Chapter 10 – Growth and Expansion (1790 – 1825) Section 1: Economic Growth What was the “Industrial Revolution” and what effects did it have on the American economy Section 2: Westward Bound How did land and water transportation affect westward expansion? Section 3: Unity and Sectionalism How were some of the nation-building issues resolved in the early 1800s? MAIN IDEA: New technology changed the way things were made. Before the 1800s, most articles were manufactured in “cottage industries.” In the mid 1700’s, British inventors began creating machinery to perform some of the tasks that had been done by hand. Because these machines ran on waterpower, factories were built along rivers. The factories were called “mills.” Textiles (cloth making) were the first mills. Working in a mill was easier work and better pay compared to farming. People left their homes and farms and went to work in the mills. Mill owners built housing to accommodate employees. Many females found work in the mills. As more and more people left farms and moved to the mills for work, this naturally gave rise to cities. More mills and factories were built. This became known as the Industrial Revolution. It permanently changed the face of Europe and then America from rural, agricultural societies, to manufacturing, urban societies. The Industrial Revolution took root in America around 1800, first in New England because….. 1) Farming was difficult in the rocky, New England soil, so people willingly gave up working as farmers for the opportunity to do something else. 2) New England had rivers and streams to provide the waterpower needed to run the mills. 3) New England was close to other resources, including iron and coal. 4) The area had many ports for shipping goods in and out. The Lowell Mill Girls You work long hours – from sunrise to sunset. The work is boring, and you usually perform one task over and over again. You make about $3 per week, and half of your pay is used to rent a room and buy food. You live in a company-owned boardinghouse. You are required to be in bed by ten o’clock and to attend church on Sunday. You can read, write letters and attend lectures, but you are not allowed to drink alcohol or play cards. The invention of new machines and technology led to the Industrial Revolution. Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin in 1793. It quickly and efficiently removed the seeds from cotton. Whitney also started using interchangeable parts (identical machine parts). This allowed for large scale production of goods and reduced the price of goods. In 1790 Congress passed a patent law to protect the rights of inventors. Samuel Slater’s Spinning Frame Samuel Slater is credited with bringing the Industrial Revolution from England to America. He memorized the design of machines that made cotton thread then came to America and built them here. The cotton thread was then sent to women working from their homes to weave it into cloth. Francis Cabot Lowell perfected Slater’s process in his textile plant in Massachusetts. Lowell started the “factory system” where all steps of the process (thread making, cloth weaving, etc.) were brought together in one place to increase efficiency Industrial growth requires an economic system that allows for expansion and competition. What would happen if we only had one tennis shoe manufacturer in the whole world? MONOPOLY = Single control of an economic commodity or market (What’s the object of the game by the same name?) FREE ENTERPRISE = People are free to buy, sell and produce whatever they want. Forces of supply and demand and natural competition of prices and goods control the economy. CAPITALISM = an economic system where people put their money, or “capital” into a business, hoping that the business will make a profit and increase their “capital.” Although many New Englanders went to work in factories in the first part of the 1800s, agriculture still held on as the main economic activity. The North remained populated with small, local farms and the south continued building the plantation system. As the textile industries in the North grew, the demand for cotton became much higher. The Southern farms switched more from rice to cotton in order to supply the mills. The invention of the cotton gin encouraged farmers to grow more cotton also because now it was easier to clean and it could be sent to market to sell faster. From 1790 to 1820, cotton production in the South went from 3000 bales a year to 300,000 bales a year. Agriculture also began to expand out toward the West. Some farmers were looking for more land to plant cotton. Farms farther north along the Ohio River concentrated on raising pork and cash crops like corn and wheat. The growth of factories and trade led to the growth of cities. Most cities grew up along rivers and waterways. These provided power for the factories and transportation for trading goods. PROS OF EARLY CITY LIFE: Cities offered a variety of jobs to choose from with steady wages. As cities grew, libraries, museums and shops were built, offering people places to enjoy during their leisure time. For many, the jobs and attractions of city life outweighed the dangers they faced. CONS OF EARLY CITY LIFE: Early cities were not the organized, well-controlled places they are today, however. Buildings were mostly wood and brick and fire was always a threat to wooden buildings built cheaply and closely together. Few towns had organized services like fire departments. Streets were not paved. Farm animals like chickens often roamed the streets. There was no sewage system so filthy water mixed with human and animal waste ran in the streets. Diseases like cholera and yellow fever killed thousands at a time. SUMMARY QUESTION: What effects did the Industrial Revolution have on the U.S. economy? It fundamentally changed the United States from an agricultural, rural society to a manufacturing, urban society based on capitalism (putting money in to make profit) and a free-market economy (rules by competition and supply and demand). WRITING RESPONSE: It is 1830, and you have just moved to New York City. Write a letter to your friends back on the farm describing what your new life is like. Your answer needs to reflect that you understood what life in a new industrial city was like. Section 2: Westward Bound Essential Question: How did land and water transportation affect westward expansion? MAIN IDEA: Transportation routes such as roads improved as settlers moved west, and steamboats greatly improved the transport of goods along rivers. ROADS: The nation needed good inland roads for travel and for the shipment of goods. Private companies built many turnpikes, or toll roads. The fees travelers paid to use those roads helped finance their construction. The first national (government) built road began in 1811 in Maryland. Building stopped during the War of 1812, but eventually the road reached Illinois. Congress viewed the National Road as a military necessity, but it did not take on any more road-building projects at that time. RIVER TRAVEL: River travel had definite advantages over travel by wagon and horse: 1) Far more comfortable 2) Boats could carry more cargo than a wagon. Disadvantages of River Travel 1) Most major rivers in the region flowed in a north-south direction. Most people were going in an east-west direction at that time. 2) Boats and barges couldn’t easily travel upstream against the current. Robert Fulton developed a steamboat with a powerful engine. In 1807, Fulton’s Clermont made the 150 mile round trip from NYC to Albany is 32 hours. Using sails like before, the trip took 4 days. Steamboats ushered in a new age in river travel. 1) Greatly improved the transport of goods and passengers along major rivers. 2) Shipping goods became easier and faster. 3) Contributed to the growth of river cities like Cincinnati and St. Louis. The problem of north-to-south rivers still existed, however. Steamboats could not tie eastern and western parts of the country together because they had to stay on the rivers. De Witt Clinton, a government official in New York, and a group of other business and government leaders developed a plan to link NYC with the Great Lakes. They would dig a canal – an artificial waterway across New York state. The canal would like Albany on the Hudson River with Buffalo on Lake Erie. The canal would come to be called the Eerie Canal and it opened in 1825. It used a series of locks – separate compartments in which water levels were raised or lowered – to compensate for the change in water level between the river and the lake. The Eerie Canal was a great success. But in the early years, steamboats were not allowed on the canal because their powerful engines would damage the earth banks of the canal. Teams of horses or mules would pull boats or barges down the canal. A two-horse team could pull a 100 ton barge about 24 miles in one day. This was fast compared to wagon travel. Later the canal banks were reinforced to accommodate steam tugboats that would push the barges. The success of the Eerie Canal led to an explosion in canal building. By 1850, the United States had more than 3,600 miles of canals. Canals lowered the cost of shipping goods and brought prosperity to the towns along their routes. Canals also linked regions of the growing country. Americans continued to move westward, settling near rivers so they could ship their goods to markets. The canals, which crisscrossed the land allowed people to live farther away from the rivers. Americans moved in waves: First wave 1791-1803 led to Vermont, Kentucky, Tennessee and Ohio Second wave: 1816-1821 which created Indiana, Illinois, Mississippi, Alabama, Missouri People often preferred to settle with others from their home communities or home countries. For example, Michigan’s pioneers came mostly from the New England area. Wisconsin was later settled mostly by people from the Scandinavian countries of Norway and Sweden. Section 3: Unity and Sectionalism How were nation-building issues resolved in the early 1800’s? The Era of Good Feeling A time after the War of 1812 when there were no major political divisions. Federalists practically gone. People happy and proud to be American. James Monroe – elected as 5th president in 1817 Era of Good Feeling symbolized by Monroe. Practically ran unopposed. He was an “unassuming” man of dignity and respect. He traveled the nation, meeting the people. He paid for his expenses out of his own pocket. Well-liked, known as happy and kind. Regional differences brought an end to the Era of Good Feeling. Most people felt attached to their area (Northerners, Southerners, etc) and felt loyal to their region. This sectionalism – loyalty to one’s region – became dangerous to the stability of the country as a whole. Regions differed on key issues: Slavery: Supported by white Southerners. White Northerners didn’t want any more states to be allowed in as slave states. Regions also disagreed on tariffs, a national bank and internal improvements (like building roads and canals to develop the nation’s transportation system). Three important figures emerged at this time. John C. Calhoun Strong supporter of state sovereignty (states have the right to govern themselves). Opposed national programs and tariffs. Felt tariffs caused the prices to be too high for goods. Favored the south. Daniel Webster Favored tariffs. Felt it protected American industry from foreign competition. Favored policies that would strengthen the nation and favored the north. Great speaker Henry Clay Represented the interests of the Western states. Member of Congress. Became known as a leader who tried to resolve sectional disputes. The Missouri Compromise Issue: When new states join the “union” (the United States), can they be slave states or not? When Missouri was ready to become a state, the South wanted it to be a slave state, the North wanted it to be a free state. States tried to maintain a balance at that time. At the same time, Maine was petitioning to become a state of its own. It had formerly been a part of Massachusetts. Henry Clay worked out the Missouri Compromise, in which Missouri would be allowed in as a slave state and Maine in as a free state, thus preserving the balance. Another part of the Missouri Compromise also banned slavery in the rest of the Louisiana Territory north of the 36-30 N parallel. The Supreme Court also became involved in the sectional disputes. McCullough v. Maryland: Established supremacy of the powers of the federal government over the powers of the state government Gibbons v. Ogden: States could not make laws that would interfere with congressional power over interstate commerce. Foreign Affairs Relations With Britain 1817 Rush Bagot Treaty: Limit naval vessels on the Great Lakes – remove weapons along the Canadian/US border Convention of 1818 – set the official boundary between US and Canada. Also created a secure and demilitarized border. Relations With Spain America took West Florida, arguing it was part of the Louisiana Purchase. Spain didn’t object and gave it up. Andrew Jackson’s troops invaded East Florida to stop Seminoles from raiding along the US border. Jackson seized Spanish forts. Again, Spain didn’t do anything. Showed American military strength. Spain didn’t want war over the issue. Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 •US gained rest of Florida •Spain abandoned all claims to Florida •In return, U.S. gave up its claim to Spanish Texas •U.S. gained a territory in the Pacific Northwest. Other Troubles for Spain Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin successful led revolutions against Spain and won freedom for the present day countries of Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile and Peru. Mexico also had a revolution and achieved independence from Spain in 1821. By 1824, Spain had lost most of its control of Central and South America. The Monroe Doctrine France, Austria, Russia and Prussia tried to join forces to help Spain regain the territories it had lost in the Americas. President Monroe didn’t want all those European countries coming back and trying to take over territories in the U.S. The President issued a statement called the Monroe Doctrine stating that the U.S. would not mess with any existing European colonies, but that the Americas (north, central and south) were now officially “off limits” to any new colonization efforts by any European powers.