sectors (TÜİK)
Factors Affecting Quality of Water Resources in
Turkey
• The current quality of the waters of Turkey
• Causes of deterioration in the quality of water
resources
•
•
•
Industrialization, mining activities
Unplanned urbanization
Agricultural activities
For «Olive black water» from Industrial facilities producing olive oil, transition to two-phase
continuous system, which produce less olive black water, instead of 3-phase continuous system is
encouraged
- Waste dams where mine enrichment facilities wastes are stored, affects adversely the quality of
water resources.
- As a result of livestock activities organic load and nutrient input increasesin water resources. This
cause water quality negatively..
-
• Pollution Status of Water Resources




Water quality thematic map of 11 river basin
(COD, TP, TN, River Basin Action Plans)
Ergene Basin Action Plan
Water quality of drinking water reservoirs of metropolitan municipalities,
Datas of 2011 of Integrated Pollution Monitoring Project in (water, sediment and
biota monitoring works)
6
Factors affecting the quality of water resources
in Turkey
Use of Agricultural Fertilizers
Plant Protection Products
Sourca: Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock Web Site
- Using of pesticides and fertilizers is the most important polluter factor affecting
water quality.
- Approximately 500 pesticides are allowed and some of them are prohibited by
Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock between 2001 and 2011
Ergene Basin
Domestic
Wastewater
Wastewater
Amount
240.000
m3/day
m3/day
Industrial
Sastwater
460.000
m3/day
[3] http://ergene.ormansu.gov.tr
 Water quality is IV. class
 Works of Establishing Domestic WWTPE
and Improved Industrial Estate Joint
WWTP are ongoing
 Number of municipalities which have solid
waste disposal facility : 6
Water Quality of Yeşilırmak Basin– Organic Pollution
-Pollution from livestock activities in
Suluova
-Industrial pollution in Suluova Çekerek
Streamlet
bad
medium
good
very good
Water Quality of Büyük Manderes Basin
Organic Pollution
-Industrial and domestic wastewater,
olive activities, geothermal waters
Water Quality of SabanBasin-Organic Pollution
Intensive
agricultural
beyond Adana
activities
bad
medium
good
very good
Quality Classes of Drinking Water Resources of
Metropolitan Municipalities in Turkey
12
Quality of Water Resources in Turkey
Coastal and Transitional Waters
•İzmit Bay, Gemlik Bay (Centrum of Gemlik ),
• Silivri, Küçükçekmece, Bandırma (Centrum)
•River mouths and deltas, Edremit, İzmir, Gökova,
13
Marmaris, Dikili and Çandarlı Bay
Quality of Water Resources in Turkey
Coastal and Transitional Waters
Coasts of İskenderun, Adana, Tarsus,
Erdemli and Fethiye
are more polluted
comperatively
14
WWTP Status and Technologies Used in Turkey
Domestic Wastewater Treatment Technologies
Mechanical Screens (coarse / fine)
Sand & grease trap
Primary Sedimentation
Method
Pyhsical
Pyhsical
Pyhsical
Currency
Very common
Very common
Common
Mechanical filter
Activated Sludge Systems (carbon removal)
- Extended aeration systems
- Classical activated sludge systems
- MBR (membrane bioreactor)
Activated Sludge Systems (carbon removal)
- Pre denitrification
- UCT/VIP
- Bardenpho
Oksidasyon hendekleri
Biofilm systems (trickling filter, RBC, etc)
Pyhsical
Not common
Biological
Biological
Biological
Very common
Very common
Not common
Biological
Biological
Biological
Biological
Biological
Very common
Not common
Common
Not common
Not common
IFAS Systems (suspended + fixed culture)
(MBBR, activated sludge+ fixed film etc.)
Wetlands (village and so on smaller settlements)
Biological
Not common
Biological
Common
Sand filter (for recycling)
Activated carbon (for recycling)
Disinfection systems
- Chlorine
- Ozone
- UV
Physical
Physico-chemical
Not common
Not common
Chemical
Chemical
Physical
Very common
Not common
Not common
15
WWTP Status and Technologies Used in Turkey
Industrial Wastewater Treatment Technologies
Mechanical Screens (coarse / fine)
Sand & grease trap
Mechanical Filters
UF + NF + RO membran systems (recycle)
Method
Physical
Physical
Physical
Physical
Currency
Common
Common
Not common
Common
Sand filter, activated carbon etc. (water softener)
Physical/chemical
Common
Sand filter, activated carbon etc (recycle)
Physical/chmeical
Common
Biological
Biological
Biological
Very common
Very common
Not common
Biological
Biological
Biological
Very common
Not common
Not common
Biological
Biological
Biological
Chemical
Chemical
Common
Not common
Not common
Very common
Not common
Physical
Very common
Activated Sludge Systems (carbon removal)
- Extended aeration systems
- Classical activated sludge systems
- MBR (membrane bioreactor)
Activated Sludge Systems (carbon removal)
- Pre denitrification
- UCT/VIP
- Bardenpho
Anaerobic Systems
- UASB
- EGSB
- IC
Chemical sedimentation
Advanced oxidation systems
Sludge Management Systems
Condensation Methods
- Gravity
16
WWTP Status and Technologies Used in Turkey
Number of Municipal
Serving With Wastewater
Treatment Plant
Ratio of Population of
Municipal Related to
Wastewater Treatment Plant
to Total Municipal
Population
17
WWTP Status and Technologies Used in Turkey
WWTP project phase (20 provinces)
There are WWTPs (47 provinces)
WWTPs in construction phase(5 provinces)
No WWTP (9 provinces)
18
Current Status of WWTPs of Industrial Estates (IE)
CURRENT STATUS OF 127 IEs THAT
HAVE WWTP WORK
6
29
8
54
30
TREATMENT STATUS OF IEs
HAVE CENTRAL WASTEWATER
TREATMENT PLANT
54
IN THE PHASE OF
CONSTRUCTION
6
IN THE PHASE OF PROJECT
30
CONTRACTED BY THE MUNICIPAL
29
SOLUTION BY PRE-TREATMENT
8
TOTAL
127
The Situation of Treated Domestic Wastewater
Source: Prepared by Using TSI 2010 Data
The Situation of Treated Industrial Wastewater
Source: Prepared by Using TSI 2010 Data
Financial Size of Water Sector
Financial Size in Turkey
 SUKAP Project (2011)
 Support for Village Infrastructures Project (KÖYDES) and Support for
Municipal Infrastructures Project (BELDES)
 Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA) Program
 National Environmental Action Strategy (UÇES, 2006)
 Investment Program of Ministry of Development (2007-2012)
Investment Program of Ministry of Development
UÇES (planned)
Year
Credit (Thousand TL)
Total (Thousand TL)
Total (Thousand TL)
2007
768.700
3.257.555
2.475.000
2008
1.914.150
4.377.967
2.633.000
2009
1.188.055
6.190.156
2.836.000
2010
1.861.274
9.185.079
2.977.000
2011
1.698.978
9.612.413
3.083.000
2012
2.146.588
6.846.954
3.165.000
Comparison of provision for
Investments in Environmental
Sector with the UÇES
22
Administrative Structure for Water Quality
Management
 Administrative Structure in Turkey
23
Reasons of that Our Internal Waters Are Relatively More
Polluted than Our Coastal waters
Although wastewater from point source treatment of greater than 80%, reasons for
the continuation of contamination of water resources are given below;
 Wastewater treatment plants are not designed according to the appropriate
norms and standards and not well-operated.
 Environmental quality standards are not developed and implemented for
implementation of discharge standards based the receiving environment by
setting environmental objectives.
 Physico-chemical parameters of water resources are taken into consideration in
the assessment of quality class, but micro pollutants and biological quality
parameters are not taken into account.
Causes of diffuse pollution;
 Sensitive water areas caused by nutrient pollution and agricultural districts that
affects these sensitive areas are not determined. Good agricultural practices are
not implemented in these districts.
 The use of pesticides in our country is increasing every year. There has not
been any study on the impact of pesticides on water resources.
 Environmental quality standards, which are referred to receiving environment
criterias, are not determined in the view of pesticides and pollution prevention
works are not made based on receiving environment criterias.
Related EU Directives
1970
1976
1991
1992
2000
• Dangerous Substances (repealed in 2013)
• Bathing water
• Groundwater
• Water for Human Consumption
• Urban Waste Water Treatment
• Nitrate
• Habitat and Bird
• Crustaceans Directive
• Clean water quality in order to support fish life
• Environmental Quality Standards (published in 2008, replaced the
dangerous substances directive)
• IPPC
• Chemical Accidents(Seveso)
• Environmental Impact Assessment
• Sewage sludge
• Plant Protection Products
•Flood risk and evaluation;
•Marine Strategy (Plans must be consistent with RBMP)
SÇD
Water Framework Directive
 To protect and expand in order to prevent further deterioration of
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
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
current status of the water ecosystems, terrestrial ecosystems and
marsh areas directly dependent on the aquatic ecosystems,
To promote the sustainable use of water in order to ensure long-term
protection of all underground and surface waters,
To ensure the gradual reduction of discharges, emissions and gones of
priority substances in water resources and to ensure improvement by
taking specific measures in order to stop or gradually eliminate the
discharges, emissions and gones of priority substances,
To prevent further contamination of groundwater by reducing the
pollution by the time,
Mitigate the adverse effects of floods and droughts,
To stop or gradually eliminate the discharges, emissions and gones of
priority substances by ensuring the protection of marine waters and the
surrounding area.
The purpose is to achieve good chemical and
ecological status of all water sources
26
Environmental Quality Standards
Directive(EQSD)(2008/105/EC)
 To stipulate the identification of environmental quality standards,
which are called as receiving environment criterias, for all
substances and substance groups.
 It makes environmental quality standards essential in order to prevent
pollution
 In discharge permits, the end point of the mixing zone must be based
on,
 Directive states that environmental quality standards should be
identified, not only for water column, also for sediment and biota.
Harmonisation is almostly done with the publication
of the By-Law about Quality Management of Surface
Water, date 30.11.2012 and gazette no 28483.
27
National Water Quality Management
Legislation
 Public Health Law in Turkey No. 1593 (1930)
 DSI Law No. 6200 (1953)
 Law on Ground Water No. 167 (1960)
 Law on the Establishment and Duties onGeneral Directorate






of Istanbul Water and Sewerage Administration No. 2560
(1981)
Environmental Law No. 2872 (1983)
Coastal Act No. 3621 (1990)
Metropolitan Municipality Law No. 5216 (2004)
Municipality Law No. 5393 (2005)
Geothermal Resources and Natural Mineral Waters Law No.
5686 (2007)
No. 6107 Bank of Provinces Law (2011)
28
National Water Quality Management
Legislation
 Regulation







on the Control of Pollution Caused by Dangerous
Substances in Water and Its Environment (Official Gazette dated
11.26.2005 – No. 26005)
Regulation on Water Pollution Control (Official Gazette dated 09.04.1988
– No. 19 999)
By-Law on Fishery Products (Official Gazette dated 03.10.1995 – No.
22223)
By-Law on Bathing Water Quality (OG dated 03/10/1995 – No. 22223)
By-Law on Quality of Surface Water from Where Drinking Water
Obtained or Planned to Be Obtained (Official Gazette dated 01.09.2006 26 048 points)
By-Law on Protection of Groundwater against Pollution and
Deterioration (Official Gazette dated 04.07.2012 – No. 28257)
By-Law Basins Conservation and Preparing Management Plans (Official
Gazette dated 10.17.2012 – No. 28444)
Surface Water Quality Management (Official Gazette dated 11.30.2012 –
No. 28483)
29
Works for Water Quality Management
 River Basins Protection Action Plans
 Project about to Control of Dangerous
Substances Pollution in Inland Waters
 Determination of Dangerous Substances in
Coastal and Transitional Waters of our country
and Ecological Coastal Dynamics (Kıyıtema)
Project
 Determination of Sensitive Areas in the Scale
of River Basins in and Water Quality
Objectives in Turkey Project
 Determination
of Environmental Quality
Standards and Appropriate Methodology In
Order To Detect and Prevent Water Pollution
Caused by Using of Plant Protection Products
in the Coastal Waters, Transitional Waters and
Inland Surface Waters
30
Works for Water Quality Management
 Basin Monitoring and Determination of
Reference Points Project
 Identification and Classification of Marine
and Coastal Water Quality Status (DEKOS)
Project (In the coordination of MoUE)
 Project submitted to TÜBİTAK-KAMAG 1007
and announced after acceptance;
 Determination
of
Environmental
Quality Standards and Objectives for
Surface, Coastal and Transition Waters:
Büyük Menderes Pilot Basin
 Assessment of Chemical and Quantity
Status of Groundwater and Determination
of
Objectives
to
Achieve
Good
Groundwater Status: Büyük Menderes
Pilot Basin
31
Works for Water Quality ManagementInternational Works
 Enhancing
Quality
2013)
the Capacity of Water
Monitoring Project (2011-
 Development of Appropriate Methods
for the Treatment of Drinking Water
IPA Technical Assistance Project
 Capacity
Building
Project
on
Groundwater Management Project in
Turkey - ESEI-2012
32
Works for Water Quality ManagementLegislations
Draft Law on Water
 By-Law on Monitoring the Surface Water and Groundwater
Draft Bylaw on Freshwater Quality That Requires Protection or
Improvement for Sustainability of Fish Life
Communique Works for Implementation for By-Law about Surface
Water Quality Management and By-Law on Protection of
Groundwater against Pollution and Deterioration
33
Strategy and Policies for the Future
Related to determination, remediation
and improvement of water quality
across the country, for the purposes of;
SU KALİTE YÖNETİMİ
STRATEJİ BELGESİ VE EYLEM PLANI
(2013-2023)
 To do legal and institutional
arrangements,
 To develop the technical and
economic instruments,
 To protect and improve the
quality of water bodies, to
determine the measures to be
taken for this purpose and to
follow up applications
to perform water quality management
with the participation of interested
parties and institutions
34
Strategy and Policies for the Future
The purpose is to provide guidance to
the long-term decisions and
investment program about;
 protecting,
 develloping
 and sustainable using of the natural
resources of our country's basins,
Another purpose is to demonstrate a
common way for future studies to
meet adequately and sustainably the
needs and expectations of our public
related to benefits of basins about
ecology, economy, social usefulness
and social services
35
Bottlenecks / Challenges
 Authority
for water management are numerous
institutions, the conflict of competence
 Lack of coordination
 Duplication
in
Monitoring
studies,
lack
of
standardization
 Lack of monitoring network
 Lack of qualified personnel and equipment working in
the field monitoring
36
Recommendations
For the protection of water resources;
 Identification and meeting the deficit of national water quality
management, administrative, legal and technical gaps (Water law and
sub-regulations),
 Strengthening the institutional infrastructure and capacity,
 Ensuring the coordination among agencies dealing with water quality,
 Completion of the environmental sub-structures, while sub-structures
comply with norms and environmental criteria, tendering the design
and construction together, edition of legislation on the subject,
 Good operation of the completed environmental infrastructures,
 the
elimination of overlaps in monitoring works, ensuring
standardization
 Establishment of national monitoring network in our country,
 To put forward the objectives of environmental quality including
general
chemical,
physico-chemical,
biological
and
hydromorphological quality elements,
37
Recommendations
For the protection of water resources;
 Determination of Environmental Quality standards for implementation
of environmental discharge standards based on the receiving
environment by puting forth environment objectives,
 Determination of substances or groups of substances that are harmful
to aquatic organisms and therefore to human health ve receiving water



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
environments and taking the necessary measures for the reduction of
these substances in receiving environment,
Determination of sensitive water bodies in view of nutrient pollution
and determination areas of agricultural, industrial and urban areas that
affecting the sensitive areas
Identification environmental quality standards, which are called as
receiving environment criterias, in view of pesticides and doing
pollution prevention activities for these pesticides based on the
receiving environment criteria,
Promotion of good and organic agricultural practices by technical and
financial supports,
Promoting the pollution prevention programs and cleaner production
practices in industry,
Identification and follow-up measures to achieve good water quality,
38
THANKS FOR YOUR
PATIENCE
39
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Water Quality Management In Turkey