Religious
Refuge
in Utah
The Mormon Pioneers
Mormon Pioneers
• Church was founded in 1830
by Joseph Smith in New York
State
• Formed a community in
New York, but
unsympathetic neighbors
disapproved of the
Mormons’ religion
• Mormons were forced to
move on
– New York to Ohio, then to
Missouri, and then Illinois
Persecution Once Again
• 1844 a mob in Illinois killed Smith
• Brigham Young took charge of the
Mormons
• Young decided to move the
Mormons again
• Pushed on near the Great Salt Lake
in Utah
– At this time, Utah was still part of
Mexico
– However, the Mormons didn’t face
trouble because no Mexicans had
settled the region
• Harsh terrain
A Haven in the Desert
• 1846: Mormon Migration to
the GSL began
• 12,000 made up the trek
– Largest single migration in
American History
“This is the Place”
• Set up communities in an area
they called Deseret
– Carefully planned towns
– Built irrigation canals to water
their farms
– Founded industries
• Sold supplies to the 49ers as they
passed through to California
Statehood
• 1848: U.S. acquires the Salt Lake
area
• 1850: Congress establishes the
Utah Territory
• 1896: After many attempts for
statehood, Utah becomes the
45th state
– Applied for statehood 5 times
• Government was weary of the
Mormons
– U.S. and Mormons almost went to war
in 1857 and 1858
• State of Deseret got smaller and
smaller each time
North’s
Economy
Chapter 13 Sections 1-2
Technology and Industry
• During the 1800s, advances in
technology and transportation
shaped the North’s economy
– Before 1800:
• Most people worked on farms
• Most goods were made by hand, one at a time
– Blacksmiths, tailors, shoemakers
• Changes on how Americans
worked, traveled, and
communicated
– Power-Driven Machinery
– Industrialization
– Technology
North’s Ability to
Industrialize
• New Methods in Technology
and Business
– Increase production
– Raise money to fund other
things
• Rich supply of natural
resources
• Three Factors of Production:
1. Land
2. Labor
3. Capital
FACTORS OF
PRODUCTION
Land
• All the land
• All the natural Resources
located on the land
Labor
• Number of workers
- Need workers to turn
raw materials into goods
Capital
• Equipment that’s
used in production of
goods
– Buildings
– Machinery
– Tools
• Money for
investments
– Large amounts of
money were needed
to finance industrial
growth
Production of Goods
Land and Labor are needed to
produce capital goods
Capital Goods are needed to
produce consumer goods
People can buy manufactured goods
Improved Transportation
• Contributes to the success of
America’s new industries
• 1807: Robert Fulton’s Steamboat
– Faster and more reliable than
flatboats or sail-powered vessels
• 1800-1850: Built thousands of
miles of roads and canals
– Open new shipping routes by
connecting lakes and rivers
– Growth of Cities
– Connection of farms in the Midwest
to cities in the Northeast
• 1840-1850s: Growth of Railroads
– Speed the flow of goods
– 1869: Transcontinental Railroad is
completed
Faster Communication
• Telegraph
– Uses electric signals to transmit
messages
• Samuel Morse
– Morse Code
• May 24, 1844: First successful
telegraph message
• Series of dots and dashes
representing letters of the
alphabet
North’s Agriculture
• Railroad gave farmers access
to new markets to sell their
products
• Advances in technology
increased the size of harvest
people could produce
• 1800s: Farmers move to the
Great Plains of Missouri,
Iowa, Minnesota
– Afraid to move farther west
because of the matted sod
and infertile soil
ADVANCES TO
AGRICULTURE
• Inventions:
– John Deere’s Steel-tipped plow in 1837
• Stronger to cut through hard packed sod
– Cyprus McCormick’s Mechanical Reaper
• Sped up the harvesting of wheat
– Thresher
• Separates the grain for the stalk
• Slavery largely disappears in the North
by 1830s
– Still have prejudice, segregation, and
discrimination
• Couldn’t vote, attend public schools or
facilities
• Forced into separate schools and hospitals
Telegraph, Steel
Tipped Plow,
Reaper,
Thresher,
Steamboat,
Improvements:
Communication,
Production of
Goods,
Transportation,
Agriculture
Growth of cities:
New Waterways,
Railroads, More
Extensive Area
Reached By
Railroads, Canals,
Roads, Growth of
Factories
NORTH’S ECONOMY
New Inventions:
GROWTH OF THE U. S.
ADVANCES IN TECHNOLOGY
WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?
Cash Crops,
Quicker and
Cheaper Transfer
of Goods,
Growth of
Markets, Money
to Fund
Industrial
Growth
Northern Factories
• Although there were many advances in
agriculture, the North was focused on
INDUSTRY
• 1820-1860: Growth of Mills and Factories
– Before this time, small shops (Blacksmiths,
Shoemakers, etc.)
• Machines took over many production tasks
– Clothing, Textiles, Shoes, Watches, Guns, Sewing
Machines, Agricultural Machinery
Factory System
• Bad and Dangerous Working Conditions
• Longer Hours Worked to Produce More Goods
– 1840: Working days averaged 11.4 hours
• Increase in On-The-Job Accidents
– Loss of limbs, Death
• Factory Owners Push for Profits
– Don’t care about the security or safety of employees
• Formation of Trade Unions
– Strikes
• Shorter Hours, More Pay, Better Working Conditions
Immigration
• 1840-1860: Dramatic Increase in immigration
– Manufactures welcome immigrants
• Desperate for work, even if it meant working long hours for
little pay
• Numbers:
–
–
–
–
–
1820s: 10,000
1830s: 20,000
1840s: 80,000
1850s: 360,000
1860s: 155,000
• Percentages:
- 1820-1840:
Ireland 35%
Germany 22%
Great Britain 14%
All Others 29%
- 1841-1860:
Ireland 33%
Germany 32%
Great Britain 16%
All Others 13%
Waves of Immigrants
• 1846-1860:
– More than 1.5 Million
immigrants come from
Ireland
– Potato Famine killing more than
1 million (1840s)
• Most were Farmers who didn’t
have money to buy land
– Took low-paying jobs in
Northern factories
• 1848-1860:
– More than 1 Million come
from Germany
– Democratic Revolution (1848)
• Most had money to settle and
establish industry
• Most went to the Midwest
IMPACT OF IMMIGRATION
• Change the character of the country
– Bring their own languages, customs, religions, culture
• Before 1800s: Mainly Protestants from Great Britain or slaves
– Through Immigration, more and more Roman Catholics from Germany
and Ireland
• 1830-1840s: Anti-Immigrant Feelings
– Nativists were against immigration
• Create the American Political Party
– Known as the Know-Nothing Party
» Stricter Laws for Citizenship
• Extending time to gain citizenship from 5 to 21 years
» Ban Foreign-Born Citizens from holding office
» Anti-Catholic Societies
• What are 3 reasons why people might be against immigration?
• Prejudice, Discrimination
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Religious Refuge in Utah