FIRE HOSE CONCEPTS
During the early days of firefighting, the process of
conveying water to a fire and applying it for extinguishment was
a major problem. The first known used hose was the large
intestines of animals and the most known was of the yak.
Over the years of civilization, crude types of fire hoses
were developed yet there is no standard and satisfactory
material produced until the 19th century. Until that time, the
most famous means of transporting water to a fire was the
passing of buckets of water down a line of organized fire
brigades and citizens called the “Bucket Brigade”.
FIRE HOSE CONCEPTS
Through the years of the rapidly changing
needs for public safety, firefighting continues to
deal with the current trends in combating
destructive fires. Water, as one of the basic
elements to support life and also the cheapest
and most effective extinguishing agent continues
to serve the fire department and also the people
to prevent the spread of this destructive
phenomenon.
FIRE HOSE CONCEPTS
Firefighters worldwide still put the fire out by
moving water through a fire hose and directing its
cooling effect to extinguish fire. A fire hose is
absolutely essential to accomplishing our primary
mission;
TO SAVE SAVABLE LIVES AND PROPERTIES
from the damage or total loss caused by fires.
FIRE HOSE CONCEPTS
What is a Fire Hose?
Fire Hose, defined as:
 a specially constructed lined woven-jacketed hose designed to
withstand the hazards of the fire scene;
 a type of flexible tube used by firefighters to carry water under
pressure to a point where it is discharged; it must be water-tight,
flexible and must have a durable covering or hose jacket (the outer
covering of a hose and is also defined as a device clamped over a
hose to contain water at a rupture point or to join damaged or
dissimilar couplings); and
 It is the most commonly used and abuse item it the fire service.
FIRE HOSE COUPLINGS
One of the greatest dilemmas faced by the fire service
during at the turn of the century was that each fire department
used different sizes and threads of fire hoses and its fittings.
There were once over 2,000 different fire hose threads
and couplings and creating a major problem when different fire
departments were to join conflagrations and major fire
response. With this, it is impossible for some fire department
pumpers to connect to fire hydrants and even other fire
department pumpers.
As a result, needless loss of lives and properties
because water cannot be effectively carried or moved to the
fire.
FIRE HOSE COUPLINGS
During the late 1800s, fire service administrations
began to recognize the problems associated with each fire
agency using couplings of different threads. In 1873, the
International Association of Fire Engineers (now known as
the International Association of Fire Chiefs) passed a
resolution to set standards on fire hose screw threads.
As early as 1898, the National Fire Protection
Agency began drawing up thread specifications, not only
on couplings but also in fire hoses, nozzles and
accessories.
FIRE HOSE COUPLINGS
Developed dimensions for ten (10) coupling
sizes (in inches) as to the year or its timeline:
1925 – 2 ½ , 3, 3 ½ , 4 ½
 1935 – ¾ , 1, 1 ½
 1955 – 4, 5, 6
 1956 – standards for gaskets and grooves of
all ten sizes were adopted

FIRE HOSE COUPLINGS
Agencies that adopted the Ten (10) Standards:
American Insurance Association
 Association of Factory Mutual Insurance
Companies
 International Association of Fire Chiefs
 American Water Works Association

FIRE HOSE COUPLINGS
The thread used for the ten (10) sizes of
threaded couplings is specified in NFPA 1963 Standards for Screw Threads and Gaskets for Fire
Hose Connection wherein this standard specifies the
number of threads per inch for each of the
couplings.
The standardized thread is called the
“American National Fire Hose Connection Screw
Thread” or NH or NST.
FIRE HOSE COUPLINGS
DIAMTER
NUMBER OF THREADS
INCHES
MM
0.75
20
8
1.00
25
8
1.50
38
9
2.50
65
7½
3.00
77
6
3.50
90
6
4.00
100
4
4.50
115
4
5.00
125
4
6.00
150
4
FIRE HOSE COUPLINGS
What is a Fire Hose Coupling?
Fire Hose Coupling or simply coupling is
defined as the fitting permanently attached to the
end of a hose, used to connect two (2) hoselines
together or a hose to such devices as fire nozzles,
fire appliance, discharge valves, or hydrants.
FIRE HOSE COUPLINGS
Components of Fire Hose Couplings
are generally alloys with varied
percentages of:
 Brass
 Aluminum
 Magnesium
FIRE HOSE COUPLINGS
Types of Couplings
 Threaded Couplings
 Sexless Couplings
 Snap Couplings
FIRE HOSE COUPLINGS
Threaded Coupling
- a male and female coupling with a
spiral thread
FIRE HOSE COUPLINGS
Parts of a threaded coupling
Shank (tail piece, bowl, shell) – serves as point of
attachment to a hose
 Higbee Cut – is a special type of thread design in which the
beginning of the thread, which provides a positive connection
between the first threads of opposing couplings, which tends
to eliminate cross-threading
 Higbee Indicator – marks where the higbee cut begins
 Lugs – aid for tightening or loosening of connections
 Swivel – permits connection of two section of hose without
twisting the entire hose

FIRE HOSE COUPLINGS
Types of Lugs
Pin Lugs – are lugs that resembles like small
pegs or nipple-like structure
 Rocker Lugs – most commonly found lugs in
the fire service
 Recessed Lugs – are lugs that has shallow
holes bored into the couplings

FIRE HOSE COUPLINGS
PIN LUG
ROCKER
LUG
FIRE HOSE COUPLINGS
Sexless Coupling
- there is no distinct
male
or
female
components, so both
couplings are identical.
This
coupling
is
normally found on large
diameter hoses (LDH)
FIRE HOSE COUPLINGS
Two (2) kinds of Sexless Coupling
 Quarter-Turn
 Storz
FIRE HOSE COUPLINGS
Snap Couplings
– have both a male and female component
that are snapped to both ends
FIRE HOSE COUPLINGS
Common Parts of a Fire Hose Coupling
Shank
 Lugs
 Swivel

HOSE CLASSIFICATIONS
 By
Use
 By Construction
HOSE CLASSIFICATIONS
By Use

Attack Hose – any hose between the attack pumper and the
nozzle to which it supplies water; any hose that is used to
directly control and extinguish fire.

Relay/Supply Hose – is designed to move large volumes of
water at low pressure and also has two category namely:


Medium Diameter Hose (MDH) - from 2 ½ “ - to 3”-diameter hose
Large Diameter Hose (LDH) - from 3 ½ “ to 6”diameter.
HOSE CLASSIFICATIONS

Intake Hose – is used to connect a fire department pumper or a portable
pump to a nearby water source. This has two categories:



Soft-Sleeve Hose (soft suction) – used to transfer from a pressurized
water source
Hard Suction Hose (hard sleeve) – used primarily to draft from an open
water source
Fire Extinguisher Hose – is used on large extinguisher units that may be
stationary, wheeled or vehicle-mounted. This has two groups namely
Conventional extinguisher hose (discharge pressure not more than 400 psi)
and High-Pressure extinguisher hose (will withstand up to 1,250 psi)
HOSE CLASSIFICATIONS
By Construction
Another way to classify hose is according
to the way it is constructed. Hose construction
standards specify a number of construction
and performance characteristics wherein
these standards require that, all fire hose
move water reliably and efficiently, be
maneuverable, be durable and resist-kinking.
HOSE CLASSIFICATIONS
Four basic hose classification based on the
methods of its construction:
Woven-Jacketed Hose
 Rubber-Covered Hose
 Braided Hose
 Wrapped Hose

HOSE CLASSIFICATIONS
Woven – Jacketed hose.
- Used specifically for firefighting application where weight is a factor in
maneuverability.
This has two general types:

Unlined hose – as the name implies, has no inner tube or liner. This type
of hose tends its fabric when first charged to saturate and swell due to
seepage but desirable. It has two classifications namely forestry hose and
standpipe hose. Also called as single-jacketed hose.
 Lined hose – is far more widely used type of fire hose and consists of more
woven-fabric seamless jackets into which a rubber tube has been inserted
and vulcanized, which makes it leakproof and reduces friction when water
flows at a high velocity. This hose can withstand higher internal pressures
and more resistant to damage caused by abrasion. Also referred to as
double-jacketed hose.
HOSE CLASSIFICATIONS
Rubber-covered hose. As the term implies, has a rubberized
cover that is mildew-proof and resists damage caused by
abrasion and in contact with chemicals.
Braided hose. Is used in the manufacture of booster hose and
fire extinguisher hose. This hose can withstand high internal
pressure.
Wrapped hose. Primarily used in drafting or vacuum operations.
It is wrapped by several layers of diagonally cut (bias-cut) fabric
around an extruded rubber tube and rubber compound and
copper wire coiled between layers are applied to prevent
collapse.
HOSE CLASSIFICATIONS
To better understand the relationship
between the way a fire hose is constructed and
used is shown in the table below:
WOVEN-JACKETED
RUBBER-COVERED
BRAIDED
WRAPPED
Attack
Attack
Booster
Hard Suction
MDH Relay-Supply
MDH Relay-Supply
Extinguisher
LDH Relay-Supply
LDH Relay-Supply
Soft Sleeve
Soft Sleeve
HOSE DAMAGES
Fire hose is a tool that is subjected to many
potential sources of damage during fire fighting.
Like any other materials or objects, all are subject
to wear-and-tear condition due to the nature of
activity that fire fighters combat fires with the use
of their tools and equipment.
HOSE DAMAGES
Different Types of Hose Damages and their
prevention
Mechanical Damage
 Thermal Damage
 Organic Damage
 Chemical Damage

HOSE DAMAGES
Mechanical Damage
- Are caused when an object contacts the hose along its length and cuts, abrades, tears
or stresses the jacket and underlying materials and crushed or damaged couplings.
Recommended Practices for Prevention






Avoid laying or pulling hose over rough, sharp edges or objects
Use hose ramps or bridges to protect hose from vehicles running over it
Open and close nozzles, valves and hydrants slowly to prevent water hammer (force
created by rapid deceleration of water under pressure)
Change position of bends in hose when reloading hose on apparatus
Provide chaffing blocks to prevent abrasion to hose when it vibrates near the pump
Avoid excessive pump pressure on hose lines
HOSE DAMAGES
Thermal Damage. Is caused when exposure to excessive heat or cold which
weakens the fabric layer, melts or freezes the rubber linings.
Recommended Practices for Prevention







Protect hose from exposure to excessive heat or fire when possible
Do not allow hoses to remain in any heated area after it is dry
Use moderate temperature for drying. Warm Air or Air dry is better than hot
air
Keep the outside of the woven-jacketed fire hose dry
Run water through hose that has not been used for some time to prolong
its life
Avoid contact in close proximity with vehicle exhaust systems
Use hose bed covers on apparatus to shield the hose from the sun
HOSE DAMAGES
Organic Damage. This causes decay and consequent deterioration of the
hose due a parasite called fungus or otherwise known as mold or mildew.
Recommended Practices for Prevention
 Remove all wet woven-jacket hose from the apparatus after a fire and
replace with dry hose
 Remove, inspect, sweep and reload woven-jacket hose if it has not
been unloaded from the apparatus during the period of 30 days
 Exercise woven-jacket hose every 30 days and run water through it
every 90 days to prevent from drying and cracking of the rubber lining
 Ventilate all areas where hose is kept
 Cover hose beds with water repellent covers to keep loads dry during
inclement weather
HOSE DAMAGES
Chemical Damage. Is caused when hose is exposed to petroleum, oil,
acids, alkali’s, paints and runoff water from a fire.
Recommended Practices for Prevention




Scrub hose thoroughly and brush all traces of acid contacts with a
solution of baking soda and water. Baking soda neutralizes acids
Remove hose periodically from the apparatus, wash with plain water,
and dry it thoroughly
Avoid laying hoses in the curb or gutter where vehicles have been
parked and might drop chemicals due to leakage
Dispose of hose properly if it has been exposed to hazardous materials
and cannot be decontaminated
PROPER CARE AND MAINTENANCE
Three (3) methods
maintaining fire hoses



Washing
Storing
Drying
of
caring
and
PROPER CARE AND MAINTENANCE
Washing Hose
- Most laborious, time-consuming job that can be simplified by
using devices or manually done by fire fighters. Use mild soap
or detergent on the hoses and brush thoroughly with stiff bristled brush to remove dust and dirt. Rinse the hose
thoroughly.
Machines / devices used on washing/rinsing/draining hose
 Cabinet-type hose washing machine
 Jet Spray device
PROPER CARE AND MAINTENANCE
Storing Hose
After the hose has been cleaned or dried, it
should be rolled and stored in suitable hose
racks, hose towers or improvised hose storage.
The area must be kept clean and well- ventilated.
If on hose beds, must be covered with waterrepellent covers
PROPER CARE AND MAINTENANCE
Drying Hose
This must be done according to manufacturers’
instructions and must be dried using warm air to
avoid moisture on the rubber linings.
HOSE APPLIANCE AND TOOLS
A complete hose layout for fire fighting
purposes includes one end of the fire hose
attached to or submerged in a source of water
and the other attached to a nozzle or similar
discharge device.
These devices are grouped into two:
 Hose Appliances
 Hose Tools
HOSE APPLIANCE
HOSE APPLIANCE
Is any piece of hardware used in conjunction with
the fire hose for the purpose of delivering water
Kinds of Hose Appliance
 Valves
 Valve Devices
 Fittings
 Intake Devices
HOSE APPLIANCE
Valves. Controls the flow of water in hoselines, hydrants and at
pumpers.
Types and usage




Ball Valves. Used in pumper discharges and gated wyes
Gate Valves. Used to control the flow from a hydrant
Butterfly Valves. Used on large pump intakes.
Clapper Valves. Used in Siamese appliance to allow one intake
hose to be connected and charged before the addition of more
hoses
HOSE APPLIANCE
Valve Devices. Increase or decrease the number of hoselines operating at the
fireground.
Types of Valve Devices


Wye Appliance. Divides a line of hose into two or more lines. Often gated so
that water being fed up to into the hoselines may be controlled at the gate.
Siamese Appliance. Wye and Siamese appliance are often confused
because of their close resemblance. This appliance consists of two or more
hoselines that are brought into one hoseline or device. This device is
commonly used to overcome the problems caused by friction loss in hose
lays to cover a long distance flow. Popular on LDHs.
HOSE APPLIANCE



Water Thief Appliance. This is a variation of the wye
appliance. It is intended to be used on a 2 ½ - inch or larger
hoseline, usually near the nozzle so that the hoselines may
be used as desired from the layout.
Large Diameter Hose Appliance. This type often necessitates
the use of special appliances to distribute the water near the
final destination of the hoseline. These devices are
sometimes called portable hydrants, manifolds, phantom
pumpers, or large diameter distributors.
Hydrant Valves. These valves are used when a hose lay is
made from the water-supply source to the fire scene.
HOSE APPLIANCE
Fittings
Are used for connecting hoses of different sizes and thread types.
Types of Fittings
 Adapter. A fitting for connecting hose couplings with dissimilar threads but with the
same inside diameter.
Ex: double male, double female
 Reducer. This type of fitting is used to reduce a larger diameter coupling to a smaller
coupling.
 Elbows. Changes the direction of flow.
 Hose Caps. Closes male couplings.
 Hose Plugs. Closes female couplings.
HOSE TOOLS
HOSE TOOLS
These are used in conjunction with hose lines.
Kinds of Hose Tools


Hose Rollers. Prevents mechanical damage of hose when
dragged over sharp surfaces such as roof edges and
windowsills. This is secured with a C-clamp and rope.
Spanners, Hydrant Kits, and Rubber Mallets. Spanners,
tighten and loosens hose couplings; Hydrant Kits are
combination of spanner and a pentagon-shaped wrench for
opening hydrants; and Rubber Mallets is used to strike the
lugs to tighten or loosen intake hose couplings.
HOSE TOOLS
Hose Clamps. Stops the flow of water in a hoseline in order to prevent charging the hose
during hose-lay operations; to allow replacement of burst sections without shutting down the
supply line; to allow extension of hose line; and allow advancement of charged hoseline up
stairs.
Types of Hose Clamps




Screw-Down
Press-down
Hydraulic Press
Hose Strap, Hose Chain, Hose Rope. One of the most useful tools to aid in carrying or
handling charged hoselines is a hose strap, hose chain or hose rope. These devices
used to carry and pull fire hose, but their primary value is to provide a secure means
to handle pressurized hose when applying water, and secure hose in ladders and
other fixed objects.
HOSE TOOLS
Hose Ramps. Helps prevent injury to hose when
vehicles cross it.
 Hose Jacket. When firefighting conditions are not
possible to change a line when ruptured, this
encloses the portion to prevent leakage of both
pressure and water.
 Chaffing Block. Devices that used to protect fire
hose where the hose is subjected to rubbing from
vibrations from the intake hose or pumper
vibrations

SUPPLY HOSE LAYS
SUPPLY HOSE LAYS
Forward lay. A method often used when the water
source is a hydrant and the pumper must stay in
location.
 Reverse Lay. A method wherein the pumper must
first go to the location so that a size up can be
made before laying a supply line.
 Split Lay. Refers to any one of a number of ways to
lay multiple supply lines.

SPECIAL HOSE OPERATIONS
These are special operations that are not done routinely but
nevertheless, it is important to know.









Connecting Hard-Suction Hose
Connecting Soft-Sleeve Hose
Connecting Hose to a Portable Monitor
Kinking Hose to Shut Down a Charged Line
Retrieving a Charged “Wild-Line”
Securing a Hoseline to a Ground Ladder
Hoisting a Hoseline
Passing a Hoseline Upward
For Rescue
FIRE NOZZLES
Fire Nozzle or simply nozzle is defined as a device that
directs water from the hose to the fire. It forms the water
into a fire stream and controls the stream so that fire can
be extinguished.
Parts of a Nozzle


Shutoff Valve provides a means of not only opening and
closing the nozzle but a means to control the amount of
flow of water through the tip
Tip is the component that forms the streams
FIRE NOZZLES
Kinds of Nozzles





Solid Stream Nozzles. The oldest type of nozzle in the fire service and it
can penetrate a mass of burning material when a fire is deep seated.
Fog Nozzles. As to the name itself, produces a fire stream made up of
small droplets of water that leave the tip in a spray or “fog” pattern.
Exposure Nozzles. This is designed to protect a building or object from
heat generated by a nearby building that produces a fan-shaped
stream called “water curtain” approximately 35 feet wide and two
stories high.
Applicator Nozzles. This are designed to direct a water stream directly
over the surface of a burning object.
Master Stream Devices. Moves larger quantities or volume of water
when such size and intensity of fire grows. This includes monitors,
deluges, turret pipes and ladder pipes.
FIRE STREAMS
Fire streams can be defined as a stream of water or other extinguishing agent after it
leaves a fire hose and nozzle until it reaches a desired point.
Fire streams intended to reduce high temperatures from a fire and provide
protection to firefighters and to exposures through the following methods:






Applying water or foam directly to the burning material to reduce its temperature
Applying water or foam over an open fire to reduce the temperature so that
firefighters can advance handlines closer to effect extinguishment
Reducing high atmospheric temperature
Dispersing hot smoke and fire gases from a heated area by fire using fire stream
Creating a water curtain to protect firefighters and property from heat
Creating a barrier between a fuel and a fire by covering with a foam blanket
FIRE STREAMS
Extinguishing properties of water
Cooling Effect
 Smothering Effect
 Expansion Capability

FIRE STREAMS
Several Characteristics of Water that are extremely
valuable for fire extinguishment
Water is readily available and inexpensive
 Water has greater heat-absorbing capacity than
any other common extinguishing agents
 Water changing into steam requires a relatively
large amount of heat
 The greater the surface area of the water exposed,
the more rapidly heat is absorbed

FIRE STREAMS
Water Fire Stream Patterns
Water fire stream is identified by its size and type. The size refers to the
volume of water flowing per minute.

Classifications of Fire Streams as to its size

Low-Volume Stream discharges less than 40 gpm (160 L/min)
including those fed by booster nozzles
Handline Stream discharges from 40 to 350 gpm (160 to 1,400
L/min)
Master Stream discharges from more than 350 grpm. This are also
large-volume fire streams


FIRE STREAMS
Different Types of Streams



Solid Stream is a fire stream produced from a fixed
orifice. It has the ability to reach areas that other
streams might not reach and minimizes the chance of
steam burns to firefighters.
Fog Stream is a fire stream composed of very fine water
droplets. The design of most fog nozzles permits the
adjustment of the fog tip to produce different fire stream
patterns.
Broken Stream is a steam of water that has been broken
into coarsely divided drops.
FIRE STREAMS
Different Fire Stream Patterns
 For Defense


O pattern
For Offense





Arrow Head Pattern / Inverse Arrow Head Pattern
Brushing Pattern or Sweeping Pattern
Cross Pattern
T Pattern
I Pattern
END OF PRESENTATION
THANK YOU VERY MUCH
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Fire hose and nozzle