Eric C. Miller
Jeremiah L. Mullock, Jacob T. Bushong, and William R. Raun
ASA, CSSA, & SSSA Annual Meetings
Tampa, FL
November 5st, 2013
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
The 2012 drought, 597 counties in 14 states
primary natural disaster areas (USDA, 2013).
$14 billion in crop insurance indemnity
payments (Congressional Budget Office, 2013).

Cold shock protein B gene
◦ Called ‘cspB’
◦ Bacillus subtilis bacterium
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
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Cold shock proteins accumulate
Act as RNA chaperones
Bind and unfold tangled RNA molecules to
promote normal function (Castiglioni et al., 2008)
http://www.lhsc.on.ca/_images/Genetics/centraldogma.jpg

Express native
drought tolerant
traits using marker
assisted selection
(Butzen and Schussler,
2009)
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Dry soil = poor nutrient uptake
Drought alters the root:shoot ratio
Increased root respiration, increases nutrient
solubility
More root respiration, has the potential to
increase nutrient uptake (Liu et al., 2004)
http://www.monsanto.com/newsviews/pages/bt-corn-performance-in-us-corn-belt.aspx

Evaluate N use efficiency (NUE) and water use
efficiency (WUE)
◦ Drought tolerant and less drought tolerant
corn hybrids
◦ Irrigated and rainfed production systems
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Established in
2013 and will
continue in 2014
3 replicates
4 row plots, 6.1 m long
Soils:
LCB
◦ Efaw
 Norge: Fine-silty, mixed, active, thermic Udic
Paleustolls
◦ Lake Carl Blackwell (LCB)
 Port: Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, thermic
Cumulic Haplustolls,
Oscar: Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, thermic,
Typic Natrustalfs
Efaw

Genetics
◦ Drought tolerant
 Pioneer P1498: Optimum AQUAmax
 Monsanto 63-55: Droughtgard
◦ Less drought tolerant
 Pioneer P1395
 Monsanto 62-09

Photo Courtesy of Jacob Bushong
Environment x Management
◦ Irrigated production system ◦ Rainfed production system
 Preplant N rates
 0, 101, and 202 kg ha-1
 Seeding rate
 75,650 seeds ha-1
 Preplant N rates
 0, 67, and 134 kg ha-1
 Seeding rate
 53,800 seeds ha-1

Treatment Structure
◦ Two way factorial with
 4 levels of hybrid
 3 levels of N rate
◦ Randomized complete block design
◦ Nested within
production system

SAS PROC GLM
◦ Analysis conducted
by site and year
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Grain yield (Mg ha-1)
◦ Center two rows per plot
◦ Adjusted to 155 g kg-1 moisture

NUE (kg kg-1)
◦ Grain yield kg ha-1 /
kg ha-1 applied N fertilizer
http://web.extension.illinois.edu/nwiardc/
eb270/20121015_6040.html
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Cumulative WUE (kg m-1)
◦ Grain yield kg ha-1 / Evapotranspiration (ET; m)

ET = +∆SWC + R + I – D
◦ Soil Water Content (SWC)
 Preplant and postharvest
 1 m soil profile
◦ Rainfall (R)
 Mesonet
◦ Irrigation (I)
◦ Drainage (D)
 negligible
Photo Courtesy of Tracy Wilson
30
Rainfall (cm)
25
20
15
10
5
0
Long Term
2013
Main effects and interaction effects for grain yield, water use efficiency
(WUE), and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) at Efaw and Lake Carl Blackwell
(LCB), 2013.
Efaw
Grain
Yield
WUE
LCB
NUE
Grain
Yield
WUE
NUE
Irrigation
------------------- Pr > F ------------------0.002
0.008
0.006
0.001
0.001
0.005
Hybrid
0.297
0.248
0.301
0.292
0.351
0.566
N Rate
0.722
0.700
0.004
0.017
0.016
0.007
Irrigation x Hybrid
0.529
0.507
0.897
0.705
0.765
0.962
Irrigation x N Rate
0.503
0.570
0.231
0.027
0.026
0.012
Hybrid x N Rate
0.795
0.810
0.531
0.684
0.664
0.844
Irrigation x Hybrid x N Rate
0.084
0.074
0.367
0.548
0.501
0.698
Grain Yield (Mg ha-1)
12
10
8
Low N
6
Med N
4
High N
2
0
Efaw -
Efaw -
LCB -
LCB -
Irrigated
Rainfed
Irrigated
Rainfed
Single degree of freedom contrasts and differences of the means for
grain yield (Mg ha-1), water use efficiency (kg m-1; WUE), and nitrogen
use efficiency (kg kg-1; NUE) at Efaw, 2013.
Grain Yield
(Mg ha-1)
P>F
Diff.
WUE
(kg m-1)
P>F
Diff.
NUE
(kg kg-1)
P>F
Diff.
Drought tolerant vs.
Less drought tolerant
0.416
-0.485 0.503 0.314 0.361
-5.44
Monsanto vs.
Pioneer
0.110
0.994
0.085 0.582 0.204
7.69
Droughtgard vs.
AQUAmax
0.116
1.38
0.079
14.4
1.06
0.100
Single degree of freedom contrasts and differences of the means for
grain yield (Mg ha-1), water use efficiency (kg m-1; WUE), and nitrogen
use efficiency (kg kg-1; NUE) at Lake Carl Blackwell (LCB), 2013.
Grain Yield
(Mg ha-1)
P>F
Diff.
Drought tolerant vs.
Less drought tolerant
0.928
Monsanto vs.
Pioneer
Droughtgard vs.
AQUAmax
WUE
(kg m-1)
P>F
Diff.
NUE
(kg kg-1)
P>F
Diff.
0.084
0.837 0.012 0.839
1.10
0.065
0.832
0.084 0.107 0.179
7.58
0.139
0.916
0.170 0.116 0.275
8.58
Irrigated - High N
Rainfed - High N
Irrigated - Med N
Rainfed - Med N
2.5
WUE (kg m-1)
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0
20
40
60
80
NUE (kg kg-1)
100
120
140
Irrigated - High N
Rainfed - High N
Irrigated - Med N
Rainfed - Med N
2.5
WUE (kg m-1)
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0
20
40
60
80
NUE (kg kg-1)
100
120
140
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Irrigation significantly increased grain yield,
WUE, and NUE at both sites
Increased N rates resulted in higher yields for
the irrigated production systems
Regardless of hybrid, improvements in WUE
resulted in increased NUE
The Monsanto Droughtgard hybrid yielded
~1 Mg ha-1 more than the Pioneer AQUAmax
hybrid at both sites (~$70)
◦ Lack of drought tolerant hybrid differences in 2013
could have been from an unseasonably wet growing
season
Questions?
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Sensing Corn Stalk Diameter as a Predictor of Grain Yield