Preparation Sheet 2014 – DECORATED CAKES
RESEARCH METHODS –Q-Explain how manufacturers could use the Internet when
designing and making a new range of decorated cakes
Interviews
Questionnaires
Nutritional
information
Sales figures data
E-mail
Disadvantages
• May be expensive to set up initially / decreasing profits
Need to decide on validity of entries on websites or other
information used otherwise results are worthless
• Need to train staff in it use or inaccuracies will result
• If information is inaccurate it can affect success of future
products based on research
• Lack of human interaction may lead to incorrect results
• Lack of compatibility between software programs
• Difficulties/costly if system breaks down, need back up
Q .What are the advantages and disadvantages of
using computers for data?
computer used when researching market trends
• websites of manufacturers,
• internet searches,
• use of cd roms,
• processing questionnaires – writing,
• spreadsheets – recording results,
• quicker analysis of data than humans
· on-line questionnaires / survey
Computer CAD/CAM
• Less human error / more reliable / quicker
• Cheaper than employing extra staff to research / in long term
• Greater accuracy and up to date information
• Wider range of information available
• More consistent
• Easier to carry out analysis of statistics / results
• Can be carried out when human not present, 24/7
• Clearly presented results eg graphs, charts
• Can make changes easily to update current data
• Results can be analysed quickly, eg on Excel
• Easier to import other programs and software
Preparation Sheet 2014 – DECORATED CAKES
Design specification
This will be a general list of bullet points about what
your design must have. A lot of the information will
come from your research. Specify points such as:
• Target group
•Diets
•Ingredients
•Nutritional information e.g. high in fibre
•Texture
•Cost
Product Specification
This is a very detailed specification and uses
information gathered from research and design ideas
you have tested out. You will eventually evaluate your
work against the product specification. A product
specification will be relevant to just one product. E.g.
Meatballs and pasta.
You need to know
what a specification is
asking for. There are
two types of
specification.
Preparation Sheet 2014 – DECORATED CAKES
SPECIFICATIONS
Celebrations
Christmas
Birthday
Anniversary
Wedding
christening
Dietary needs
Low fat
Allergies
High fibre
diabetic
Design specification –possible points
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Suitable for a special occasion
Have a theme
Have sensory appeal
Have at least two layers
Able to be mass produced
Include Fair trade ingredients
Stored at ambient temperature
Include a type of icing or cream
Suitable as a healthy eating option
Product Specification – this gives exact details
•
The cake is for a birthday
•
It is based on flowers
•
The sponge will be chocolate
•
It will include strawberries
•
It will include butter icing
•
It is a whisked sponge which contains no fat
Q-Write a three-point product specification for your
chosen design idea.
Preparation Sheet 2014 – DECORATED CAKES
Fillings
Jam
Fruit
Cream
Butter icing
Basket weave
Decoration
Fruit
Cream
Feather icing
Chocolate curls
Ingredients – Butter Icing
140g butter, softened
280g icing sugar
1-2 tbsp milk
few drops food colouring
Piping technique
Chocolate leaves
Portion control
Swirls and stars
DESIGN DRAWINGS
Crème fraiche piped
using a star nozzle
Light sponge in
square shape
Strawberries sliced
and arranged in petals
Q-Use notes and sketches to produce two different design ideas for
a decorated cake
7cm x 4cm x 3cm
2 layers of chocolate
sponge – creamed
mixture
Suitable for
birthday
Sketch (neatly and in colour) and annotate each idea, showing how it reflects the specifications. Show possible quality
finishes that could be added to your product.
Which of your design ideas will you choose to develop?
Design Idea 1
Explain how this design idea will
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Design Idea 2
Appeal to a range of consumers
Be suitable to hold in the hand
Be suitable for children
Offer sensory appeal,
Be suitable for vegetarians.
Be suitable for consumers with special dietary needs
Have a variety of flavours
Q-Healthy option muffins are popular products with consumers.
Blueberry muffins
Ingredients
200 g plain wholemeal flour
½ tsp bicarbonate of soda
2 tsp baking powder
50 g sweetener
75 g polyunsaturated margarine (melted)
100 ml low fat plain yoghurt
100 ml skimmed milk
1 egg (beaten)
200 g fresh or dried blueberries
Make sure you refer back to
the specification in the
question
Be prepared for
sub questions to be
used to test your
understanding of
the topic
How are these ingredients suitable for consumers choosing a healthy option product?
Creamed mixture
1 egg
50g Self raising flour
50g margarine
50g caster sugar
Air is trapped by creaming the
sugar and fat together(aeration)
Sieving flour
This give a lighter texture
Melting
(High proportion of sugar
ingredients)
Ingredients:
200g plain flour
1 tsp baking powder
50g brown sugar
100g margarine
150g black treacle
125 ml milk
2 eggs
50g golden syrup
Whisking - Fatless sponge
Ingredients:
50g caster sugar
50g plain flour
2 eggs
Why DECORATED CAKES are popular with consumers
•Work hours extended so no time to make
•More occasions being celebrated
•Easily available – Supermarkets often have a wide
range available
•Lack of practical skills
• Programmes such as British bake off
• healthy option products available
• meet different consumer budgets and needs
Fat and sugar ingredients are
melted in a saucepan
Texture tends to be much
heavier than other cakes and
wont rise much
Bicarbonate of soda can be
used to create a lighter texture
Eggs and sugar whisked together to trap
air (aerate)
Rubbing -in (More flour than
fat)
Ingredients:
200g plain flour
100g margarine
100g caster sugar
2 eggs
30ml milk
2teaspoons baking
powder
Air is trapped in the sieving
the flour and by lightly (with
finger tips) rubbing the fat in
to the flour.
Raising agents in the flour
help the cake to rise
Watch the cookies rise
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n6wpNhyreDE
Q-Produce a plan for making your chosen idea in the test kitchen.
You may use flow charts, diagrams, notes or sketches in your answer.
(Total 10 marks)
Hygiene and safety checks
Stages of making
Quality control checks
•Personal hygiene
Clear, logical schedule
Accurate weighing of ingredients
Specialist terminology techniques
Check sell-by date
Named cooking methods/processes
Consistency
Key times
Visual checks
Key temperatures
Size / portion control
•
Kitchen hygiene
•
Food hygiene
•
Foreign bodies check
Storage temperature checks
Safety points for
workers
Shape
Finishing techniques used
Appearance/accuracy/garnish
Feedback from control checks
Answer showing logical plans, clarity of instruction and detail. 9-10
Logical planning with a range of different information covered. 6-8
Some parts detailed, may not be logical some key areas for successful making omitted. 4-5
Simplistic answer giving some relevant planning. 1-3
DESIGN & TECHNOLOGY
DESIGN SKILLS
DESIGN, DRAWING AND PRESENTATION SKILLS
Celebration Cake
Design a cake for a special occasion,
this must be decorated to represent
the celebration you have chosen.
 First you must list different
occasions for the cake to be used.
 Draw 3 different designs for a
celebration cake.
 Choose one and draw it out neatly,
colour it in to show the icing.
Special Occasions – Write a list here
………………………………………………
………………………………………………
………………………………………………
………………………………………………
………………………………………………
………………………………………………
………………………………………………
…
………………………………………………
Name
…
Created by J Hawkins
Extension Task – On a separate piece of paper design
a presentation box for your cake to be stored in, this
should be decorated to represent the special occasion
that the cake is to be used for.
Preparation Sheet 2014 – DECORATED CAKES
Flour
Sugar
Fat/margarine
Eggs
Forms the main structure of
cakes
When creamed it helps trap
air(aeration)
When creamed it helps trap
air(aeration)
Sets in position when baked
(coagulation)
Has chemicals(baking powder)
to make the mixture rise(raising
agent)
Gives colour and flavour
(caramelisation)
Extends shelf life
Can hold air bubbles which act
as raising agent
Increases bulk
Sweetens the mixture
Q-Name the ingredients that are most suitable for use in each of the
products below.
Give a detailed reason for your choices.
Sugar for use in a whisked sponge cake
Type of sugar (1)
Q-Complete the table below to show three main ingredients
used to make your chosen cake product.
Give a different reason for using each ingredient.
Ingredient
Reason for use
1
2
3
Reason for choice (2)
Q- Describe your chosen design idea in more detail in the table below.
• List the main ingredients needed to make your product.
• Include the quantity of each ingredient needed.
• Give a different reason why each ingredient is used.
Ingredient
Quantity
Reason for use
Q -Describe how a quality finish could be added to your chosen design idea.
Preparation Sheet 2014 – DECORATED CAKES
MODIFYING PRODUCTS
To





Suit different occasions
Meet a different target market
Make it cheaper
Make it healthier
Meet a dietary need
Use vegetarian options
Use higher fibre flours- will give a denser texture
Use natural sweeteners such as dried or fresh fruit
Change the type of fat from butter to polyunsaturated margarine
Q-Explain how your chosen design idea could be developed for consumers who
want to increase their fibre.
Q-This is from a recipe for fruit slices.
Ingredients:
150 g wholemeal flour
100 g white flour
50 g soft brown sugar
125 g polyunsaturated margarine
200 g apricots
Describe one way of developing the fruit slice product to improve the flavour.
Describe two ways of developing the fruit slice product to improve the texture.
The exam may
give you
situations for
you to develop
your cake.
Answer the
questions
Preparation Sheet 2014 – DECORATED CAKES
Q-Complete the chart below to explain two developments that will help the product meet healthy eating guidelines.
Development ideas for
increasing the fibre (NSP)
content of a sandwich cake
Development 1
.................................................
Reason
.................................................
Development 2
.................................................
Reason
.................................................
Q-Analyse your design idea and suggest ways in which it can be adapted to meet the needs of consumers who
need to follow a special diet due to food intolerances or allergies.
What is a
standard
component?
A Standard Component is a pre-prepared item/ingredient that is used in the production of
another product. They are made at a different time, and often at a different place by
another company.
You must be able to:
•
•
•
Understand and define the term ‘Standard Component’
Understand why standard components are used in food production
To identify the advantaged and disadvantages of using a standard component.
Q- Standard components are often used in the production of cakes
What is meant by a standard component?
Give three reasons why manufacturers may decide not to
use standard components.
1
2
3
Q-Standard components may be used to save time in food production.
Describe two other advantages of using standard components.
Advantage 1.
Advantage 2.
Why line a cake tin?
More consistent appearance
Better shape
Comes from the tin easily
Equipment
http://www.bbc.co.uk/food/techniques/greasing_and_lining
Accuracy
Same size each time
Same shape every time
Same standard of blending
Reduced human error
CAM-computer aided making
Set time, speed,temperature,weight
Q-Explain how the following equipment is used to produce a
consistent product.
Preparation Sheet 2014 – DECORATED CAKES
Q-Describe two different control checks used to make sure your biscuits are of good quality.
1
2
Q-What are the causes of the following problems during the production of muffins?
Problem
Cause
A piece of metal is found in a cooked muffin.
Lack of personal hygiene by workers – no jewellery, hair pins
Quality checks have not taken place
Metal from packaging not checked
Machinery faulty/Poor maintenance of machines
Faulty metal detector
Fruit pieces in a cooked muffin have a dry texture.
Stale fruit used
Insufficient liquid
Muffin cooked too long
Too high a temperature used.
Excess fruit used on topping
Poor quality control
Cooked muffins are an uneven size.
Poor portion control
Modified Starch
Modified starch is classified as a smart food and is used by manufacturers in a
variety of products.
It is a starch that has been altered to perform additional functions.
In pizza toppings – topping thickens when heated in the oven and will not run off
the pizza.
Pre-gelatinised starch is used to thicken instant desserts without heat. Cold liquid
such as milk can be added and the dessert will thicken.
Sauce/gravy granules – boiling water can be added to thicken without the sauce
going lumpy.
Modified starches are used to thicken low calorie salad dressings, as they are not
affected by the acidity.
Modified starch is used as a fat replacer in low-fat meals.
Modified starches allow sauces to be reheated with no sineresis. *
This is
useful in dishes that are cooked from frozen e.g. lasagne.
The noodles in ‘pot snacks’ are pre-gelatinised; so boiled water will reheat and
‘cook’ them.
Modified starch is used in ‘cup-a-soups’ to improve mouth-feel, thicken the
drink/soup when the boiled water is added, and blend uniformly without lumps.
Sensory Testing in Manufacture
Sensory analysis is used at several stages during product development
Companies can compare a
competitor’s product
Improve products by modifying or changing the ingredients
Check that the specification is being met
Monitor quality control by checking regular samples against specification
Detect differences between products from different runs or batches
Profile the characteristics of new products
Describe specific characteristics
Demonstrate new products to marketing team
Promote new or reformulated products to consumers
Sensory analysis is carried out in controlled conditions
Sensory analysis is used in industry and
discovers details on:
Flavour
and taste
Texture
– Colour, shape, size
Smell/Aroma
Sounds
Methods of Sensory Testing
Appearance
Product Profile - STAR
PROFILE DIAGRAM
Allows food products to be
evaluated using a range of
attributes
Evaluate differences in similar
products
Gauge consumer response
Analyse specific attributes
Check a product meets its
specification
Compare similarities in a range of
products
Show opportunities for product
development
Ranking – Decide on attribute to
be ranked eg Crunchiness, allow
people to evaluate samples and
place them in rank order
Scoring tests = RATING TEST–
Samples are scored on a
scale between like and
dislike
Rating
Score
Tick
1
2
Hedonic tests
– Test sample and grade
1=Dislike very much, 5=Like
very much. Samples analysed
for lowest/highest score.
3
Sample 
Ranking test A variety of strawberry yoghurts.
Please taste the samples and put them in the order you like
the best
Sample
code
Order
Sample 
Comments
Sample 
spicy
10
sticky
8
fishy
6
4
2
crunchy
0
chewy
moist
sweet
(C) British Nutrition Foundation
salty





Fair testing · sensory testing
labelling of samples – symbols or random numbers
How results are to be recorded - Clear instructions to tasters
Cleansing palate between samples - water
Containers all the same
Blue or orange lighting
Useful when
using with
children
Paperboard
•
•
•
•
•
Easy to fold and cut
Easy to print on
Recyclable
Can be waxed to make it waterproof
Can be stacked
Plastic
Modified
Atmosphere
Packaging
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Transparent
Doesn’t break
Can be moulded into different shapes
Lightweight
Cheap to produce
Easy to stack
Can be heated
Why do we package food?
 Protects from physical damage
 Contains the food product
Prevents contamination
Preserves the product
 Attracts customers to buy it
 Easy to transport
 Easier to store
 Informs the customer about the product
Glass
•
•
•
Can be recycled
Transparent to see the
contents
Heat resistant
Aluminium foil
•
•
•
•
•
•
Easy to mould
Easy to shape
Heat resistant
Comes in different thicknesses
Strong
Easy to stack
Environmentally friendly packaging causes less damage to
the environment. There are three types:
•Reusable packaging can be cleaned and re-used. For
example, glass milk bottles are reused.
•Recyclable packaging is made of materials that can be used
again, usually after processing. Recyclable materials include
glass, metal, card and paper.
•Biodegradable packaging will easily break down in the soil
or the atmosphere.
Recyclable packaging should carry standard symbols that show
what the product is made from and how it can be recycled
Farm Assured
You need to
know
advantages &
disadvantages
Animals must have been looked after to a certain
standard of welfare & safety, must be British,
standards set by Government
Organic
Fair trade
Is an organized social
movement and marketbased approach that aims
to help producers in
developing countries earn
a liveable wage. Allowing
farmers to educate their
children and improve
their standard of living.
Organic foods are made according to certain production
standards. The use of conventional non-organic pesticides,
insecticides and herbicides is greatly restricted and avoided as
a last resort. However, contrary to popular belief, certain nonorganic fertilisers are still used. If livestock are involved, they
must be reared without the routine use of antibiotics and
without the use of growth hormones, and generally fed a
healthy diet. In most countries, organic produce may not be
genetically modified.
Food Miles
People are concerned about the environment, food miles is about the
amount of C02 that is produced in the delivery of products e.g
strawberries from Spain, buying locally grown means there are less
food miles
What is a hazard?
In food products, a hazard is anything that
can harm a customer. A hazard may be:
Physical
Chemical
Biological
Hair
Metal
Dirt
Pesticides
Cleaning products
Insecticides
Bacteria
Mould
What is a critical control point?
A control point is the step in the making process where hazards must be controlled. This step has
to be carried out correctly to make sure that the hazard is removed or reduced to a safe level. The
hazard may be chemical, physical or biological. Some hazards are high risk and the control points
for these hazards are called critical control points as it is critical (essential) that the hazard is
removed or reduced.
What conditions do bacteria need to grow?
Too – time
Cross contamination
Where bacteria are accidentally transferred
Bacteria
Symptoms
Salmonella
Stomach pains,
Meat ,poultry, raw
diarrhoea, vomiting eggs
Campylobacter
Diarrhoea, feeling
sick, fever
Stomach pain,
vomiting
Like flu
E.coli
Listeria
Found in
Milk, untreated water
Many –moisture
Flies - food
Raw meat,milk
Soft cheeses,pate cook
chill meals
High risk foods
Cooked meats and poultry
Cooked meat products – stews, soups made with meat stock
Milk & eggs, mayonnaise, mousses
Shellfish & sea food
Waiting- warmth
Handling High Risk Foods
Avoid touching by hand – prevent cross
contamination
Keep raw and high risk foods apart
Cover food during storage
Keep food out of the ‘danger zone’
KITCHEN hygiene and safety
PERSONAL hygiene
Hair clean
and tied back
Apron and
protective
clothing
Hands
washed, short
nails,
no nail varnish
0 – 50 C
Not suffering
from sickness
No
jewellery
Blue
Plasters
65 – 720 C
Temperature helps to extend the
shelf life of a product
OTHER WAYS TO PERSERVE
Bacteria Key Temperatures
All Bacteria
Killed
100°C
72 for 2 mins or75°C
Core temp cooked foods
bacteria at a safe level
65°C (also hot holding –buffet)
DANGER
ZONE
Remove liquid: drying a product e.g.
Herbs. In jamming sugar absorbs liquid
Removal of Air: Modified Atmospheric
Packaging (MAP) vacuum packaging
Addition of a Preservative: jamming,
pickling & salting
Food Additive: a substance added to
In the danger zone if
bacteria have food,
warmth, moisture &
time the will multiply
NATURAL: salt, sugar, spices natural food
colourings
ARTIFCIAL : made from a range of chemicalsi
•Preservatives
•Colourings
5°C
0°C
-18°C
0-5 in a fridge slows
down the growth of
bacteria
a food
product to improve quality
· Emulsifiers
· Stabiliser
•Flavourings
·Anti-oxidants
•Nutritional Enhancers
Additives are tested by Food Standards Agency to
ensure they are safe. Once tested they are given
an ‘ E’ number.
-18 to -26 in a
freezer bacteria are
dormant
Consumers are concerned about long term effects
of chemicals and feel they are to blame for
hyperactivity, asthma & eczema.
This is driving consumers to want organ & natural
foods, but these are more expensive
Efficient, time saving
High quality presentation skills/quality product
Consistent product/can be reproduced accurately
Range of templates can be produced
Easy to change design
Professional outputs
CAD can simulate prior to making, ensuring no mistakes
Cost effective
Saves manufacturer time
Less staff
More reliable
Accurate data/measurements
Less human error
Easy to import information from other documents
Computer
Aided
Design
Computer
Aided
Manufacture
Q-Explain how Computer-Aided Design (CAD) could be used during the
development of the cake and its packaging.
Q-Explain why food manufacturers use Computer Aided
Manufacture (CAM) to help carry out control checks
Quality control checks using
computers
Types of control checks:
• Timing
• Temperatures of oven
• Metal detection
• Weigh of ingredients
• Quality Control, e.g. shape, size
• Portion control
• Microbiological checks
• Other relevant checks
Why Computers are used:
• More accurate than humans in
minute measurements
• Less staff needed / cost reduction
in long term
• Humans may be unable to carry
out the check
• Safety
• Speed / quicker / saves time/
reliability
• Ability to record results / store results
• Automatic, 24 hours a day
• Other relevant reasons
At what stages can hazards occur?
•
Delivery and storage of raw
ingredients
preparation
Cooking
distribution
Food holding
QUALITY CONTROL – manufactures
guarantee of quality
size
weight
finish
equipment
Portion size
thickness
ingredients
Critical Control Point CCP
A control point which is used where something could be dangerous
It will involve keeping the food and the consumer safe
The control will be a time ,temperature, metal, bacteria, chemical check
Quality check
This is to check that the product is the same every time- weight ,size, shape, cost, ingredients, decoration
Control Checks
Identify any hazards that could happen
Control point
A check to prevent a hazard
Hazard
Something which could hurt someone
Prevent
Do something to stop a problem – ie check sell by date
High risk
Protein , moist, goes off easily, can be contaminated easily
Hygiene
Being clean
Safety
Not coming to harm
Bacteria
Microbes which can cause food poisoning – ie salmonella
Chilled
Kept at 0 – 5 c to slow the growth of bacteria
Frozen
Kept at – 18 - -26c stops bacteria growing
Cross contamination
When bacteria are transferred from one place to another such as chopping raw meat and then cooked meat on the same chopping board
Production methods
One off
Small quantities
can be made
unique
Highly
skilled
craftsmen
Input
Ingredients
Equipment
Energy
specification
Process
Preparation of cake batter
Batter put in tins
Cake tins put on racks in oven
Racks removed and cakes cooled
Cakes sliced
Cakes filled
Assembled
Wrapped and stored
Output
Finished cakes ready for
distribution
inexpensive
Requires few staff
Same machinery
can be used for
slightly different
products
Time
consuming
expensive
Continuous flow
Batch production
Can make large
quantities
Less chance of
contamination
Expensive to set
up
Need to train
staff
Machinery needs
maintaining
Ingredients needed for making cakes industrially
Glycerine- adds moisture
Salt- adds flavour
Water- creates steam
Preservatives – makes it last longer
Emulsifiers – stops the fat from separating
Cake
sinks
Too much sugar
Too cool an oven so centre of cake doesn't rise
Too short a cooking time
Cracking
Baked in too high a shelf in oven
Too hot an oven
Heavy
texture
Over stirring of flour
Eggs and sugar not beaten enough
Insufficient raising agent
Expensive to set up
1 Name of the food
Labelling
2 ‘Use by’ or ‘best before’ dates
3 List of ingredients
4 Special storage instructions
5 Cooking /prep instructions
6 Weight
7 Name and address of the manufacturer
8 Instructions for use
1
How do food manufacturers inform consumers about healthy
eating guidelines
• Labels on packaging, which may also give dietary advice etc,
Use the traffic light system and give nutritional charts
• Show portion size recommended on packaging.
• Advertisements in magazines / on television
• Use of websites
• Special claims on packaging
• Other relevant points accepted
Colour-coded nutritional information, as shown
in the image above, tells you at a glance if the food
has high, medium or low amounts of fat,
saturated fat, sugars and salt.
red means high
amber means medium
green means low
2
7
3
4
8
6
Most of the major supermarkets and many food manufacturers choose to display
nutritional information on the front of pre-packaged food and drinks.
There are two major schemes for front-of-pack labelling in place: traffic light
labelling and Guideline Daily Amount (GDA) labels. Some packs may use a
combination of the two.
‘Best before’ dates appear mostly on foods that are stored ambient (in a cupboard)
Products such as biscuits, crisps, bread will have this date. when the date runs
out it doesn't mean that the food will be harmful, but it might begin to lose its
flavour and texture e.g. Biscuits may be softer and less crunchy
‘Use by’ dates are generally on products that need to be stored in the fridge, to
reduce the growth of bacteria, products such as meat and cream. You should
not eat these products after the ‘use by’ date as you could become ill.
Carbohydrates
Uses of starch:
Bulk ingredient: main ingredients for many
products e.g. cakes, bread
Thickening Agent: cornflour used to thicken
through gelatinisation e.g. sauces & gravy
Starch gelatinizes when heated in a liquid, producing a
thickened liquid
Heat
starch
granules
in liquid
Starch
granules
burst
Starch
granules
become
swollen
SSss
The liquid
thickens
and
gelatinizes
Faults in Sauces:
Too thick= inaccurate weighing
Lumpy = not continually stirred, extra flour added that was
not blended in liquid first
Poor colour = flour burnt on bottom of saucepan, metal spoon
used to stir
Bland= not enough flavouring, mild cheese used
Modified Starches:
This is a starch that has been altered to react differently:
• Modified starch used to thicken food with boiled water
e.g. Cupasoup
• Pre-gelatinised starch used to thicken with a cold liquid
e.g. Angel delight
TWO TYPES:
Starch found in flour, potatoes, pasta, rice
Sugar found in fruit, drinks, sweet baked products
Uses of Sugar:
Sweetens: improves flavour making sweeter
Preserves: In jam, large quantities prevent bacteria from growing
Adds colour: sugar caramelises when heated turning golden
brown
Aerates: when beaten with butter or egg helps to trap air
Stabilises: with meringues it strengthens the foam
Bulks: gives texture to food like ice-cream & cakes
Types of Sugar:
Granulated: general purpose used: sweetens drinks
Caster: small crystals used: dissolves better in cakes
Icing: Fine instantly dissolves used: for icing sugar
Demerara: Large light brown crystals used: top of puddings
Muscovado: Dark brown & sticky used: fruit cakes
Artificial sweeteners can be used to create ‘low calorie’
products also better for teeth and makes product suitable
for diabetics
HOWEVER:
Can leave bitter after taste
Can lack bulk in recipe
Reduces shelf life