Second Phase Chinese Civil War
By: Tony
Monarchy overthrow  Internal Strife/Weak
First Phase – 1927 to 1937
Nationalists (GMD) winning vs Communists (CCP)
Second Phase – 1937 to 1945
Nationalists open warfare vs Japanese
Third Phase – 1945 to 1949
Communists win
Headed by Chiang Kai-Shek (see previous page)
Wanted to unite China under Nationalist banner
Nationalists were initially winning
Nationalists were allied to the Communists, but later
Chiang Kai-Shek was wary of the communists threat
and purged many of them
• Nationalists had support of landlords and people in
cities (upper class) and most of their capital came from
the citiesa
• Had many benefits; efficiency and had support of West
• Headed by Mao-Ze-Dong (see previous page) and
soldiers were treated well and felt part of the
• Communists had support of the rural population
(lower, middle class)
• Large army yet unequipped with no help from the
• Communists fought the war against the Japanese
through guerrilla warfare perceived as more
effective than open warfare
Second Phase – Peace Treaty
• Second Phase 1937-1945
• Peace Treaty between Nationalists and
Communists to fight off Imperial Japan
• An uneasy alliance was formed; which had
little effect as there was little cooperation
between Nationalists and Communists
• Japanese took over city by city; severely
crippling potential Nationalist capital
Methods of warfare
• Nationalist leader Chiang Kai Shek confronted
Japanese full on, leading to heavy troop losses
• Communist leader Mae Ze Dong was achieving
gains through guerrilla warfare; at one point
even mobilized up to 5 million soldiers
Rise of popularity of Mao
• Mao’s guerrilla warfare tactics proved
• Mao’s land reform policy of giving farm land to
thousands of hungry and starving farmers
added to the momentum
• Mao offered mistreated Nationalist troops
allegiance to the Communist cause. Many
• At the end of World War 2; while Nationalists
were extremely weakened and Communists
were extremely popular the Nationalists and
Communists resumed fighting
• Communists defeated Nationalists in various
• Nationalists fled to Taiwan where they still