21st Century Infrastructure: Creating Sustainable Communities through General Plans and the Healthy Community Design Toolkit Partnering for Success • Cynthia Melde, MS, Arizona Department of Health Services • Vincent Lopez, Maricopa County Department of Public Health • Felipe Zubia, AICP, ReSEED Advisors • Serena Unrein, Arizona Public Interest Research Group (PIRG) • Dean Brennan, FAICP Partnering for Success • Linking Physical Environment & Health Of Community Residents • Policy And Community Change • Transportation Issues And Policy Change • Process For Policy Change • Toolkit For Policy Change At the Intersection: Transit and Public Health Cynthia Melde, MS, Arizona Department of Health Services What is Health? Health is the state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity - World Health Organization Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1990, 2000, 2010 (*BMI 30, or about 30 lbs. overweight for 5’4” person) 1990 2000 2010 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30% Modes of Transportation and Obesity 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Obesity Car Walk and Bike Factors Responsible for Health Physical Activity and Fitness • Public Transit Users: ▫ Spend a median of 19 minutes daily walking to and from transit ▫ 29 percent achieve 30 minutes of physical activity during transit access trips ▫ Tend to weigh 3-7 lbs less than non-transit users Respiratory Emissions • Reduce number of vehicles on the road • Use Electric or state of the art engine • Emission reduction programs Emissions • Bus idling • Older diesel buses • Bus Depots in lower income neighborhoods • Concentration near major roadways Injury • Transit vehicle occupants have about one-tenth the fatality rate as car occupants • Per capita traffic fatalities decline as transit ridership increases in a community Community Cohesion • Increase opportunity for interaction while walking, waiting at bus stops, and riding on transit vehicles • Helps increase connections and contacts between neighbors • Increase neighborhood safety Mental Health • Many commuters find public transportation less stressful than driving • Increase interaction • Access • Access educational and work opportunities • Affordability • Lower cost for transportation Basic Mobility: Essential Services • Particularly for disabled and disadvantaged ▫ Health Equity • Connect to ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Grocery Store Healthcare Providers Banking Education Social and Recreational activities YOU are Public Health Policy and Built Environment Maricopa County Department of Public Health Office of Public Health Policy Vincent Lopez Social Isolation Negative Health Outcomes •Acute and chronic stress •Increased vulnerability to natural disasters and epidemics •Mental illness •Substance abuse •Reduced life expectancy •Violence Relation to Built Environment Neighborhood Design •Long commutes •Few public gathering spaces •Lack of access to goods and services Transportation •Lack of access to public transit Housing •Housing instability promotes highly transient home occupancy Policy Recommendations Zoning •Promote increased public space, walkable neighborhoods, and mixeduse development Redevelopment •Develop public venues, including parks, open spaces, libraries, cultural facilities, and pedestrian corridors Parks & Recreation •Improve parks, recreation facilities and open spaces for community mingling Unsafe Streets Negative Health Outcomes Relation to Build Environment Policy Recommendations •Injuries and fatalities •Inactivity and associated outcomes including obesity •Stress Street Design •Focus on auto use yields fewer lanes for bicycles, high traffic speed and congestion, noise pollution and inadequate sidewalks Ped & Bike Features Lack of or poorly maintained pedestrian wheelchair, and stroller amenities such as walkways, crosswalks Zoning •Ensure zoning for bicycle and pedestrian routes Redevelopment •Develop pedestrian and bicycling infrastructure in project areas Schools •Safe Routes to Schools Parks & Recreation •Ensure safe streets, walkways, and bike paths around parks or open spaces Lack of Physical Activity Negative Health Outcomes Relation to Built Environment Policy Recommendations •Attention deficit disorder •Cancer •Depression •Diabetes •Heart disease •Obesity •Stress •Stroke Community Access •Limited or no open space or parks •School land unavailable after school hours Safety Concerns •Poorly Maintained parks •Outdoor activity limited by air pollution Auto Dependency •Time spent commuting diminishes time for other activity Zoning •Adopt mixed-use residential, commercial and office zoning •Adopt complete streets design guidelines Transportation •Expand Safe Routes to School programs Park and Recreation •Ensure safe, wellmaintained parks Schools •Joint use agreements Unsafe Neighborhoods Negative Health Outcomes Relation to Built Environment Policy Recommendations •Lack of outdoor or physical activity due to fear of crime •Social isolation •Stress •Violence Neighborhood Design •Spatially and racially segregated housing •Limited access to essential services •Lack of parks or safe places to play and congregate •Concentration of alcohol and tobacco retailers Zoning •Require developers to provide for a mix of housing types and affordability level Redevelopment •Rehabilitate blighted properties Transportation •Safe transportation option Parks & Recreation •Access to parks and recreational facilities in underserved communities Polluted Air, Soil and Water Negative Health Outcomes Relation to Built Environment Policy Recommendations •Asthma •Birth defects •Cancer •Heart disease •Lung disease •Neurological disorders •Reproductive disorders •Proximity of sensitive sites (schools, housing pedestrian and bike paths, parks and recreation) to sources of air pollution •Lack of green space or trees to buffer or filter pollution •Auto-orientated housing development General & Area Plans •Promote transitoriented and compact, mixed-use development Zoning •Update building codes to incorporate green building principles Partnership/Collaboration • Modern city planning and public health arose together in the rapidly growing industrialized cities of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. • Early planners first began to zone city blocks to buffer residential neighborhoods from polluting industries, and sanitary sewers were built to prevent cholera epidemics. Partnership/Collaboration Opportunities with Public Health General Plans & Transportation Policy Serena Unrein Arizona PIRG Education Fund Impacts of Policy Decisions • Impacts of our policies (or lack of policies) in recent years: ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ High transportation costs Long commutes Loss of desert landscape Increase in the urban heat island effect Fewer affordable housing choices Etc. These problems negatively affect public health, economic development, and quality of life in Arizona. Arizona’s explosive growth in recent years + a lack of policies supporting livable communities __________________________________ = Negative impacts for Arizona residents So how do we change course? • To solve these problems, long-term systemic change and a variety of efforts will be needed. • General plans are a good opportunity to implement policies supporting livable communities What are General Plans? • A general plan is a comprehensive, long-range statement of goals and related policies ▫ Blueprint for the future growth and development • Consists of seventeen different “elements” ▫ Transportation • Required by state law • Must be updated every 10 years • Many counties, cities, and towns updating now ▫ Have until 2015 to complete update Livable Communities Coalition • Who is the Livable Communities Coalition? ▫ The LCC’s mission is to promote livable communities through education and advocacy. ▫ The LCC unites a broad range of planning, transportation, housing, and environmental organizations and government agencies from throughout Arizona LCC’s Vision for Arizona • • • • • • • Mixed land uses Preserve community character Environmentally responsive design Range of housing types and prices Variety of transportation choices Encourage compact development Viable economic mix of both local business and national ones • Safe neighborhoods • Promoting healthy living • Community engagement How can the LCC help? • The LCC role in General Plans ▫ Work directly in 4 municipalities ▫ Provide resources for other communities across the state ▫ Healthy Community Design Toolkit • LCC Members ▫ Expertise from a variety of fields and issue areas Arizona’s Future Do we want to go down the same path we’ve been going down? Our Opportunity • Let’s use General Plans and other opportunities to create better policies and a better quality of life for Arizona. Transportation – Land Use Connection • Relationship between land use and transportation is at the center of smart growth strategies. • Direct link between land use patterns and investment in transportation facilities. http://opencommunities.files.wordpress.com/2011/06/urban -sprawl-florida-428x284.jpg http://www.abacuspm.com/corp/export/sites/abacus/reso urces/images/Mosaic_Condominium.jpg http://thecityfix.com/files/2010/06/losangelestraffic.jpg http://www.valleymetro.org/images/uploads/lightrail_images /portland-place.jpg Complete Streets • History • Barbara McCann – Smart Growth America • 2003 Complete Streets • Definition • 2005 National Complete Streets Coalition COMPLETE STREETS are: “Designed and operated to enable safe access for all users. Pedestrians, bicyclists, motorists and bus riders of all ages and abilities are able to safely move along and across a complete street.” Barbara McCann speaks to Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood about Complete Streets. photo by Steve Davis: http://www.bmccann.net/page2.html • Complete Streets Partnerships History Complete Streets Definition Partnerships • AARP • Planning Complete Streets for an Aging America • American Planning Association • Complete Streets: Best Policy and Implementation Practices • T4 America • Dangerous By Design Partnerships • Why • Safety, Public Health • Resource Protect • Community Building • Goals/Benefits • Promote adoption of local, regional, state and federal design policies • Secure funding • Improve Safety • Contribute to a Health Community • Ease Congestion • Improve Air Quality Missoula, MT http://streetswiki.wikispaces.com/Complete+Streets Planning Process 1. Determine Context a. Urban, Suburban, Rural, Neighborhood 2. Identify Current Modes and Facilities a. Inventory Facilities 3. Identify Complete Streets Gaps a. Bike/Ped, Transit Gaps 4. Determine Additional Priorities a. Green Streets, Economic Development, Historic Preservation 5. Determine Right-of-Way and Lanes a. Multimodal Design 6. Identify Additional Elements a. Lighting, Shade, Signage, Street Furniture, other enhancements MAG Complete Streets Guidehhttp://www.azmag.gov/Documents/BaP_2011-01-25_MAGComplete-Streets-Guide-December-2010.pdf Complete Streets • Success Stories Before Bridgeport Way – University Place, WA After Complete Streets • Success Stories Before La Jolla Blvd. – San Diego, CA After Complete Streets • Success Stories Before Curb and Bike Lane – Boulder, CO After Complete Streets • Arizona Success Story Avondale, AZ – Western Avenue • 4-Lane Road with Center Lane • Designed to Move Traffic • Lack of Visual Interest • Under-utilized Parcels • Lack of Pedestrian Amenities IMPLEMENTATION Arizona Success Story Avondale, AZ – Western Avenue • Reduced to 2 Lane Road with no Center Lane • Merging of Visioning with Engineering Design IMPLEMENTATION Arizona Success Story Avondale, AZ – Western Avenue • Reduced to 2 Lane Road with no Center Lane • Merging of Visioning with Engineering Design • New Development Maintain historic setbacks creating visual interest • Multi-Modal Design • Overall integration of Vision and Design Resources • http://www.completestreets.org/webdo cs/resources/cs• http://www.azmag.gov/Documents/Ba P_2011-01-25_MAG-Complete-StreetsGuide-December-2010.pd Toolkit for Policy Change Dean Brennan, FAICP Project for Livable Communities Walking Today…It’s a Challenge This neighborhood provides no connectivity for walking to the store, to work, to school, to the park, or to ride public transit. This street lacks shade and protection for pedestrians from vehicular traffic. Walking Today…It’s a Challenge Dimensions of Community Design that •RegionalPhysical structure Affect Activity •Density and intensity •Land use mix •Street connectivity •Street scale •Aesthetic qualities Rethinking State and Local Planning • Comprehensive and General Plans • Regional, Area, and Neighborhood Plans • Redevelopment Plans • Retrofitting Suburbia Rethinking State and Local Planning • Functional Plans ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Health services Bicycle and pedestrian Transit Streets and circulation Trails Parks and Open Space Housing Economic development Education Climate Change Healthy Community Design Toolkit Partnering for Success Using the Toolkit • • • • • The Engaged Participant/Resident Planner Review the Local Plan Plan Format How to Contact Your Local Government Who to Contact Partnering for Success General Plan Checklist The Circulation Element addresses: • • • • Adoption of a Complete Streets Policy Safe Routes to School Programs Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Transportation infrastructure that provides for an interconnected system throughout the community/region that serves all residents and minimizes/mitigates impacts on neighborhoods • Action Plan for Bicycle Friendly Communities Partnering for Success Example Policies The Circulation Element • Establish design guidelines and/or level of service standards for a range of users, including access for the disabled and bicyclists. • Incorporate the Complete Streets elements as the guiding principles for a community based Complete Streets Policy. • Encourage investment in Complete Streets. • Develop and implement street design guidelines that create walkable, pleasant environments. • Identify street trees as an important technique for stress- and crime-reduction. • Adopt universal design principles that address facilities such as sidewalks, lighting, ramps for wheelchairs and bicycles, parking in rear of buildings, and windows that face the sidewalk/ street. Partnering for Success TOOLS AND TOOLKITS • AARP – Complete Streets Policy Inventory and Evaluation http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/il/2009_02_streets_5.pdf • AARP – Livable Communities: An Evaluation Guide http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/il/d18311_communities.pdf • Transportation and Health Toolkit • http://www.apha.org/advocacy/priorities/issues/transportati on/Toolkit.htm • US DOT – Bikeability Checklist • http://www.nhtsa.gov/people/injury/pedbimot/bike/Bikeabilit y/index.htm Creating a Pedestrian Friendly Public Realm Wide sidewalks and shared paths Shade, shade, and more shade Safe crosswalks Amenities Sense of place Convenience Safety & Aesthetics Partnering for Success CONDUCT COMMUNITY AUDITS BUILD MORE AND BETTER SIDEWALKS MULTI-USE TRAILS BIKE PATHS TRAFFIC CALMING Partnering for Success CREATE WALKABLE STREETS Partnering for Success Toolkit for Policy Change QUESTIONS? Partnering for Success Contact Information • • • • • Cynthia Melde – [email protected] Vincent Lopez – [email protected] Serena Unrein – [email protected] Felipe Zubia – [email protected] Dean Brennan – [email protected] PART TWO What are some of the issues you are facing in your community? Think about: ▫ Walkabiltiy ▫ Bikeability ▫ Public Transportation ▫ Access (people with disabilities, elderly) Who are potential partners to work on solutions to these issues? • Think about: ▫ Stakeholders ▫ Champions ▫ Health Partners What tools can you use to find solutions to these issues? How can you create long-term solutions to these issues in your community?