LITERACY, FOOD SECURITY, HIV/AIDS, IMMUNISATION, SAFE WATER AND SANITATION KEY KNOWLEDGE 2.7 Programs focusing on literacy, food security, HIV/AIDS and malaria, immunisation, safe water and sanitation in terms of: - reasons for each programs - types of aid involved in the programs - implementation of the programs - their contribution to the achievement of sustainable human development KEY SKILL Analyse and evaluate aid programs in terms of the elements of sustainability and their contribution to health and sustainable human development OTHER Ways to ensure sustainability of programs including elements of appropriateness, affordability and equity. Program focus Explanation Literacy The ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate and compute, using printed and written materials associated with varying contexts. Food security The state in which all persons obtain nutritionally adequate, culturally appropriate, safe food regularly through local non-emergency sources. HIV Human Immunodeficiency virus is a virus causes a gradual depletion and weakening of the immune system, leading to immune deficiency. AIDS Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is the most advanced stages of HIV infection. The length of time within which a person infected with HIV will develop AIDS varies widely between individuals and can take 10-15 years Malaria Infection caused by a parasite that is passed on via the bite from an infected mosquito. Once contracted, the parasite multiplies in the liver and infects red blood cells. Immunisation Immunisation means both receiving a vaccine and becoming immune to a disease, as a result of being vaccinated. Most conditions that children die from in developing countries are preventable through immunisation (eg. measles, TB and whooping cough). Prevents illness and disability and saves millions of lives each year. Safe water Safe water includes: Piped water, public taps, tube wells, protected dug wells, protected springs, rainwater collection. Sanitation Sanitation refers to the collection, treatment and disposal of human waste. Improved Sanitation refers to facilities that reduce the chances of people coming into contact with human excreta (toilets that flush waste into a piped sewer). LITERACY LITERACY • The higher an individual’s level of education and literacy- the better their health • Literacy enables individuals to have better employment opportunities • Literate individuals are able to read and understand health-related information that helps them engage in health promoting behaviour • Education about the causes of ill health, health promotion and preventative strategies enable people to take control over their own lives and health IMPORTANCE OF LITERACY • Literacy is a tool of personal empowerment and a means for social and human development • Literate parents are more likely to send their children to school • Literate people are better able to access continuing educational opportunities • When people are literate, they can read and communicate, make informed choices and are generally more empowered to look after their own health • Literacy enables skill development opportunities which increase likelihood of being employed in higher paid jobs---- increase income and therefore standard of living, decisions that affect their lives and lives of their children. • Literacy in a community increases likelihood of employment---- taxes being paid leads to an increase in GDP and money can be spent on developing infrastructure for future generations. • Literate people can also train to work as health workers in their own communities • Poor literacy levels are linked to disadvantage in economic wellbeing and in health status • Literate societies are better able to meet pressing development challenges • Literacy is essential for eradicating poverty, reducing child mortality, curbing population growth, achieving gender equality and ensuring sustainable development, peace and democracy Literacy Program- WE BLOOM NAME OF PROGRAM: WE BLOOM WHO BY: CARE Australia (Non-government Organisation) TYPE OF AID: Non-Government Aid WHERE IMPLEMENTED: Cambodia REASON FOR THE PROGRAM: Providing opportunities for young people who did not finish school to gain the skills and confidence to enter the workforce. Girls in Cambodia are unlikely to go to school and have reduced opportunities to gain employment/higher paid employment compared to males. Income is often a reason for girls not gaining an education. HOW PROGRAM IS IMPLEMENTED: - Provides classes for women that will enable them to gain skills and confidence to enter the workforce. - Classes include literacy, numeracy and life skill courses. - Skills develop skill such as how to read, how to write, how to set goals, how to manage finances etc. - With these skills, women/girls are able to gain employment and/or start their own business. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eo-Ncm2TAdw * Watch ‘Study On’ (4,2,7,1) IMPACT ON SUSTAINABLE HUMAN DEVELOPMENTSKELETON HEALTH: • We Bloom assists to provide females in Cambodia with access to educational classes on literacy, numeracy and life skills. • Through developing of skills, girls increase in confidence (MH) and increase their ability to gain employment. • Employment provides increased income and ability to provide food – reduce malnutrition rates (PH) of females and her family. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT • With increased skills and confidence women are able to enhance their capabilities and make decisions that affect their lives. • Through employment and increased income women are able to improve their standard of living. • Through employment and ability to run own business women are able to participate in the life of the community. SUSTAINABILITY: • Females/Girls who are educate are more likely to send their children to school to gain education (Social S) • Skill development and employment increases ability to earn an income. Improve income of individual and also country (GNI) for current and future gen (Economic S) Elements of Sustainability APPROPRIATE • There is a specific focus on women/girls and their education. Girls in Cambodia unlikely to go to school due to poverty and therefore unlikely to gain employment or high paid employment due to lack of skills. Program addresses the barrier to education ‘income’ and provides girls with opportunities to gain skills to enable employment and improved income. AFFORDABLE • Free for Girls/Women- available to females who otherwise would go without literacy skills due to a families inability to pay for it. EQUITABLE • Focuses on women- vulnerable group. Improving education of women----- leads to improving the education levels of the country and overall improved health. FOOD SECURITY FOOD SECURITY • The state in which all persons obtain nutritionally adequate, culturally appropriate, safe food regularly through local non-emergency sources.’ • Lack of food leads to malnutrition and reduced immunity to infectious diseases, resulting in shorter life expectancy • Children who do not have adequate nutrition tend to be smaller in height, weigh less and are less able to perform physical tasks and can also have impaired intellectual capacities • Means that at all times, people have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious foods to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life • Food security can also be viewed as the 4 A’s model, which identifies Availability, Accessibility, Acceptability and Adequacy • Available to all (sufficient quantity from a sustainable supply) • Accessible to all • Culturally acceptable • Nutritionally adequate • Reasons for food insecurity include the following; • Poverty – lack access to sufficient • • • • • • resources to produce or buy food Health – insufficient nutrients and energy, poor health makes the body less able to make sure of the food that is available, a hungry mother will give birth to un underweight baby, contaminated food and water can cause illness, HIV/AIDS pandemic has reduced food production Water and the environment – food production requires water Gender Equity – women play a vital role in providing food and nutrition for their families through their roles as food producers, processors, traders and income earners Disasters and conflicts – natural disasters can destroy large quantities of food and seeds, conflict can reduce or destroy food in production or storage Population and urbanization – expanding cities spread out across productive land Trade barriers and trade imbalances – affect the exporting of food as well as the importing of agricultural products that could enhance food security FOOD SECURITY PROGRAM- WORLD FOOD PROGRAM: SCHOOL MEALS NAME: School Meals in Haiti WHO BY: WFP (a department of the UN) TYPE OF AID: Multilateral Aid WHERE IMPLEMENTED: Haiti REASON FOR THE PROGRAM: To address the high levels of malnutrition among children and lack of attendance at school. To provide an incentive for children to come to school to improve their ability to learn but also their physical health and development. HOW PROGRAM IS IMPLEMENTED: • Teachers and aid workers serve students with hot meals to encourage them to continue attending school. • Meals can include: • In-school (breakfast, lunch or both), meals can be prepared in schools, in the community or delivered from centralized kitchens. • Take-home rations, where families are given food if their children attend school regularly. • Food is produced locally, which benefits local development efforts and small farmers. • School meals are combined with deworming and micronutrient fortification. IMPACT ON SUSTAINABLE HUMAN DEVELOPMENTSKELETON HEALTH: • Students provided with an in school meal to encourage them to come to school. Meals are often combined with deworming and micronutrient fortification. • Reduces malnutrition (PH)– improved immune system and overall health • Improves ability to concentrate at school. • Students have take home rations to reduce hunger and malnutrition of family (PH) HUMAN DEVELOPMENT • Improved ability concentrate- improved ability to enhance skills and capabilities • Can participate in the life of the community and interact with other students through school environment/activities • Enhances ability to lead a productive life and gain employment and further income. SUSTAINABILITY: • Increased income – increased GNI- escape poverty cycle- Economic S • Education skills/knowledge- more likely to educate their children- Social S Elements of Sustainability APPROPRIATE • Linking school feeding programs to local agriculture, known as “home-grown school feeding” helps boost local economies through the creation of reliable markets, therefore it is involving the local people. • It is culturally acceptable as they are providing children which is locally grown and appropriate to their culture. • It is addressing the most urgent needs of the community; such as poverty and malnutrition. AFFORDABLE • WFP provides cooked meals, snacks, and/or take-home rations to encourage children, especially girls, to consistently attend classes free of charge. EQUITABLE • Targeting those that live in poverty, who are malnourish, lack educationvulnerable groups. • WFP works to ensure that the most vulnerable children in the poorest countries receive sufficient nutrition to allow them to concentrate in school and develop into healthy adults. HIV/AIDS WHAT is HIV/AIDS Impact on health: • Human Immunodeficiency virus • Virus causes a gradual depletion and weakening of the immune system, leading to ‘immune deficiency HIV • Can be transmitted through unprotected sex, transfusion of contaminated blood, sharing of contaminated needles, syringes or other sharp instruments and from mother to infant during pregnancy, child birth and breastfeeding. - Weak immune system - Increases susceptibility to infections such as pneumonia, TB - Lead to the development of AIDS - Symptoms: flu like symptoms, fever, night sweats, extreme fatigue, rapid weight loss, swollen glands, skin marks, diarrhoea WHAT is HIV/AIDS Impact on health: AIDS - Premature mortality • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - Children becoming orphans • The most advanced stages of HIV infection - Social stigma/ isolation • The length of time within which a person infected with HIV will develop AIDS varies widely between individuals and can take 10-15 years - Loss of income due to inability to work - Economic effects on the country - Loss of healthy adults HIV/AIDS • The people most vulnerable to HIV/AIDS are; • The poor • Women and girls • People with multiple sex partners • Injecting drug users • Children of infected mothers • Programs need to focus on education e.g prevention. They also need to focus on treatment for those with HIV/AIDS. TREATMENT: ART • Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can slow down disease progression to AIDS by decreasing the infected person’s viral load • Treatment with ART is not available to many living with HIV. • The cost is prohibitive, and good nutrition and health care are also costly in communities with high infection rates • Even with advocacy to reduce the cost of these drugs, they still remain out of reach to many people living with HIV/AIDS in poor countries HIV/AIDS PROGRAM- LOVE PATROL NAME: LOVE PATROL WHO BY: Wan Smolbag (Non-Government organisation) FUNDED BY: DFAT TYPE OF AID: Non-Government Aid WHERE IMPLEMENTED: Vanuatu REASON FOR THE PROGRAM: To break down barriers and reduce the prevalence of individuals living and dying from HIV/AIDS in the Pacific through education. HOW PROGRAM IS IMPLEMENTED: • A television soap drama that is shown on TV in Vanuatu. • The TV series has key messages about the prevention, harm reduction and testing for HIV/AIDS within its storyline. • It also aims at breaking down barriers around HIV (including the stigma) • Working with the TV series is a resource guide for Love Patrol. This is printed and distributed for use in schools around the Pacific. Questions in the guide include; what HIV is, how it spreads, how to use a condom, and where to go for HIV testing. IMPACT ON SUSTAINABLE HUMAN DEVELOPMENTSKELETON HEALTH: • Love Patrol is a TV series that has key messages about the prevention, harm reduction and testing for HIV/AIDS within its storyline. This helps to reduce the transmission of HIV, decreasing incidence of the condition and it’s impact on health (poor immune system, flu like symptoms, social isolation) • It also addresses the social stigma experienced by those with HIV/AIDS – discrimination and isolation (SH/MH) HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: • Rates of transmission have decreased, less individuals with HIV and therefore more people living long and health lives. • Enables individuals to remain healthier for longer and continue to lead a productive life through education, employment, primary care giver etc. • Reduce stigma associated with the condition allows individuals with HIV/AIDS to continue to participate in the life of the community without feeling judgement and discrimination. SUSTAINABILITY: • Education about prevention, harm reduction and testing for HIV/AID can be passed down to future generation – Social S • Healthier individuals/lower rates of HIV/AIDs enables individuals to continue their education/employment, gain income and improve the economy of their country – Economic S Elements of Sustainability APPROPRIATE • TV show uses actors and real life stories from people in Vanuatu. Helps to educate individuals on HIV/AID and how to prevent. • Involves the local people as they are the actors in the TV show. • Addresses the issue of lack of education on how to prevent HIV through educating on transmission, testing etc. AFFORDABLE • Free to air TV. Widely accessible by individuals. EQUITABLE • Focuses on people who are vulnerable- eg living with HIV/AIDS to reduce the stigma and discrimination that they experience. MALARIA Impact on H/HD/S: - Symptoms include: fever, headache and vomiting • Infection caused by a parasite that is passed on via the bite from an infected mosquito. Malaria -For pregnant woman may cause miscarriage, premature birth or stillbirth. • Once contracted, the parasite multiplies in the liver and infects red blood cells. - Severe maternal anaemia • If not treated quickly it can disrupt the blood supply to the vital organs, causing death. - Premature death • Malaria can be treated and prevented through a range of cost effective methods. - Leading cause of U5MR in Africa • Symptoms usually appear 1015 days after the bite. - Low birth weight babies -Reduces Life Expectancy -Impacts families ability to earn income - Reduces economic growth of a country. - Children cant attend school due to lack of income from malaria MALARIA • Those most affected by malaria are; • the poor who are unable to afford treatment or have limited access to health care. • Poor people who live in remote, rural areas of Africa with poorly constructed dwellings are most at risk • Tourism may suffer as people are less willing to travel to endemic regions • Preventative measures: • Limiting mosquito breeding areas of stagnant water • Sleeping under insecticide treated bed nets • Spraying of insecticide around the home • If contracted: • Treat malaria with anti-malarial drugs • Early detection will shorten the duration of the infection and prevent further complications MALARIA- NOTHING BUT NETS NAME: NOTHING BUT NETS WHO BY: United Nation Foundation TYPE OF AID: Multilateral Aid WHERE IMPLEMENTED: Africa REASON FOR THE PROGRAM: To raise awareness and funding to decrease the child mortality rates of malaria in Africa. HOW PROGRAM IS IMPLEMENTED: • Nothing But Nets works with UN agencies and other implementing partners to purchase the nets and distribute them to families. • Agencies and implementing partners deliver these and educate individuals on how to use nets/why to use nets etc. • Cost of nets are $10 and contributes made from charity to pay for them. • Nets are long-lasting insecticide- treated bed nets which eliminate contact with mosquitoes to ultimately eliminate malaria. IMPACT ON SUSTAINABLE HUMAN DEVELOPMENTSKELETON HEALTH: • Prevention of malaria through provision of insecticide treated bed nets. • Prevents contact of mosquito to individual when sleeping at night. • Enables individuals/communities to be healthier and free from the disease HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: • Having healthier individuals means that less individuals will be accessing health care for malaria. This allows the government to spend money in other areas such as education to allow individuals to expand their capabilities and enhance their skills and knowledge. • It also allows countries to place money into other areas of health care such as immunisation of children so future generations can live long and healthy lives. SUSTAINABILITY: • Placing funds in other areas such as education/health care means that current and future generations will experience greater access – Social S Elements of Sustainability APPROPRIATE • Uses cost effective ways to prevent malaria in areas which malaria rates are high and causing a high level of burden. Involves the education of how to use the bed nets. AFFORDABLE • Bed nets cost $10 which is raised through charity and provided to individuals/families for free. EQUITABLE • The campaign targets populations that are particularly vulnerable to malaria, such as refugees, internally displaced people (IDPs), and other often overlooked demographics. IMMUNISATION IMMUNISATION • Most conditions that children die from in developing countries are preventable through immunisation. • Prevents illness and disability and saves millions of lives each year • Vaccine preventable diseases; • • • • • • • • • • Measles Meningitis Haemophilus Tuberculosis Tetanus Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Diptheria Pneumonia (new) Rotavirus Diarrhoea (new) Cervical Cancer (new) • Vaccinations in 1st and 2nd years most important • Pregnant women need to be vaccinated against tetanus to protect themselves and the child, as tetanus can spread quickly, resulting in a quick and painful death • People most at risk; • • • • Children in rural and remote areas Poorly serviced urban settings Areas affected by war Immunisation is one of the most cost-effective methods IMMUNISATION- IMMUNISATION PROGRAM IN EAST TIMOR NAME: IMMUNISATION PROGRAM IN EAST TIMOR WHO BY: DFAT TYPE OF AID: Bilateral Aid WHERE IMPLEMENTED: East Timor REASON FOR THE PROGRAM: Lack of accessibility in rural villages has made it almost impossible for children to receive immunisation. Program introduced to increase access and reduce the infant and under 5 mortality rates HOW PROGRAM IS IMPLEMENTED: • Australia provides funds to East Timor Ministry of Health and also NGO to set up mobile clinics. • The mobile clinics visit the rural villages and provide immunisations to prevent diseases particularly for pregnant women and children • Clinics also offer growth monitoring of children, antenatal care, advice on family planning and information on nutrition and hygiene. IMPACT ON SUSTAINABLE HUMAN DEVELOPMENTSKELETON HEALTH: • Through having mobile health clinics individuals in rural villages are able to have access to health care • Mothers and children are vaccinated against preventable conditions such as measles, whooping cough and influenza. • This helps to reduce infant/U5MR. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: • Children who are immunised are less likely to be ill and are able to attend school. • School provides an opportunity for children to enhance their capabilities and skills and therefore have more choices in life and in employment. • Employment provides income and the ability to have a decent standard of living. SUSTAINABILITY: • With reduce morbidity and mortality, high levels of education, there is overall a greater level of income among individuals. This improves the economy of the country- Economic S. Elements of Sustainability APPROPRIATE • Addresses the lack of access to health care and high levels of infant mortality through having mobile health clinics to visit rural and remote areas. • Involves the East Timor Government and also Non Government Organisations to ensure program is appropriate for the needs of the community. AFFORDABLE • Mobile health clinics travel to the rural and remote areas making it affordable for individuals to access as most people in rural villages cannot afford transport out of their village. EQUITABLE • Focuses on women and children, rural and remote areas, and those that live in poverty. WATER AND SANITATION WATER AND SANITATION WATER: • Safe water includes: Piped water, public taps, tube wells, protected dug wells, protected springs, rainwater collection. • Unsafe water is often a result of contamination from human faeces. It can also result from industrial and agricultural waste products. SANITATION • Sanitation refers to the collection, treatment and disposal of human waste • Improved Sanitation refers to facilities that reduce the chances of people coming into contact with human excreta (toilets that flush waste into a piped sewer) • Considered ‘improved’ if they are private, as opposed to facilities shared with other households • Access to sanitation, such as simple latrines, prevents drinking water from being contaminated by human waste and reduced infection • Frequent hand-washing with soap and the safe storage of drinking water are highimpact practices • Women and girls are particularly disadvantaged because they often have to wait until dark. This can lead to illness and danger from attack IMPACT ON HEATH WATER SANITATION - Water borne diseases that cause high morbidity and mortality (diarrhoea, cholera and typhoid) - Diarrhoeal disease - Cooking and drinking of unsafe water leads to widespread illnesses (scabies, malaria) - Women and children suffer neck, knee and shoulder injuries or long term spinal damage from carting water long distances (The weight of water that women in Africa and Asia carry on their heads is commonly 20kg) - Reduces the amount of time that can be spent on education, food production or generation of income - Sanitation and hygiene are associated with a number water borne diseases. -Intestinal worms (transmitted through the ingestion of faecal matter or by stepping in it with bare feet). E.g. roundworm can result in malnutrition was the worm absorbed the nutrients from the body. - Increases risk of acute respiratory infection such as pneumonia. - Girls wouldn’t be denied their right to education (due to schools lacking private and decent sanitation facilities etc) SAFE WATER NAME: Developing wells and pumps in Niger WHO BY: World Vision TYPE OF AID: Non-government aid WHERE IMPLEMENTED: Niger REASON FOR THE PROGRAM: In drought prone areas such as Niger, Africa, lack of rainfall means that less that half of the population has access to clean, safe water. People in the area are dependent upon underground water, which they access by digging deep wells by hand. HOW PROGRAM IS IMPLEMENTED: • World Vision work with the local communities in Niger to develop wells that are fitted with pumps to make the collection of water easier. • Trucks with large drills are brought into the village to drill down to the water and then a pump is attached. • The pump reduces the amount of hard work required to draw the water to the surface. • Women in the villages pay a small fee for the water for the maintenance of the pump. IMPACT ON SUSTAINABLE HUMAN DEVELOPMENTSKELETON HEALTH: • Building of wells decreases diseases such as diarrhea and cholera. • Reduces child malnutrition and reduces U5MR. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: • Healthier populations are more likely to be educated and develop skills and capabilities on how to sustain clean water. • As women are not having to walk hours for water they are able to participate in the life of the community and also have greater choices in regards to their education, employment etc. SUSTAINABILITY: • Improved access to clean water and with education on how to effectively remove water produces it is more likely to be sustained for future generations – Environmental S Elements of Sustainability APPROPRIATE • Addresses the lack of access to clean water experienced by the people of Niger. Involved educating local people on the maintenance of wells. AFFORDABLE • Funded and skills provided by NGO to build wells/educate local people. This allows communities to have the resources needed for clean water. • Small fee involved to ensure maintenance of the well is upheld to ensure it is able to be used by future generations. EQUITABLE • Wells were placed in areas considered ‘best location’ by the local people to reduce the time spent by women and children for the collection of water. SANITATION NAME: Building latrines in Malawi WHO BY: Water Aid TYPE OF AID: Non-government aid WHERE IMPLEMENTED: Malawi REASON FOR THE PROGRAM: There is a lack of access to sanitation and people in the community have no choice but to defecate in the open. HOW PROGRAM IS IMPLEMENTED: • Water Aid provide financial assistance to build toilets/latrines. Simple composting latrines help keep water sources clean and provide fertiliser for crops. • Local community members are educated on the maintenance of the latrines and the benefits of using the fertiliser to grow crops. • The concrete latrine slabs are made by local community members, and if families cannot afford to pay for them with money they can do so with the fertiliser produced by the toilet or bananas that have been grown using the fertiliser. http://www.wateraid.org/au/where-we-work/page/malawi# IMPACT ON SUSTAINABLE HUMAN DEVELOPMENTSKELETON HEALTH: • Building of latrines decreases diseases such as diarrhea and cholera. • Reduces child malnutrition and reduces U5MR. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: • Healthier populations are more likely to be educated and develop skills and capabilities on how to improve hygiene. The community can lead a productive and creative life by attending work or schooling. SUSTAINABILITY: • Improved access to sanitation and with education on how to effectively remove water produces it is more likely to be sustained for future generations – Environmental S Elements of Sustainability APPROPRIATE • Addresses the lack of access sanitation experienced by the people of PNG. Involved educating local people on the maintenance of latrines. AFFORDABLE • Funded and skills provided by NGO to build latrines. This allows communities to have the resources needed for adequate sanitation. • Small fee involved to ensure maintenance of the latrine is upheld to ensure it is able to be used by future generations. EQUITABLE • Latrines were placed in areas considered ‘best location’ by the local people in villages and communities that were the most vulnerable. OTHER PROGRAMS Poverty Maternal Health A PROGRAM FOR POVERTY NAME: COTTAGE INDUSTRY WHO BY: Tabitha Foundation Australia TYPE OF AID: Non-government Aid WHERE IMPLEMENTED: Cambodia REASON FOR THE PROGRAM: To provide a source of supplemental income through the development and marketing of products that use the hand skills of these people and that will allow them to meet their home life needs HOW PROGRAM IS IMPLEMENTED: • A project where community members join a group and undertake a six-week training course and discover a specific hand skill. Skill varies: crocheting, knitting, weaving, sewing, wood-carving etc. Products are then made and sold, with the money providing the workers with an income. • At the end of the six weeks, the individuals (usually women) have made enough money to a sewing machine, allowing them to work from home • Tabitha buy the materials the women need and at the end of each week the women delivers the finished goods she has made. • If the goods are of poor quality, the supervisor teaches the woman new procedures etc. Once of good quality the supervisor will make payments for the finished goods. • The women decide how many pieces they would like to make and how much income they would like to earn. • Tabitha pays workers a fair price for all products, providing employment and income for local people. • Tabitha imports the goods and organizes the marketing and supply to the Australian public. A PROGRAM FOR MATERNAL HEALTH NAME: Birthing Kits WHO BY: Birthing Kit Foundation Australia TYPE OF AID: Non-government Aid WHERE IMPLEMENTED: Over 30 Countries (Ethiopia) REASON FOR THE PROGRAM: Reduce maternal mortality and infections by improving the conditions for women who give birth at home in developing countries. HOW PROGRAM IS IMPLEMENTED: • Birthing Kits are made in Australia and distributed to women in remote and rural regions of developing countries. • Kits are delivered with the assistance of a health professional who gives instructions on how to use the kits correctly and dispose of the waste safely. • Birthing kits are made with 6 items. A plastic sheet, soap, 2 gloves, sterile scalpel blade, 3 cords and 5 gauze squares and address the 7 cleans needed for a safe delivery.