Edcursec 638
Business Studies
Maori Business
and the
Maori Concepts
Acknowledgements
• Much of the information in this presentation was derived
from presentation by Nick Kearns of Unitec, which was …
• … derived from lecture delivered by Josie Keleen, Dean
Teaching and Learning, Matauranga Maori Administration AD
Unitec
• Definition of concepts from TKI Maori Business
• Business logos from their websites
• Maori Images from Maori.org.nz
Firstly …
• Why the focus on Maori Business?
• Why is this a separate/special/distinct focal point today, here
and now, or at all?
Your thoughts?
• Significance of Maori economy
• Vehicle for Waitangi principle that requires schools to “be
aware of, and responsive to, Maori values, tikanga (customs)
and kawa (protocol)
• Relevance/engagement of (all) students – plenty of scope for
case studies
• Context for Maori concepts
Part A
Māori Business in
Aotearoa : New Zealand
List as many
“Maori businesses”
as you can think of.
Your list might have included
some of the following
Māori Business in Aotearoa : New Zealand
What and where?
• NZ$ 35 billion in Maori controlled
businesses
• 75% primary sector (farm, fishing, forestry)
• Significant property holders, for example,
Ngati Whatua Orakei $500m of Auckland
CBD
• Significant export earners (commodities,
tourism)
• SME involved in professional services,
tourism … a broad range of industries.
Features that identify a Māori Business as
being Māori are flexible and may be:
o Māori ownership, partnership, joint ventures with other
Māori businesses
o Organisational culture reflecting Māori values
o Using Māori values in business practices, branding, and
marketing
•
Māori shareholding
• 2 degrees (20%)
2degrees
• Shotover Jet (100%)
Shotover Jet
•
Maori ownership, partnership, or joint ventures with
other Maori businesses
• Koru Cabs
Koru Cabs
• Whale Watch Kaikoura
Whale Watch
•
Organisational culture reflecting Maori values
• Tainui Group Holdings
Tainui Group
•
Having (largely) Maori staff
• Kiwa Media
Kiwa Media
•
Using Maori values in business practices, branding and
marketing
• Tohu Wines
Tohu Wines
• Kaitiati Adventures
Kaitiati Adventures
•
Issues for Māori (& Pakeha) Business Interests
• Collective ownership of Maori Assets - cannot use as
security for loans, or sell easily)
• Intellectual property (taonga) ownership – branding
and marketing imagery/knowledge
• Treaty of Waitangi claims – many Maori businesses
have been based on the assets gained from successful
claims to the Waitangi tribunal
Characteristics Maori Business
• Focus on primary industries - farming, forestry, viticulture,
agriculture
• Growing profile in secondary, tertiary sectors
• Focus on producing financial benefits for whanau, hapu, iwi,
region and New Zealand
• Primarily community-owned assets , difficult to sell, use as
collateral for investment or loans
• 'multiple bottom line ‘social, cultural, environmental, spiritual,
economic goals.
Key Issues to think about
Property rights
Pakeha view - based on ownership and exclusive use
Maori view - based on customary use and inclusive use
Profit motive
Pakeha view – companies required to maximise shareholder
return
Maori view - multiple bottom line
Risk profile
Pakeha view - risk commensurate with returns and
leveraging of assets
Maori view – risk averse due to intergenerational focus.
Useful background reading
Maori Values in the Maori Business Approach
Aan interim report investgating the incorporation of tikanga
in Maori businesses and organisations
By G Harmsworth for Mana Taiao Limited, 2006
This document has been filed on the
secondarysocialsciences wikispace
Part B
Māori Concepts from
Business Studies
curriculum
Kaitiakitanga
Guardianship – particularly in relation to natural resources such
as land, sea and waterways; also flora and fauna, including
people, that comprise elements of the natural environment.
Kaitiakitanga requries that sustainability and environmental
protection is valued. As kaitiaki or guardians, the owners or
trustees of an enterprise are responsible for protecting (and/or
growing) resources for future generations, not just for shortterm or individual profit.
Kaitiakitanga is expressed in
• Strong and conservative governance
• Emphasis on wealth protection as well as
wealth creation
• Recognition of intergenerational
responsibilities
Putake
Every business has a reason for being.
Many Maori businesses exist for the same reason as other
businesses, that is, for profit and to enrich the business owner/s.
A significant number, however, have very different reasons for
being – reasons that are associated with collectively-owned
resources, such as land and tribal estates, and/or for their
community and whakapapa-based groupings (whanau, hapu and
iwi).
While such enterprises may look for profit so as to be selfsustaining, social or cultural goals are central to their existence.
Putake is expressed in
• The value of holding, managing and developing Maori
resources such as people land and water
• The ‘multiple bottom line’ of social, cultural, environmental,
and economic goals
• Cultural expression and maintenance of culture, language and
arts
Rangitiratanga
This is the exercise of leadership, authority, guardianship and
ownership rights, with a particular focus on resource production,
utilisation and management for current and future
requirements.
This includes strategic development and oversight, relationship
development and maintenance, problem-solving, conflict
resolution and peace-making, adaptation, risk analysis and
management.
Rangitiratanga is about
•
•
•
•
Leadership
Mana
Respect and
Empowerment
Tikanga
Tikanga is the values, guidelines, rules, priorities and ways of
doing business that guide the business.
Many Maori businesses operate by a set of values that sets them
apart from other businesses, particularly businesses that operate
solely to produce a profit for the owners/shareholders.
They measure success against multiple outcomes, such as
financial outcomes. They have multiple responsibilities and
levels of accountability to current and future generations, wide
whanau, hapu or iwi groups – and to represent Maori well.
Many values inform business practice in Maori business, such as:
• Kotahitanga – Maori unity, shared sense of belonging
• Whanaungatanga – an ethic of belonging and kinship
• Wairuatanga - spirituality
• Manaakitanga – hospitality, generosity, care and giving
Turanga
This is the foundation or position on which the venture is
based. In setting up and selecting the type of legal structure for
an organisation, it is important to clearly know the intended
purpose of that structure.
For example, if Maori land is the core asset, because this land
will never be sold for either legal or tikanga reasons, the
organisation will not be able to make trading decisions following
usual commercial models. This can make running a Maori
organisation particularly challenging.
Turanga encompasses:
• The intended purpose of the enterprise
• Legal structures appropriate to manage collectively owned
assets
• Recognition that some assets are taonga
• Specific legislation, such as Maori Reserved Lands Act 1997
and Maori Fisheries Act 2004
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Maori Business - SecondarySocialScience