TOPIC OF LECTURE:
Hygiene as a science. Ecology as a science.
Environment and human health. Biosphere
and its hygienic siginificance. Bioethitics
aspects and biosafety questions of biosphere
denaturation
Lecturer: Kostiantyn Zagorodniuk
Kyiv – 12.09.2013
PLAN OF THE LECTURE
Introduction to hygiene and human ecology.
Organizational and methodological provisions for studying general
hygiene and human ecology at the department.
Health as object of hygiene.
Environment as an object of hygiene.
Prophylactic priorities in medicine.
Hygiene as a science. Definitions, aims, tasks, methods of hygiene.
Historical outline of hygiene development.
Sanitation. Kinds of sanitation.
Sanitary and epidemiological services in Ukraine.
Sanitary legislation in Ukraine.
Significance of hygienic knowledge for medical profession.
THE IDEAS OF PROPHYLAXIS
IN SCIENTIFIC WORKS
The main task of a doctor is about care of healthy people so that
they don’t fall in disease.
Hippocrates
(IV century B.C.)
The primary task of a doctor lies in preventing a disease; if you
have failed to manage it – treat it; if the disease is incurable –
alleviate suffering.
Botkin S.P. (1867)
I believe in hygiene. This is where real progress of our science lies.
The future belongs to preventive medicine.
Pirogov M.P. (1887)
THE IDEAS OF PROPHYLAXIS
IN SCIENTIFIC WORKS
A doctor must not only treat patients, but also prevent
diseases; that is the ideal side of his mission; it`s the best
and the most useful side of his activity.
Erismann F.F. (1887)
The more experienced the practical physician is the better
he understands the omnipotence of hygiene and relative
weakness of curative medicine. Only hygiene can win the
dispute with the disease.
Zakharyin G.A. (1910)
PROPHYLAXIS
Prophylaxis comprises a wide network of state,
medical and public measures aimed at protecting and
improving people’s health, bringing up healthy young
population, improving human working ability and
active longevity.
Prophylaxis
Social (public)
Provided for State
measures established in
the Constitution (the
right to work, housing,
study etc.)
Individual (personal)
Fighting nervous,
vascular, endocrine and
other systems overloading
of an individual
Prophylaxis
Primary
Prophylactic technologies for
disease prevention by removing
risk factors (causes and
conditions of disease
development) and improving
body resistance to risk factors
Secondary
Medico-prophylactic
technologies for revealing
disease, preventing its progress,
aggravation and possible
complications
Tertiary
Medico-prophylactic
technologies aimed at removing
negative consequences of the
disease (relapses, complications,
temporary or permanent
disability, death)
HYGIENE
(basic) H Y G І E N E is a branch of medical knowledge, a
science dealing with protecting and consolidating social
(collective) and personal (individual) health by means of
prophylactic measures.
H Y G І E N E is a branch of medicine, a science that
studies laws of environmetal and its interaction on human
organism and health of the society with the aim of
substantiating hygienic standards, sanitary rules and
measures which will provide the optimal conditions for
vital functions, health consolidation and disease
prevention.
ECOLOGY
Ecology (from Greek: οἶκος, "house"; -λογία, "study
of”) is the scientific study of interactions among
organisms and their environment, such as the
interactions organisms have with each other and with
their abiotic environment.
SHELLS OF THE EARTH
Atmosphere (New Latin atmosphaera, created in the
17th century from Greek ἀτμός [atmos] "vapor“ and
σφαῖρα [sphaira] "sphere”) is a layer of gases
surrounding a material body of sufficient mass of Earth
that is held in place by the gravity of the Earth body.
Hydrosphere (from Greek ὕδωρ - hudōr, "water” and
σφαῖρα - sphaira, "sphere”) is combined mass of water
found on, under, and over the surface of planet Earth
Lithosphere (Greek: λίθος [lithos] for "rocky", and
σφαῖρα [sphaira] for "sphere") is the rigid outermost
shell of a rocky planet Earth.
Biosphere – this is total sum of ecosystems on the
planet. Ecological relationships regulate the flux of
energy, nutrients, and climate all the way up to the
planetary scale. For example, the dynamic history of
the planetary atmosphere's CO2 and O2 composition
has been affected by the biogenic flux of gases coming
from respiration and photosynthesis, with levels
fluctuating over time in relation to the ecology and
evolution of plants and animals.
MAIN OBJECTIVE OF HYGIENE
Preserving and strengthening of
the human’s health
TASKS OF HYGIENE
① Studying the natural and anthropogenic environmental factors and
specific conditions affecting the health of a human being.
② Studying objective laws of the impact of environmental factors and
conditions on the human body and population.
③ Scientific substantiation and development of hygienic standards, rules
and measures for rational use of environmental factors beneficial for
human body as well as removing the harmful factors or limiting them to
safe levels.
④ Implementation of developed hygienic recommendations, rules and
standards into practice in national economy, controlling and improving
their effectiveness.
⑤ Predicting the sanitary situation for nearest and remote future, taking
into account plans for their development of national economy, proper
hygienic problems arising from the prognosed situation, scientific
research of the problem.
SPECIFIC METHODS OF HYGIENE
Epidemiological (study of the human’s
health).
Method of sanitary examination and
description.
Method of hygienic experiment:
a. Method of natural experiment;
b. Method of laboratory experiment.
Method of sanitary examination and /or
expertise.
Method of hygienic teaching and study,
sanitary education.
STAGES OF HYGIENIC
DEVELOPMENT IN UKRAINE
STAGES OF HYGIENIC
DEVELOPMENT IN UKRAINE
SANITARY LEGISLATION OF UKRAINE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
State Constitution (1996).
Health protection laws.
The Law „On sanitary and epidemic welfare of the
population” (1995).
Laws and Government resolutions on nature, air, water and
soil protection.
State standards on industrial production, foodstuffs,
medicines quality (State Standards, certification of quality).
Building standards and rules (BSaR).
Sanitary rules and standards (SanRaS).
Hygienic standards: maximum allowable concentration
(MAC), maximum allowable level (MAL), maximum
allowable dose (MAD), approximately safe influence level
(ASIL), safe residual quality (SRQ), technical terms (TT).
WHAT REQUIRES THE KNOWLEDGE
OF HYGIENE
State of population health analysis connected with living conditions.
Diagnostics, defining etiology and pathogenesis of alimentary, professional and
infectious diseases.
Administering treatment (in treatment-and-prophylactic institutions) and treatmentand-prophylactic (in dangerous enterprises) diet that assist in removing harmful
substances from the body, rises the body resistance to their action.
Professional orientation (establishing correction of health level and chosen profession),
medical expert examination.
Recommendations on daily regimen and personal hygiene.
Intrahospital infection prevention.
Conducting sanitary-educational work with people (in treatment-and-prophylactic
establishments), in pediatric establishments (pediatric doctor), enterprises (medical
dispensary doctor), in rural conditions (rural district doctor).
METHODS OF HYGIENIC STUDIES
SCHEME OF COMPLEX EVALUATION OF
HEALTH STATE
INTERCONECTION OF HYGIENE
WITH THE OTHER SCIENCES
SANITATION
School (preschool)
S
А
N
І
Housing and municipal
Industrial
Foodstuffs
Т
Sanitation is controlled by
А
Sanitation is executed by
T
І
Sanitary-epidemiological services
The whole population (personal sanitation)
State organs
State and private enterprises
O
N
Institutions and establishments
Agricultural enterprises, farmers
Trade unions and other organizations
STRUCTURE OF SANITARYEPIDEMIOLOGICAL SERVICE OF UKRAINE
STRUCTURE SANITARYEPIDEMIOLOGICAL STATION
Thank You for Your Attention!
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human hygiene and ecology as a branch of medical science, health