Linking African, European and
international debates and align positions
and priorities for implementation
Post-2015 debate, Agenda 2063 and the
EU-Africa roadmap
James Mackie, Senior Adviser EU Development Policy
Faten Aggad, Head of Programme Africa’s Change Dynamics
31 October 2014
Process & Priorities
 Post-2015 debate
 Convergence? EU-Africa Roadmap 2014-2017, Agenda 2063 and the
Post-2015 goals
 The Pan African envelope
 Alternative sources of financing
 Post-2015 financing debate: Universality and Differentiation
In Conclusion: Medium-term perspectives in the EU
The Post -2015 Debate
Towards a Post-3015 Development Agenda: A Complex process…
Three key moments in 2015
Financing for Development Summit in Addis (July 2015)
 Will conference facilitate agreement on goals in September 2015?
 Financing discussions likely to focus on LDCs and fragile states
 Interests of MICs will also be important
UN General Assembly (September 2015)
 Agree goals and targets
Climate negotiations in Paris in 2015 (December 2015)
 Adopt new international climate change agreement that will cover all countries
 Protocol, another legal instrument or 'an agreed outcome with legal force’
 Ideally pplicable to all Parties.
SDG Open Working Group (OWG) & UNGA 69
● Proposed SDGs: 17 goals + 169 targets
UN Member State negotiations: Sept. 2014 - Sept. 2015 will lead to
agreement on a new framework to be implemented Jan. 1st 2016
● 30 OWG constituencies (70 governments incl: 11 AU
MS + 13 EU MS) supported Outcome Document
● G77 pushed for adoption of the document by the UNGA
69th UN General Assembly
● Discussion around 17 goals
● SG Report (November) will acknowledge OWG outcome
 Likely to endorse goals with additions and recommendations
(Means of Implementation discussion; negotiation process etc.)
Discussions all about positioning topics
– Still unclear if number of goals will be reduced
Example Goal 16:
 Included: ‘Peaceful societies’ and ‘Access to Justice’
 Excluded: ‘Rule of Law’ and target ‘Freedom of the Media’
Different Interest Groups…
● LDCs:
 Strong emphasis on poverty reduction (through inclusive growth)
 Financing for development
 In Climate discussions focus on adaptation finance but demand more
mitigation action and responsibilities also from emerging powers
● g7+: Focus on meaningful goal and targets on peaceful societies
● MICs:
 Equity and CBDR (with more responsibilities for developed countries)
 National sovereignty
 Reform of global governance for more inclusive decision-making
Goals proposed by OWG
1. End poverty
2. Achieve food security and improved nutrition
3. Ensure healthy lives and well-being
4. Inclusive and equitable education
5. Gender equality and empower women and girls
6. Availability of water & sanitation
7. Affordable, reliable & sustainable energy
8. Inclusive & sustainable growth
9. Resilient infrastructure, inclusive industrialisation
10. Reduce inequality within & among countries
11. Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient & sustainable
12. Sustainable consumption & production
13. Urgent action to combat climate change
14. Sustainable use of oceans, seas & marine resources
15. Sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems
16. Peaceful & inclusive societies, justice for all, inclusive institutions
17. Strengthen finance, Means of Implementation, global partnership & PCSD
Positioning of proposed SDGs:
Post-2015 Accountability Framework
● Shortcomings of MDG accountability
 Duplication, incoherence, no clear responsibilities
 Lack of ownership in some areas
● Discussions on post-2015 accountability in infancy still
but need for a coherent framework
 Role of Review Mechanism of HL Political Forum
 Clearer lines of reporting (among all stakeholders)
 Data revolution
Where does the EU Stand?
● High level of interest & strong commitment to MDGs
● Push for a common EU position by Commission (DEVCO+ENV)
• A Decent Life for All – 2 June 2014 [COM 335]
• Earlier policy papers in February & December 2013
• Forthcoming EU Council Conclusions (December 2014)
● The EU and MS supported the adoption of the OWG proposals
• Now discussing implications with ministries
• Also considering how to possibly implement at national level
● Outstanding challenges
• Goals & targets – some differences over coverage vs. number
• e.g. NL in favour of current goals while UK wants to reduce the number of
• Global partnership – Finance and other Means of Implementation
• Universality and differentiation
Common African Position and the OWG
Largely a case of convergence
Common African Position’s 6 Pillars
OWG report integrated all CAP priorities
The JAES and Post-2015 EU-Africa Roadmap Priorities (2014-2017)
1. Peace & Security
2. Democracy, Good
Governance & HR
3. Human development
4. Sustainable &
inclusive development,
growth & continental
5. Global & emerging
In pursuit of the same objectives?
1. End poverty - JAES Priority 3
2. Achieve food security and improved nutrition – JAES 4
3. Ensure healthy lives and well-being – JAES 3
4. Inclusive and equitable education - JAES 3
5. Gender equality and empower women and girls – JAES 2
6. Availability of water & sanitation – JAES 3
7. Affordable, reliable & sustainable energy – JAES 3
8. Inclusive & sustainable growth – JAES 1 & 4
9. Resilient infrastructure, inclusive industrialisation – 4&5
10.Reduce inequality within & among countries – JAES 4
11.Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient & sustainable – 3 & 4
12.Sustainable consumption & production - JAES 3, 4 & 5
13.Urgent action to combat climate change – JAES 3 & 5
14.Sustainable use of oceans, seas & marine resources 4&5
15.Sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems – JAES 5
16.Peaceful & inclusive societies, justice for all, inclusive
institutions – JAES 1 & 2
17.Strengthen finance, MoI, global partnership & PCSD –5
Convergence or divergence? Agenda 2063, JAES and
EU allocation: The Pan-African envelope
African Discussions on Financing
● On-going debate on alternative sources of financing to
finance continental development programs (i.e P&S,
infrastructure, etc.):
Obasanjo Report
Mbeki Report on illicit financial flows
Assessments by UNECA & NPCA & AfDB
9th African Development Forum, Marrakesh, October 2014
● Some instruments already established
• Africa 50 Fund (Infrastructure),
• African Solidarity Fund (P&S)
Post-2015: The Financing Debate
● UN Financing for Development Conference, Addis Ababa, July 2015
● Past experience - MDGs became very focused on ODA
 Financing gap notion – Jeffrey Sachs
 But have to think ‘Beyond Aid’ (ERD2013)
● There are a lot other types of finance:
 Domestic resources
 Domestic capital
 Foreign direct investment
 Remittances
 South-South cooperation
● Finance cannot solve everything
 Policies important – national & international
 How to make most effective use of finance?
● So need to discuss: Finance and other Means of Implementation
Trends in development finance
(2011 US$Bn)
All developing countries
Low Income Countries
Source: ERD2014 (forthcoming)
Financial flows by income level (% of GDP)
Source: ERD2014 (forthcoming)
Post-2015: Universality and Differentiation
● Post-2015 targets defined as aspirational global targets,
with each government
 Setting its own national targets
 Guided by the global level of ambition
 But taking into account national circumstances
● Translation of universal goals/targets into
 National actions, commitments and responsibilities
 Big challenge
● Need to find a balance for all parties between
 National adaptation vs. global ambition
 “Fair” commitments and responsibilities
Post-2015: Universality and Differentiation
● Will be difficult to find political agreement on framework
 if differentiated responsibilities not adequately addressed
● OECD and G77 – differences over differentiated
responsibilities in changing geopolitical landscape
 EU will have to translate targets to commitments, including in areas
such as consumption/production and food waste
 Will emerging economies and MICs in Africa take on increased
responsibilities ?
 Will developed countries need to take the lead ?
EU–Africa trade agenda: convergence or divergence
● Economic Partnership Agreements:
Objectives: promote regional integration & help integrate in global
Signed: 2 full regions (ECOWAS+EAC) + some countries not N Africa
Challenges for regional integration
(i) some regions are
(ii) complicated trade regimes with EU; (iii) makes intraregional trade more difficult
● TTIP - Transatlantic Trade & Investment Partnership (EU+USA)
WTO deadlock: big players want to reshape global trade as
globalisation deepens
Strategic interest: rise of China as a new leader in global trade
EU+USA seek to join forces to maintain access to key markets
● Impact on EU-Africa relations (just as first EPAs concluded)
Erosion of preferences & new standards might apply to African countries
In Conclusion: Medium-term perspectives in EU
In light of post-2015 agreements, EU likely to:
● Review Agenda for Change ?
● Formulate proposals for post-Cotonou - including:
 Focus ODA support to LDCs, fragile and vulnerable states
 Partnership arrangements with LMICs ?
 Aid for Trade package ?
 Acquis of Cotonou (joint mgmt, essential elements?)
 Seek to align with Values from Lisbon Treaty
● Improve coordination: EU & bilateral programmes
 Take joint programming further ?
Thank you
Faten Aggad [email protected]
James Mackie [email protected]