Dietary Exposure Assessment Activities
at U.S. EPA's Office Pesticide Programs
Interagency Risk Assessment Consortium
Workshop on Chemical Food Safety Risk Assessment
FDA – Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition
Aaron Niman
LT, USPHS
Office of Pesticide Programs
US Environmental Protection Agency
June 14, 2012
Health Effects Division
Health
Division
Office
ofEffects
Pesticide
Programs
Office of Pesticide Programs
Overview
1. U.S. EPA’s Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP)
2. OPP’s dietary exposure assessment methodology
3. Dietary Exposure Assessment Resources
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–
–
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Food Commodity Intake Database (FCID)
JIFSAN Foodrisk.org Web Application
Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model (DEEM)
Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) Model
Health Effects Division
Office of Pesticide Programs
2
EPA’s Office of Pesticide Programs
Office Director
Antimicrobials
Biopesticides & Pollution
Prevention
Pesticide Re-Evaluation
Health Effects
Biological & Economic
Analysis
Field & External Affairs
Environmental Fate &
Effects
Registration
IT
• Registers pesticides for agricultural, residential, and
public health applications
• Evaluates safety of pesticides by assessing exposure
and associated risks
• Establishes legal limits (aka “tolerances”) for
pesticides on agricultural commodities
Health Effects Division
Office of Pesticide Programs
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Dietary Exposure Assessment
Approach
• Evaluate food consumption patterns and residue
concentrations that lead to highest potential for
exposure
• Assessments range from simple to complex, but
based on same general exposure algorithm
Consumption
X
Residue
=
Dietary
Exposure
• Tiering process used to refine exposure assessment
to reflect more realistic assumptions
Health Effects Division
Office of Pesticide Programs
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Dietary Exposure Modeling
• Exposure assessment models based on
nationally-representative monitoring surveys
Key data surveys and databases:
– USDA’s Pesticide Data Program (PDP)
Nationally representative commodity residue sampling program
– Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals
(CSFII) (1994-96/1998)
NHANES’ What We Eat In America (WWEIA)
Nationally representative food consumption surveys
– U.S. EPA’s Food Commodity Intake Database (FCID)
Recipe database that links WWEIA foods to PDP residue data
Health Effects Division
Office of Pesticide Programs
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Dietary Exposure Modeling
Food Recipe
Database
(FCID)
Food Consumption
(WWEIA)
Raw Ingredient
Consumption
+
Dietary
Exposure
=
Ingredient
Pesticide Residue
(USDA/PDP)
Risk
Health Effects Division
Office of Pesticide Programs
Acceptable Level
aPAD, cPAD, etc.
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Dietary Exposure Modeling
• Modeling tools rely on probabilistic techniques
(Monte-Carlo) to evaluate exposure
• Techniques are routinely applied by OPP for virtually
all of its pesticide risk assessments
• Allow the Agency to characterize and quantify the
variability in dietary exposure across various
subgroups of interest
X
All Consumption
Values
Health Effects Division
Office of Pesticide Programs
=
All Residue
Values
Range of Dietary
Exposures
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Dietary Exposure Modeling
DEEM-FCID/Calendex
Health Effects Division
Office of Pesticide Programs
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Dietary Resources
• Food Commodity Intake Database
•
•
•
Recipe database used by EPA/OPP in exposure assessment models
Developed using CSFII, 1994-96, 1998
Updated for NHANES-WWEIA, 2003-08
• Foodrisk.org Web Application
– FCID recipe search tool
– Links to NHANES-WWEIA
– Population-based consumption estimates
• Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model (DEEM)
– Dietary exposure assessment mode
– Now free and publically available
– Utilizes NHANES WWEIA 2003-08 survey data
• Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) Model
– Developed by EPA’s Office of Research and Development
– Simulates aggregate and cumulative dietary exposure
Health Effects Division
Office of Pesticide Programs
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Food Commodity Intake Database (FCID)
• Both CSFII and WWEIA Captures dietary recall data
on foods as reported eaten
Examples:

1 slice apple pie,

1 Big Mac™ ,

1 slice Cheese Pizza (1/8 of 12” pie)
• Pesticide residue information and regulatory focus is on a
food commodity basis
• Therefore, estimating dietary exposure requires converting
data on foods “as eaten” to food commodities (e.g, tomato
sauce, wheat flour, apples, soybean oil, beef, milk, etc.)
Health Effects Division
Office of Pesticide Programs
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Food Commodity Intake Database (FCID)
• Translates foods as reported eaten to raw agricultural
commodities using U.S. EPA food vocabulary
– Developed in collaboration with USDA ‘s Agricultural Research Service
– Originally based on:
• CSFII 1994-96/1998
• USDA’s Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS)
• Converts more than 5,000 food codes into recipes containing
roughly 540 difference food commodities
Health Effects Division
Office of Pesticide Programs
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Food Commodity Intake Database (FCID)
• Also includes additional information on food
commodities (used subsequently in exposure
modeling)
– Cooked Status (Yes, No)
– Food Form (Fresh, frozen, etc.)
– Cooking Method (Baked, boiled, etc.)
Health Effects Division
Office of Pesticide Programs
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Food Commodity Intake Database: Example
Health Effects Division
Office of Pesticide Programs
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Updating FCID: WWEIA 2003-2008
• New Recipe Formation
– New recipes were needed for foods that were not included
in earlier versions of FCID.
– Some of these new foods were easily matched to an
already existing recipe for a similar food that was in the
CSFII-FCID database, with little or no modification
necessary.
– Other foods required generating a recipe “from scratch,”
or using an already existing recipe but applying significant
alterations to their ingredients.
Health Effects Division
Office of Pesticide Programs
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FCID Accessibility
• Developed database and user interface in MS Access
• Web application with USDA’s Food Safety Inspection Service
and U-Maryland’s Joint Institute of Food Safety and Applied
Nutrition (JIFSAN)
Functionality
– Improve transparency of coded fields
– Make recipes fully searchable
– Make recipe format more user-friendly
– Enable users to estimate consumption of food commodities
Weighted mean and percentile calculations
http://fcid.foodrisk.org/
Health Effects Division
Office of Pesticide Programs
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Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model (DEEM)
• EPA/OPP has acquired DEEM license and made freely
available to the public
– Improve accessibility
– Increase transparency of EPA/OPP regulatory decisions
• DEEM Updates and Release
– Incorporates WWEIA 2003-08 consumption data
– Addressed stakeholder feedback from Fall 2011 beta testing
– Enables eating occasion analysis
http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/science/deem/
Health Effects Division
Office of Pesticide Programs
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DEEM – User Interface
Health Effects Division
Office of Pesticide Programs
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DEEM – User Interface
Health Effects Division
Office of Pesticide Programs
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DEEM – User Interface
Health Effects Division
Office of Pesticide Programs
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SHEDS-Multimedia
• State-of-the-science model developed by EPA’s Office of Research
and Development
• Enables longitudinal assessment of exposure from multimedia
sources
• SHEDS-Residential v.4: Residential model that can simulate cumulative or
aggregate residential exposures over time via multiple routes of exposure for
different types of chemicals and scenarios.
• SHEDS-Dietary v.1: Dietary model that can simulate individual exposures to
chemicals in food and drinking water over different time periods
• Collaborated closely with EPA’s Office of Pesticide Programs with
extensive peer-review by the FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel
http://www.epa.gov/heasd/products/sheds_multimedia/sheds_mm.html
Health Effects Division
Office of Pesticide Programs
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SHEDS-Dietary v.1: Longitudinal Analysis
Health Effects Division
Office of Pesticide Programs
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SHEDS-Dietary v.1: Uncertainty Analysis
Health Effects Division
Office of Pesticide Programs
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What’s Next
• FCID Recipe Database
– FCID 2003-06 available through foodrisk.org
– Working to finalize 2003-08 recipe CR-ROM and make
available through JIFSAN foodrisk.org website
• DEEM-WWEIA 2003-08
– Available through EPA/OPP website
– Performing model-to-model comparisons
– Upcoming ISES Dietary Symposium (Oct-2012)
• SHED-Dietary
– Available through EPA/ORD website
Health Effects Division
Office of Pesticide Programs
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Exposure Assessment Resources
FCID Recipe Database
http://fcid.foodrisk.org/
DEEM-WWEIA 2003-08
http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/science/deem/
SHEDS-Multimedia
http://www.epa.gov/heasd/products/sheds_multimedia/sheds_mm.html
Health Effects Division
Office of Pesticide Programs
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Questions
25
Health Effects Division
Office of Pesticide Programs
Extra Slides
Health Effects Division
Office of Pesticide Programs
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New Recipe Formation
Step 1
Identify food nutrients
Step 1.A
Conduct internet search to determine food description and ingredients (if
necessary)
Step 2
Search existing recipes for similar food
Step 3
Use similar existing recipe as starting point for new recipe
Step 4
Modify/add/delete recipe commodities to match new recipe nutrient information
Health Effects Division
Office of Pesticide Programs
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Search Recipes by Food Name
Health Effects Division
Office of Pesticide Programs
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Generate Recipe Report
Health Effects Division
Office of Pesticide Programs
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Dietary Exposure Assessment Activities at U.S. EPA`s