促进中国绿色发展
的媒体与公众参与政策研究
Media and Public Participation Policies on
Promoting China’s Green Development
Isabel Hilton & Jia Feng
贾峰 / 伊莎贝尔·希尔顿
Nov. 15th, 2013
Contents
1
Background & Process / 背景及研究过程
2
Experiences & Lessons / 国外经验
3
Major Findings / 主要研究发现
4
Policy Recommendations / 政策建议
Why public participation? 为何需要公众参与?
 Public participation is essential for sustainable
development
公众参与是促进可持续发展的重要手段
 Benefits to government: better policy and greater social
harmony
有利于政府:更好的政策并有利于社会和谐
 Benefits to public: real influence on decision making
有利于公众:使公众对决策具有实质性的影响
 Information and access to justice are essential for
participation
环境信息与法律救济对于公众参与非常重要
Special Policy Study process March to October 2013
专题政策研究过程:2013年3月-10月
Literature review; expert reports
文献综述、专家报告
Field trips: China
国内调研
Field trip: Sweden; Germany
国际调研:瑞典、德国
Group meetings
工作组会议
Research
Interviews 访谈
研究
Topics: participation; information:
education; communication
关键词:参与、信息、教育、传播
International Field trip: Germany & Sweden国际调研
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Environmental decision-making in Germany: the role of open information and public participation
德国的环境决策:信息公开与公众参与的作用
Government communications in an environmental emergency 环境事故中的政府沟通
The role of digital media in public dialogue – the case of Stuttgart 21 数字化媒体在公众对话中的
作用:以斯图加特21为例
Public participation in environmental decision-making: the role of new digital media 环境决策中
的公众参与:数字化媒体的作用
The Pollution Release and Transfer Registry in Germany 德国的污染物登记转移系统
Environmental Impact Assessments and strategic aspects of environmental legislation 环评与环境立
法策略
NIMBY controversies – the case of nuclear waste storage 邻避争议:以核废料处理为例
How Swedish agencies use social media to interact with citizens 瑞典政府应用新媒体与公众互动
Open government information and public participation – the case of Alby 政府信息公开与公众参与:
以Alby为例
Public information and protection for whistleblowers 公众信息与环境举报保护
Understanding environmental issues through social media analysis 通过社交媒体理解环境议题
Handling emergency communications – the case of the tsunami in Thailand 危机沟通:以泰国海啸
为例
Global environmental information: Eye on Earth 全球环境信息:地球之眼
Contents
1
Background & Process / 背景及研究过程
2
Experiences & Lessons / 国外经验
3
Major Findings / 主要研究发现
4
Policy Recommendations / 政策建议
Rio Declaration 1992 and Rio + 20 statements
里约宣言 1992 和 里约 +20
Environmental issues are best handled with participation of all concerned
citizens, at the relevant level.
不同层面相关方的参与能促进环境问题得到妥善解决。
At the national level, each individual shall have appropriate access to
information concerning the environment that is held by public authorities,
and the opportunity to participate in decision-making processes.
每个人都应享有环境信息知情权,政府应该提供适当的途径使公众获取环
境信息并参与决策制定过程。
States shall facilitate and encourage public awareness and participation by
making information widely available.
各国应当提供广泛的信息获取渠道,鼓励和促进公众意识和参与决策。
Information and access to justice are essential for participation
信息公开与司法救济对于公众参与非常关键
Aarhus Convention 奥胡斯公约
Public access to information on freedom of information
principles /公众对信息的获取是基于信息自由的原则
Early provision of information 在早期提供信息
Right to seek information, without stating why 有无需提供理由
而获取信息的权利
Presumption that information will be provided 信息可提供推定
Right open to all, including non-citizens 对所有人公开
Information includes policy materials and raw data 信息包括政
策材料和原始数据
Public engagement in environmental policy / 公众参与环
境政策制定
Stuttgart 21: too little too late 斯图加特21:太少
太晚
Where major projects are
controversial, early public
participation is essential;
有争议的大型项目决策中,公众参与非
常必要
Over-reaction by the authorities to
protests can make matters worse
公众抗议时,当局要保持克制,以避免
事态恶化
Proactive communication, including
through social media, can build trust
and public understanding
利用传统媒体和新媒体加强沟通,有助
于赢得公众信任和理解
Transparent and open decision
making can help to win pubic
acceptance
透明和公开的决策能提升公众接受度
Eye on Earth: a global public environmental
information network / 地球之眼:全球环境信息网络
•Enables the creation and sharing of public environmental data
and information online / 环境信息和数据在线创建和共享
•Collect once, use many times / 一次收集,多次利用
•Interoperable and interactive at local, national and international
levels / 可在区域、国家、国际各个层级交互操作与互动
•Overall goal is to expand and improve understanding of the
environment; guide and inform action, through wide sharing of
information, data and knowledge; / 总体目标是扩大和提升公众对
环境的理解,通过信息、数据和知识的共享,引导和促进行动
Lessons learned: 经验教训 :
• Proactive consultation at the early stages of policy and planning;
• 在政策和规划制定的初期就主动征求意见
• Ample information raises awareness and builds shared
understanding;
• 足够的信息能够提升意识并建立共识和理解
• Environmental data publicly available, with a few, clearly defined
exceptions builds public trust
• 公开环境数据,只允许少量、清晰界定的例外情形,有助于
建立公信力
• Interactive communications between government and public
helps understanding of public concerns and mood
• 政府与公众之间的互动交流有助于了解公众的关注和情绪
Media in the digital age数字时代的媒体
Top down, one-way communications no longer work
自上而下、单向的沟通不再有效
Traditional and digital media both important
传统媒体和数字媒体同等重要
Networked, interactive communications need public trust
联网、互动的沟通需要公众信任
Censored, slow or inadequate official responses allow
rumours to flourish.
官方审查、延迟反应或者回应不足促使谣言滋生
Public creates as well as consumes knowledge
公众既消费知识也创造知识
Two way communications in the digital age:
数字时代的双向沟通:
Governments should offer 政府应该提供
• reliable, prompt communications 可靠、快速的沟通
• swift action to deal with problems 处理问题时进行快
速行动
Public needs: 公众需要
• Responsive policy makers 及时回应的决策者
• Early input to planning 初期介入规划
• Easy reporting mechanisms 简单易行的报告机制
Communications in environmental emergencies
must be:
环境突发事件中的沟通必须:
Timely
及时
Frequent
频繁
Truthful
诚实
Two way
双向
Contents
1
Background & Process / 背景及研究过程
2
Experiences & Lessons / 国际经验
3
Major Findings / 主要研究发现
4
Policy Recommendations / 政策建议
Findings based on / 发现基于大量实地调研
Local EPA environmental information disclosure 西安地方环境信息公开实施困境调研
New media utilisation case Chongqing EPA重庆市环保局新媒体运用调研
New media utilisation case in Shandong EPA山东环保厅利用新媒体接受投诉调研
Shandong Weifang groundwater pollution investigation潍坊地下水污染舆情应对调研
Public participation cases in Zhejiang EPA 浙江环保厅公众参与调研
New media utilisation case in Sichuan Chengdu EPA 四川成都环保局利用新媒体调研
Environmental protest in Sichuan Pengzhou 四川彭州石化基地舆情应对调研
Environmental protest in Sichuan Shifang 四川什邡七·二群体事件调研
Environmental protest in Jiangsu Qidong 启东排海工程所引发的群体事件调研
Environmental protest in Ningbo Zhenhai 宁波镇海炼化一体化抗议事件调研
Interview with MEP official on hazardous chemical management in China 环保部化学品管理处处
长访谈
Interview with MEP official on opening EIA full report 环保部环评司综合处处长访谈
Interview with Professor Shan Guangnai who is a specialist in environmental protest research 社
科院群体事件研究专家单光鼐访谈
Interview with opinion leader Mr Ma Jun from IPE 意见领袖马军先生访谈
Major Findings /主要研究发现
高发环境群体事件制约了中国绿色转型和经济
结构升级调整;同时也暴露了中国政府在如何
把公众对环境问题的关注转变为依法有序的公
众参与方面极度缺乏经验。
The Chinese government lacks experience in
turning public concern about environmental
issues into legal and orderly public participation.
This has resulted in a growing incidence of
environmental protests and a serious loss of
trust between public and government that could
negatively affect China’s green transformation
and economic upgrading.
Major Findings /主要研究发现
 全面有效的公众参与对于重建政府公信力、恢复政府与
民众之间的互信非常必要;中方专家认为,公众参与既
是权利也是义务,需要系统推进,不可偏废;目前对公
众参与的权利强调较多,但对其义务却强调不够。
 Full public participation is necessary to rebuild trust between
government and people, to improve policy formation and
implementation and to build ecological civilization.
Participation requires clear rules to promote and facilitate
early public involvement in environmental decision-making
and systematic education of public and government at all
levels on environment and sustainable development. It was
a finding of the Chinese experts in the policy study that
public participation should be promoted systematically as
both a right and responsibility. This did not reach full
agreement.
Major Findings /主要研究发现
现有的和公众参与相关的法律、法规和政策没
有得到全面、有效的执行;决策中的利益相关
者表达诉求和寻求法律保护的渠道不够通畅。
Full public participation in environmental
protection has been hampered by inadequate
implementation of existing government laws
and regulations and the lack of sufficient
channels for concerned stakeholders to
represent their legitimate interests or to protect
themselves against the consequences of poor
policy decisions.
Major Findings /主要研究发现
 公众参与、环境教育、环境传播、环境信息公开、环境投
诉反馈等方面的政府服务职能亟待加强,相关资源亟待整
合以更好的服务于公众。
 The government’s support of the goal of public
participation has been inadequate; insufficient resources
have been devoted to environmental education, and
environmental information is not optimized or integrated.
Improvement is further required in the following areas:
environmental information disclosure; response to letters
and visits from the public and environmental complaint
hotlines; definition of competencies and responsibilities of
different organizations and agencies across government;
and optimization of resources and functions to support
public participation in environmental protection.
Major Findings /主要研究发现
 对近年来发生的环境群体事件缺乏必要的研究和经验教
训总结;各级政府对突发环境事故和环境群体事件的预
警、应急响应、善后处理等亟待加强;环境事件舆论应
对能力亟待提高。
 Government performance in the following areas is also
inadequate: communications in environmental
emergencies; environmental monitoring and pollutant
control and elimination; environmental information
disclosure; response to the media and the public over
pollution incidents, controversial new construction
projects and other environmental issues of concern.
Further research could help to illuminate the lessons of
recent environmental incidents and protests, so as to
avoid future mistakes.
Major Findings /主要研究发现
环境传播缺乏整体战略考虑,在污染防治、环
境事故、环境群体事件、舆论热点环境议题、
公众对新扩建项目的环境担忧等方面,均亟需
前瞻、主动和系统的环境传播战略方案。
The government lacks an active and
systematic strategic plan for environmental
communications. A strategy to upgrade and
integrate environmental public relations,
identify potential environmental risks, provide
systematic solutions and offer open
information and proactive communications is
required.
Major Findings /主要研究发现
 新媒体已经成为公众获取环境信息、表达自身意愿、参与
环境决策、监督环境管理执法和表达绿色选择的重要方式;
但各级政府部门及官员理解和运用新媒体的能力却无法满
足现实需求。
 New media have become important channels for the Chinese
public to access environmental information, to express their
wishes and opinions, to participate in environmental decisionmaking, exercise their right of supervision and to make green
choices that benefit the environment. Government at every
level has an inadequate understanding of the important
potential for new media to promote public participation and
improve interaction with the public and this is hampering its
efforts both to understand public opinion and to communicate
effectively with the public.
Contents
1
Background & Process / 背景及研究过程
2
Experiences & Lessons / 国内外经验
3
Major Findings / 主要研究发现
4
Policy Recommendations / 政策建议
Policy Recommendations / 政策建议
加强依法、有序的公众参与,促使其成为推
进生态文明、建设美丽中国和造福中国人民
的重要保障。
 Strengthen legal and orderly public
participation in environmental fields as an
important basis for promoting Ecological
Civilization, building a ‘Beautiful China’ and
bringing benefit to the Chinese people.
Policy Recommendations / 政策建议
促进环境信息公开制度的实施和完善,巩固和
提升各级政府和企业的信息化管理能力,并推
进信息公开立法。
Promote and develop open environmental
information systems; consolidate and improve
information management capabilities of central
and local government and enterprises, and
effectively implement open information
legislation.
Policy Recommendations / 政策建议
促进社会各界对环境保护与经济发展之间的科
学认识,制定前瞻、主动、综合的环境传播战
略,加快推进国家环境教育立法。
Create a comprehensive environmental
communications strategy to include the
accelerated introduction of national
environmental education legislation, in order to
raise environmental awareness and promote
environmental participation across all sectors of
society.
Policy Recommendations / 政策建议
加强现有的公众参与相关法律、法规和
政策的实施力度;必要时修正或制定新的
法律、法规和政策,以改善公众参与环境
决策。
Improve the implementation of existing
laws, regulations and policies on public
participation in planning. Reform and
introduce new laws, regulations and
guidelines to improve public participation
where necessary.
Policy Recommendations / 政策建议
理解并接受新媒体,采用适合于新媒体语境
的信息传播方式;建设有助于应对绿色发展
挑战的开放式媒体系统,增进政府与民众互
信。
Adapt government communications to the
new media context; promote an open media
system suited to the challenge of green
development, with support for environmental
reporting and enhanced two-way online
communication between government and the
public.
Policy Recommendations / 政策建议
建立完善的环境突发事故和环境群体
事件应急响应机制。
Improve environmental incident
response mechanisms.
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促进中国绿色发展的媒体与公众参与政策研究Media and Public