Mechanization and
I. Beginnings
A. Agricultural Revolution
1. Jethro Tull’s “Seed Drill”
2. Crop rotation
B. Factors of Production
1. Land – natural resources
2. Labor – people to work
3. Capital – equipment and $
England during the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
- Changes that began in the 1700s,
when machines began to do much of the
work that people had done before
- Use of automatic machinery to
increase production
II. Inventions
A. Textile Industry
1. 1733 – flying shuttle
2. 1760s – “Spinning Jenny”
* 8x normal production
3. 1780s – Water powered “spinning
Jenny” and Spinning Mill
4. 1793 – Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin
B. Heavy Industry
1. 1769 – James Watt patents the steam
engine and becomes major power source
for industry
2. Late 1700s – Coal and Iron ore mined in
3. 1850s – “Bessemer Process” to make
steel (lighter and stronger than iron) for
use in engines
C. Transportation and Communication
1. 1804 – R. Trevithick invents steam
2. 1808 – R. Fulton invents steamboat
3. 1838 – S. Morse invents the telegraph
and Morse Code
D. Factory Breakthroughs
1. 1820s - 30s: Faraday invents the dynamo and
electric properties are harnessed
2. Assembly Line (1913) – Divides operations
into simple tasks that unskilled workers could
do and cut unnecessary movement to a
3. Ford’s “Model T” Car:
A. 1908 – Cost = $850 – 12 hrs. to make
B. 1924 – Cost = $295 – 19 min. to make
Mass Production
- System of producing large
numbers of identical items
III. Factories
A. Work
1. Easier to learn
2. Machines do not need rest
3. Assembly Line = Mass production
B. Workers
1. Women and children worked (cheaper)
2. Growing opportunities for women
3. Harsh conditions
4. Growing middle class
IV. Conclusion
A. Industry feeds itself and inventions move
industry quickly into the future
B. Businesses are making more money than ever
C. Industries are using natural resources to fuel
their rise
D. Harsh conditions yet growing opportunities for

Mechanization and Industrialization