Section 1: The Industrial
Revolution
Section 1: The Industrial Revolution
 The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain
 1780’s
 Starting place
Agrarian revolution
 Population growth
 Enclosure movement laws
 Britain had a ready supply capital
 Entrepreneurs –laissez-faire economy
 Supply of markets – British colonies
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Section 1: The Industrial Revolution
 Changes in Cotton Production
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Two step process:
 Spinners
 Weavers
 Cottage Industries
Technological advancements
 Flying Shuttle
 Spinning Jenny – James Hargreaves
 Water-powered loom Edmund Cartwright
Bring the workers to the machines
Steam engine – James Watt
Production increases
Section 1: The Industrial Revolution
 The Coal and Iron Industries
Coal – Fuel
 Iron Industry
 Iron ore
 Henry Cort –puddling
 British iron industry booms
 The New Factories
 New labor system
 Discipline of the workers
 Railroads
 Richard Trevithick
 George Stephenson – Blucher
 Stockton & Darlington – Manchester to Liverpool
 Rocket
 Railroads economic impact
 New jobs
 Less expensive transportation
 Larger markets
 More sales mean more factories
 Profits – reinvestment in new machines
 Economic growth
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Section 1: The Industrial Revolution
 The Spread of Industrialization
 Europe
Belgium, France and Germany
 North America
 Roads and canals
 Robert Fulton –Clermont
 Railroad
 Labor
 Factory owners
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Section 1: The Industrial Revolution
 Social Impact in Europe
 Population and Urban Growth
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Population in Europe
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1750 – 140 million
1850 – 266 million
Key – decline in death rate
Urbanization
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Famine and poverty
Enclosure laws and industrialization
Large cities
Poor conditions – urban reformers
 The Industrial Middle Class
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Industrial Capitalism
New middle class group
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Industrialists were people who built the factories, bought the machines,
and developed the markets – they had the initiative, vision, ambition and
greed
Section 1: The Industrial Revolution
 The Industrial Working Class
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Poor working conditions
 Long hours
 No security of employment
 No minimum wage
Coal Mines
 Dangerous conditions
Cotton Mills
 Worst conditions
 Michael Saddler
 Factory Act of 1833
 Women
 Employment of women and children - cottage industries
Section 1: The Industrial Revolution
 Early Socialism
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Reformers
 Socialism
 Public ownership
Ideal society
 Utopian Socialists
 Karl Marx
Robert Owen
 Socialist
 New Lanark, Scotland
 U.S. – New Harmony, Indiana
Section 2: Reaction and Revolution
Section 2: Reaction and Revolution
 The Congress of Vienna (1814)
 Restore old order
 The Great Powers
 Prince Klemens von Metternich
Monarchs
 Balance of Power
 Territorial changes
 Keep any one power
 Conservatism
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social stability
political authority
keep order
Anti
The Concert of Europe
 Principle of Intervention
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the right to send armies
Great Britain
Section 2: Reaction and Revolution

Forces of Change
 Liberalism
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Enlightenment
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Protection of civil liberties
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Bill of Rights
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Constitutionalism
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Representative assembly
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Did not believe in democracy
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“men of property”
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Liberalism = Middle class men
 Nationalism
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Part of a community defined by a distinctive language, common institution, and customs
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French Revolution
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Nationalism was threat to the existing political order
 Revolutionary Outbursts (Led by liberals and nationalists)
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France
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Charles X in 1830
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Constitutional monarchy
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Louis Philippe
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Belgium (1830)
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Nationalism
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Dutch in 1815
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Independent state
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Poland and Italy
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Poland from Russia
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Italy from Austria
Section 2: Reaction and Revolution
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The Revolutions of 1848
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Another French Revolution
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Economic problems
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Louis Philippe
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Monarchy overthrown in 1848
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November 4, 1848
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38 independent German states
Frankfort Assembly
Revolutions in Central Europe
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Austrian Empire
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Second Republic
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Single legislature & President
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Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte – Louis-Napoleon
Trouble in the German States
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The German Confederation
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Wanted France to become a republic
Constitutional assembly
Universal Male Suffrage
A Multinational State
Hapsburg Dynasty
March 1848
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Demonstrations
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Metternich
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Vienna
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In Bohemia, the Czechs
Revolts in the Italian States
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9 states in Italy
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Kingdom of Piedmont – north
The Two Sicilies (Naples and Sicily)
The Papal States
A number of small states
Lombardi and Venetia – Northern Province – controlled by Austria
In 1848 – revolts
By 1849
Section 3: National Unification and Nationalism
Section 3: National Unification and
Nationalism
 Toward National Unification
 Breakdown of the Concert of Europe
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The Crimean War
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Russia and Ottoman Empire
Russia needs a warm water port
1853 – Moldavia and Walachia
Great Britain and France
Treaty of Paris 1856
 Concert of Europe
 Italian Unification
 Kingdom of Piedmont
 Royal House of Savoy ruled here
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Island of Sardinia, Nice, and Savoy
 King Victor Emmanuel II
 Camillo di Cavour
 Following the war – Nice and Savoy
 Lombardy
 Venetia
 Giuseppe Garibaldi – Red Shirts
 Garibaldi –The Two Sicilies (Sicily and Naples)
 King Victor Emmanuel II
 Austro-Prussian War of 1866
 Franco-Prussian War
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Section 3: National Unification and
Nationalism
 German Unification
 Prussia
 King William I
 Otto von Bismarck
 “realpolitik”
 Denmark
 Austria
 Prussia – North German Confederation
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Franco-Prussian War 1870
Peace Treaty
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Southern German states
France
5 Billion Francs
Alsace and Lorraine
Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles
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William I
Kaiser of the Second German Empire
Section 3: National Unification and
Nationalism
 Nationalism and Reform in Europe
 Great Britain
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Parliament avoids revolution
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Queen Victoria (1837-1901)
 France
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Louis-Napoleon
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Plebiscite
Napoleon III
 The Austrian Empire
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Nationalism was a problem for them
Compromise of 1867
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Created a duel monarchy of Austria-Hungary
Vienna, Austria and Budapest, Hungary
Francis Joseph
 Russia
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Crimean War
Czar Alexander II
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Emancipation Edict
Alexander in 1881
His son Alexander III
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Trans-Siberian Railroad
Section 3: National Unification and
Nationalism
 Nationalism in the United States
 US Constitution
 Two factions
Federalists
 Republicans
 War of 1812
 Slave trade ended in 1808
 Slavery
 4 million
 South’s economy was based on cotton
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Abolitionism
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Eli Whitney- Cotton Gin
Movement to end slavery
Fredrick Douglas
President Abraham Lincoln
Election of 1860 – Lincoln
December 20, 1860 – South Carolina – voted to secede
February 1861 - 6 more
Confederate States of America
4 more states seceded
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The American Civil War (1861-1865)
Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation
Confederate forces surrendered on April 9, 1865
Section 4: Romanticism and Realism
Section 4: Romanticism and Realism
 Romanticism
 1700’s a new intellectual movement
feelings, emotion, and imagination
 Valued individualism
 Loved the past – Middle Ages
 Romanticism in Art and Music
 Romantic Artists shared two features:
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Inner feelings
Vision and imagination
Eugene Delacroix
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“a painting should be a feast for the eyes”
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Liberty Leading the People
The Lion Hunt
 Music
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Ludwig van Beethoven
 Classical and romantic music
 Third Symphony
Section 4: Romanticism and Realism
 Romanticism in Literature

Sir Walter Scott
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Gothic Literature
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Ivanhoe
Mary Shelley’s – Frankenstein
Edgar Allen Poe’s
 short stories of horror
Poetry
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Was the ideal art form
William Wordsworth
 Critical of science
William Blake – poet and artist
 Songs of Innocence
 Songs of Experience
Section 4: Romanticism and Realism
 New Age of Science
 New Discoveries
Louis Pasteur
 Dmitry Mendeleyev
 Michael Faraday
 Secularization
 Charles Darwin
 On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
 Principle of Organic Evolution
 Natural Selection
 Survival of the fittest
 The Decent of Man
 Controversial
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Section 4: Romanticism and Realism
 Realism
 Realism in Literature
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Gustave Flaubert
 Madame Bovary
Charles Dickens
 Oliver Twist
 David Copperfield
 Realism in Art
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Gustave Courbet
 portray scenes from everyday life
 “ I have never seen either angels or goddesses, so I am not
interested in painting them”
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Chapter 19: Industrialization and Nationalism